James Arthur Ray
|James Arthur Ray|
|Born||November 22, 1957|
|Occupation||New Thought author, motivational speaker|
James Arthur Ray (born November 22, 1957) is a motivational speaker and author who was convicted of felony negligent homicide. He is the author of Harmonic Wealth: The Secret of Attracting the Life You Want, which was a New York Times bestseller.
Ray taught Stephen Covey motivational seminars while employed at AT&T and claimed he later worked two years for the Covey foundation; however the company has no record of him as an employee or contractor. In 2006 he appeared on CNN's Larry King Live and was one of several narrators in the film The Secret. He has also appeared on the Today Show and Oprah. As of October 2009 Ray's company, James Ray International, was not Better Business Bureau accredited, which gives the company a C rating for seven complaints filed and two unresolved.
Ray was convicted of three counts of negligent homicide but acquitted of manslaughter following his February 3, 2010, arrest in the deaths of three participants in one of his New Age retreats. He was sentenced to two years in Arizona state prison and was released under supervision on July 12, 2013.
James' father was an Oklahoma preacher in occasional poverty for a decade until 1973 at Red Fork Church of God in Tulsa. At times they had to live in the church office. Money and spirituality were central to him. "The hardest part of my childhood was reconciling how Dad poured his heart into his work, how he helped so many people and yet he couldn't afford to pay for haircuts for me and my brother," Ray wrote in his 2008 book Harmonic Wealth. "How could a loving God keep me from Cub Scouts on account of not being able to afford a uniform?" However, a classmate of James recalled that "Ray always dressed well and knew he'd make something of himself."
Ray is an advocate of the Law of Attraction; his teachings have been described as "including a mix of spirituality, motivational speaking, and quantum physics". In an interview, Ray answered about personal responsibility, "I fully know, for me, that there is no blame. Every single thing is your responsibility ... and nothing is your fault. Because every single thing that comes to you is gift ... a lesson."
Concerns have been raised since 2000 regarding the safety and soundness of his methods.
According to Grant Cardone, in 2000 Ray consulted him for methods to increase sales at business seminars, and was warned to teach only sound business practices. After this time, Ray began incorporating sleep deprivation, fasting, fire and glass walking, and his invented versions of sweat lodge ceremonies.
Former attendees of Ray's seminars have reported unsafe practices and lack of properly trained medical staff in 2005. A New Jersey woman shattered her hand after she was pressured by Ray to participate in a quasi-martial arts board-breaking exercise. After several unsuccessful untrained attempts, the woman sustained multiple fractures during the seminar that was held at Disney World.
Participants of a James Ray "Spiritual Warrior" exercise in 2006, after signing waivers, were told to put the sharp point of an arrow used in archery against the soft part of their necks and lean against the tip. A man named Kurt sustained injuries during this exercise as the shaft snapped and the arrow point deeply penetrated his eyebrow.
In July 2009, Colleen Conaway attended a seminar hosted by James Ray International in which the attendees were directed to dress as homeless people. She fell to her death at the Horton Plaza Mall in San Diego. She died as a result of injuries, and according to police, she had no identification on her person.
In 2005, preceding the events of October 2009, a serious injury involving hospitalization was reported at the Angel Valley Ranch during a "Spiritual Warrior" retreat led by Ray. Verde Valley Fire Chief Jerry Doerksen's department responded to an emergency call that a 42-year-old man had fallen unconscious after exercises inside a sweat lodge.
Sweat lodge deaths
On October 8, 2009, at a New Age "Spiritual Warrior" retreat conceived and hosted by Ray at the Angel Valley Retreat Center in Yavapai County near Sedona, Arizona, two participants, James Shore and Kirby Brown, died as a result of being in a nontraditional sweat lodge exercise. Eighteen others were hospitalized after suffering burns, dehydration, breathing problems, kidney failure, or elevated body temperature. Liz Neuman, another attendee, died October 17 after being comatose for a week.
The attendees, who had paid up to $10,000 to participate in the retreat, had fasted for 36 hours during what was claimed to be a vision quest exercise before the next day's purported sweat lodge. During this period of fasting, participants were left alone in the Arizona desert with a sleeping bag, although Ray offered them Peruvian ponchos for an additional $250. After this experience, participants ate a large buffet breakfast before entering the nontraditional structure built for the sweat lodge. The site owner reported she learned after the event that participants went two days without water before entering the structure.
Investigation and conviction on charges of negligent homicide
Following the deaths, Ray refused to speak to authorities and immediately left Arizona. According to participants in the heat endurance exercise (which was misrepresented by both Ray and his organization as a "Native American sweat lodge ceremony"), a note was left that said Ray was unavailable—as he was in "prayer and meditation". Ray later confirmed, during a 2013 interview with Piers Morgan, that he fled the scene rather than staying to assist with the aftermath, because "I was scared.".
Investigations were commenced by the Yavapai County Sheriff department. Initial investigations concerned construction of the "sweat lodge" structure which, according to investigators, was constructed by a local (non-Native American) group under hire. Jack Judd, the county building safety manager, said that there was no record of a permit or an application for a permit to build the sweat lodge.
On October 15, 2009, after extensive interviews with participants and ancillary witnesses, the Yavapai County sheriff's office upgraded the level of the investigations into the deaths of James Shore and Kirby Brown to a 'homicide investigation'. Officials claimed the nontraditional "sweat lodge" structure lacked the necessary building permits. Print media began reporting that Ray conducted a conference call with some victims, one of whom recorded the call and provided it to the AP. During this call, a self-described channeler said that they had communicated with the dead and they had said they "were having so much fun" out of their bodies that they didn't want to return. On October 27, Minnesota Senator Amy Klobuchar asked the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate the event to complement the local investigations. On October 30, a wrongful death lawsuit claiming negligence, negligent misrepresentation, fraud and other actions on the part of Ray and the site owners was filed for the family of Liz Neuman. A similar action was filed for Sidney Spencer who was seriously injured. The suits sought compensatory and punitive damages alleging that defendants failed to provide adequate prior warnings, to monitor the participants' well being in the sweat lodge, and to provide medical treatment. On November 10, Dennis Mehravar, an injured attendee from Canada, joined the Spenser suit.
Ray was arrested in connection with the deaths on February 3, 2010, and bond was set at $5 million. Ray's attorney argued that he could not afford the $5 million, and Ray was released on February 26, 2010, after bail was reduced to $525,000.
Three of the victims' lawsuits against Ray were settled before his criminal trial for a total of more than $3 million.
The court case began on May 1, 2011. The prosecution rested its case on June 3, 2011, after 34 witnesses had taken the stand and 43 days of testimony. On June 22, 2011, Ray was found guilty on three counts of negligent homicide, and not guilty of the manslaughter charges brought against him. On November 18, 2011, Ray was sentenced to two years in prison.
Native American perspective
Native American experts on sweat lodges have criticized the reported construction of the structure, as well as Ray's conduct of the event as not meeting traditional ways (the words "bastardized", "mocked" and "desecrated" have been used). As Indian Country Today reported, "Ray drew the ire of Indian country from the start as the ceremony he was selling bore little if any resemblance to an actual sweat lodge ceremony." Native American leaders expressed concerns and uttered prayers for the dead and injured. The leaders say the ceremony is their way of life and not a religion. It is Native American intellectual property, protected by US laws and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The ceremony should only be in the hands of sanctioned lodge carriers from legitimate nations. Objections included a lack of training (permission to lead lodges are usually only granted to those raised in the ceremonial ways of that particular Native American community, and after many years of apprenticeship), unusual construction from non-breathable materials, charging for the ceremony (seen as extremely inappropriate), too many participants, and excessive length of the ceremony.
The Native American community actively seeks to prevent abuses of their traditions. The Angel Valley owners announced they have accepted Native American friends' help to "heal the land". On November 12, 2009, news reported Oglala Lakotas filed a lawsuit, Oglala Lakota Delegation of the Black Hills Sioux Nation Treaty Council v. United States against the United States, Arizona, Ray and site owners, to have Ray and the site owners arrested and punished under the Sioux Treaty of 1868 between the United States and the Lakota Nation, which states that:
if bad men among the whites or other people subject to the authority of the United States shall commit any wrong upon the person or the property of the Indians, the United States will (...) proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained.
The Oglala Lakota delegation holds that James Arthur Ray and the Angel Valley Retreat Center have "violated the peace between the United States and the Lakota Nation" and have caused the “desecration of our Sacred Oinikiga (onikare, sweat lodge) by causing the death of Liz Neuman, Kirby Brown and James Shore".
The Oglala Lakota Delegation also claim that James Arthur Ray and the Angel Valley Retreat Center fraudulently impersonated Indians and must be held responsible for causing the deaths and injuries, and for evidence destruction through dismantling of the sweat lodge. The lawsuit seeks to have the treaty enforced and does not seek monetary compensation.
Ray was given a supervised release on July 12, 2013. The 55-year-old left the state prison near Phoenix on July 12, 2013. Although Ray is not barred from conducting self-help seminars or sweat lodge ceremonies, AP noted, “[H]is brother said Ray has no immediate plans to resurrect his business.” However, the brother left open the possibility by maintaining that the tragedy was not Ray’s fault. Ray's website features video of his 2007 appearance on Oprah Winfrey.
Kirby Brown's parents challenged motivational speakers and self-help gurus to sign a pledge of integrity, the "Seek Safely" promise. Ray has so far declined to do so.
Re-launch of self-help business
On November 25, 2013, Ray re-launched his self-help business on CNN’s Piers Morgan Live. He had stipulated that no other guests could participate in the interview. In a potential conflict of interest, Piers Morgan’s manager, John Ferriter, is James Arthur Ray’s manager and current media contact.
- The Science of Success, SunArk Press 2003, ISBN 978-0-9667400-1-1
- Practical Spirituality: How to Use Spiritual Power to Create Tangible Results, SunArk Press 2003, ISBN 978-0-9667400-3-5
- Harmonic Wealth: The Secret of Attracting the Life You Want, Hyperion Books 2008, ISBN 978-1-4013-2264-9
- The Seven Laws of True Wealth: Create the Life You Desire and Deserve, Hyperion Books Books 2009, ISBN 978-1-4013-2284-7
- Hardcover Advice, The New York Times, 18 May 2008.
- Siklos, Richard (2008-04-08). "The man who would be Robbins, Covey, and Chopra". CNN. p. 2. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Ortega, Bob. "Sweat-lodge trial: James Arthur Ray often misused teachings, critics say", The Arizona Republic, 10 April 2011. accessed 13 April 2011.
- "CNN.com - Transcripts". Transcripts.cnn.com. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Dougherty, John; Roth, Gregory (11 October 2009). "Questions About 'Sweat Lodge' Rite Where 2 Died". The New York Times.
- "James Ray International Review - Training Programs in Los Angeles, CA - BBB Reliability Report - BBB serving San Diego and Imperial Counties". Bbb.org. 2004-10-28. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "James Arthur Ray trial: State's witness was in close contact with one victim", Daily Courier (Prescott, Arizona), 4 March 2011.
- Riccardi, Nicholas (June 22, 2011). "Self-help guru convicted in Arizona sweat lodge deaths". Los Angeles Times.
- Fonseca, Felicia. "Motivational speaker charged in sweat lodge deaths", Associated Press, ABC News, 4 February 2010.
- name="Ray to appeal homicide conviction"Duncan, Mark (2011-12-06). "Ray to appeal homicide conviction". Daily Courier, Arizona. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- name="Ray released from prison after 18 months""Information for Inmate 267823 Ray". Arizona Department of Corrections. 2013-07-12. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
- Harris, Craig; Wagner, Dennis. "Sweat-lodge guru: A story of ups, downs", The Arizona Republic, 23 October 2009.
- Harris, Dan; Ferran, Lee; Shaylor, Jay; Pereira, Jen. "Beyond Sweat Lodge: James Ray's Controversial World", ABC News, 29 October 2009.
- "Grant Cardone: James Ray Was Warned". Huffington Post. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Macintosh, Jeane (19 October 2009). "James Arthur Ray's past contains serious injuries and suicides at seminars". New York Post. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "Man: Sweat Lodge Leader's Actions 'Reckless'". KPHO.com. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Baker, Debbi (2009-07-27). "Woman in fatal Horton Plaza fall identified". SignOnSanDiego.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Macintosh, Jeane (2009-10-19). "James Arthur Ray's past contains serious injuries and suicides at seminars". New York Post. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "Sweat Lodge Retreat Leader 'Being Tested' by Deaths". FoxNews.com. 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Fonseca, Felicia; Christie, Bob (2009-10-16). "Sweat-lodge deaths cast negative spotlight on guru". Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Hensley, JJ (15 October 2009). "Resort near Sedona had previous sweat lodge incident". The Arizona Republic. Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Hensley, JJ (15 October 2009). "Resort near Sedona had previous sweat lodge incident". The Arizona Republic. Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Dougherty, John. "For Some Seeking Rebirth, Sweat Lodge Was End", The New York Times, 21 October 2009.
- Allen, Nick (12 October 2009). "Couple die during spiritual cleansing ceremony". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "Arizona sweat lodge tragedy sparks first lawsuits", KGAN CBS2, 30 October 2009.
- "Sweat Lodge | Arizona Deaths | James Arthur Ray Mysterious Tweets Deepen Mystery". Melbourne: Theage.com.au. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "Arizona Sweat Lodge Survivor Says James Arthur Ray Abandoned Them". ABC News. 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Creno, Glen. "Commercialization of sweat-lodge ceremony appalls Native Americans", The Arizona Republic, 21 October 2009.
- Associated Press. "Ariz. sweat lodge lacked key permit", The Philadelphia Inquirer, 13 October 2009.
- Fonseca, Felicia (October 13, 2009). "County official says Arizona sweat lodge where 2 died during spiritual retreat lacked permit". The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Sweeney, Claire. "'Sweat lodge' deaths being investigated as homicides", The Times (London), 16 October 2009.
- Minelli, Pat. "Klobuchar calls for federal investigations into 'sweat lodge' deaths", Shakopee Valley News, 27 October 2009.
- Christie, Bob. "1st lawsuits filed in Arizona sweat lodge tragedy", Associated Press, 30 October 2009.
- Hensley, JJ. "2 lawsuits filed in Ariz. sweat-lodge deaths", The Arizona Republic, 30 October 2009.
- Creno, Glen (10 November 2009). "Arizona Republic". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Fonseca, Felicia. "Motivational speaker charged in sweat lodge deaths", Associated Press, 4 February 2010.
- Fonseca, Felicia (February 19, 2010). Associated Press, ed. "Guru charged in sweat-lodge deaths broke". Arizona Central News. Arizona Central. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
- "Bail reduced in 'sweat lodge' guru manslaughter case - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
- http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2011-12-02/sweat-lodge-deaths-arizona-settlement/51592820/1 Sweat lodge lawsuits settled for $3M, USA Today
- http://www.dcourier.com/main.asp?SectionID=1&SubSectionID=1&ArticleID=94535 State rests in sweat lodge trial (The Daily Courier, Prescott, Arizona)
- Bob Ortega (22 June 2011). "Sweat-lodge case: Ray guilty on 3 counts of negligent homicide". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- CNN wire staff (18 November 2011). "Sweat-lodge case: Ray guilty on 3 counts of negligent homicide". CNN. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
- "Native History: A Non-Traditional Sweat Leads to Three Deaths." Indian Country Today. 8 Oct 2013. Accessed 23 March 2014.
- Hocker, Lindsay. "Sweat lodge incident 'not our Indian way", Quad-Cities Online, 14 October 2009.
- Looking Horse, Chief Arvol. "Concerning the deaths in Sedona", Indian Country Today, 16 October 2009.
- Rehfeld, Nina. "Lakota Nation files lawsuit against parties in sweat lodge incident", sedona.biz, 12 November 2009.
- Garcia, Miriam. on YouTube, Phoenix Fox 10, reproduced on YouTube, 10 October 2009.
- Taliman, Valerie. "Selling the sacred", Indian Country Today, 13 October 2009.
- "Native Elder Addresses Deaths In Sweat Lodge", Black Hills Today, All Nations Indigenous Native American Indian Cultural Center, 17 October 2009.
- Hamilton, Michael and Amayra. "Resort owners issue press release about sweat lodge deaths", azfamily.com, 13 October 2009.
- "Papers or Plastic: The Difficulty in Protecting Native Spiritual Identity", Brian Sheets, Lewis & Clark Law Review, 17:2, p. 595
- AZFamily.com, "Sweat lodge leader James Arthur Ray prepares to leave prison", July 10, 2013
- Self-Help Shamster Behind Sweat-Lodge Homicides Released From Prison. Indian Country Today Media Network, July 13, 2013.
- Stroud, Matt (December 4, 2013). "The Death Dealer". The Verge. Retrieved December 7, 2013.