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14 December 1730|
|Died||27 April 1794(aged 63)|
|Occupation||traveller, travel writer|
|Known for||Traced the origins of the Blue Nile.|
|Notable work||Travels (1790)|
James Bruce was born at the family seat of Kinnaird, Stirlingshire, and educated at Harrow School and Edinburgh University, and began to study for the bar, but his marriage to the daughter of a wine importer and merchant resulted in him entering that business instead. His wife died in October 1754, within nine months of marriage, and Bruce thereafter travelled in Portugal and Spain as part of the wine trade. The examination of oriental manuscripts at the Escorial in Spain led him to the study of Arabic and Ge'ez and determined his future career. In 1758 his father's death placed him in possession of the estate of Kinnaird.
To North Africa
On the outbreak of war with Spain in 1762 he submitted to the British government a plan for an attack on Ferrol. His suggestion was not adopted, but it led to his selection by the 2nd Earl of Halifax for the post of British consul at Algiers, with a commission to study the ancient ruins in that country, in which interest had been excited by the descriptions sent home by Thomas Shaw (1694–1751), who was consular chaplain at Algiers. Having spent six months in Italy studying antiquities, Bruce reached Algiers in March 1763. The whole of his time was taken up with his consular duties at the piratical court of the dey, and he was kept without the assistance promised. But in August 1765, a successor in the consulate having arrived, Bruce began his exploration of the Roman ruins in Barbary. Having examined many ruins in eastern Algeria, he travelled by land from Tunis to Tripoli, and at Ptolemaida took passage for Candia; but was shipwrecked near Benghazi and had to swim ashore. He eventually reached Crete, and sailing thence to Sidon, travelled through Syria, visiting Palmyra and Baalbek. Throughout his journeyings in Barbary and the Levant, Bruce made careful drawings of the many ruins he examined. He also acquired a sufficient knowledge of medicine to enable him to pass in the East as a physician.
The Nile and Ethiopia
In June 1768 he arrived at Alexandria, having resolved to endeavour to discover the source of the Nile, which he believed to rise in Ethiopia. At Cairo he gained the support of the Mamluk ruler, Ali Bey. After visiting Thebes, where he entered the tomb of Ramesses III, KV11, he crossed the desert to Kosseir, where he embarked in the dress of a Turkish sailor. He reached Jidda in May 1769, and after a stay in Arabia he recrossed the Red Sea and landed at Massawa, then in possession of the Turks, on 19 September. He reached Gondar, then the capital of Ethiopia 14 February 1770, where he was well received by the nəgusä nägäst Tekle Haymanot II, by Ras Mikael Sehul, the real ruler of the country, by Wozoro Aster, wife of the Ras (whom Bruce calls "Esther"), and by the Ethiopians generally. His fine presence (he was 6-foot 4 inches high), his knowledge of Ge'ez, his excellence in sports, his courage, resource and self-esteem, all told in his favour among a people who were in general distrustful of all foreigners. He stayed in Ethiopia for two years, gaining knowledge which enabled him subsequently to present an accurate picture of Ethiopian life.
Determined to reach the source of the Blue Nile, and after recovering from malaria, in October 1770 Bruce decided to set out again. This time he travelled with his own small party, which included Balugani and a Greek named Strates. The final march was made on 4 November 1770. Late in the afternoon, after having climbed to 9,500 feet, Bruce's party came upon a rustic church, and the guide, pointing beyond it, indicated a little swamp with a hillock rising from the centre. That, he declared, was the source of the Nile. On 14 November 1770 he reached Gish Abay, the source of the Lesser Abay. When they reached the springs at Gish, James Bruce determined to be merry, picked up a half coconut shell he used as a drinking cup. Filling it from the spring he oblidged Strates to drink a toast to "His Majesty King George III and a long line of princes" and another to "Catherine, Empress of all the Russians" – this last was a gesture to Strates' Greek origin, since Catherine the Great was just then at war with the Turks in the Aegean Sea. More toasts followed. Though admitting that the White Nile was the larger stream, Bruce argued that the Blue Nile was the Nile of the ancients and thus he was the discoverer of its source.
A Spaniard, the Jesuit missionary Pedro Paez, is widely regarded by historians as having been the first European to reach the site (1618); He is believed to be the first European to see and describe the source of the Blue Nile in his two-volume História da Ethiópia ("History of Ethiopia"). Bruce, however, disputed his claim and suggested that the relevant passage in Paez's memoirs had been fabricated by Athanasius Kircher. Later the source of the Blue Nile was visited by Fr. Jeronimo Lobo; Bruce sought to discredit the writings of Fr. Lobo, but more recent research has shown that Lobo's description of the source was perfectly correct in details. Bruce went as far as to claim (wrongly), that Lobo seemed to be able to sail on land and also denied the existence of a spitting cobra described by Lobo. The Greek Strates is arguably another European that reached the source of the Nile; however, in the eighteenth century, Greece was politically part of the Ottoman Empire, not Europe.
Setting out from Gondar in December 1771, Bruce made his way, in spite of enormous difficulties, by Sennar to Nubia, being the first European to trace the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile. He was detained in Al Qadarif (which he calls "Teawa") by its governor Fidele, until a combination of cunning, diplomacy and a show of force by his friend the Ethiopian governor of Ras el Fils induced Fidele to release him. Once in Sennar he found himself detained there, and on the night of 25 August the house he was staying in was attacked by thieves, whom Bruce for good reason suspected to be acting with the knowledge, if not on the orders of King Ismai'l. As he and his companions crossed the desert on the western side of the bend of the Nile, they came across the corpses of the caravan of the Muslim dignitary Mahomet Towash they had hoped to travel with; despite his status, they had been waylaid, robbed, and killed by the local tribesmen. On 29 November 1772 he reached Aswan, presently returning to the desert to recover his journals and his baggage, which had been abandoned in consequence of the death of all his camels. Cairo was reached in January 1773, and in March Bruce arrived in France, where he was welcomed by Buffon and other savants.
He came to London in June 1774, and was interviewed by James Boswell, who published a lengthy account of his travels in the London Magazine. Offended by the incredulity with which his story was received, Bruce retired to his home at Kinnaird. It was not until 1790 that, urged by his friend Daines Barrington, he published his Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, In the Years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772 and 1773, but was assailed by other travellers as being unworthy of credence. The substantial accuracy of his Ethiopian travels has since been demonstrated, and it is considered that he made a real addition to the geographical knowledge of his day.
- Several of Bruce's drawings were presented to King George III and are in the royal collection at Windsor Castle. According to Edward Ullendorff, "There is little doubt that those volumes contain the pick of Bruce's work, and when they were shown, in 1862, by permission of Queen Victoria, to the Society of Antiquaries, all who saw them were greatly impressed."
- Bruce also brought back to Europe a select collection of Ethiopian manuscripts. "They opened up entirely new vistas for the study of Ethiopian languages and placed this branch of Oriental scholarship on a much more secure basis," writes Ullendorff. "It is not known how many MSS. reached Europe through his endeavours, but the present writer is aware of at least twenty-seven, all of which are exquisite examples of Ethiopian manuscript art. Bruce presented a fine and specially prepared copy of the Book of Enoch to Louis XV in Paris." While most of these manuscripts are in Ge'ez, one notable exception is a version of the Song of Songs written in Gafat, a language which Ullendorff states "is known to us only from this manuscript."
- Among the Ethiopian manuscripts were three copies of the Book of Enoch. The apocryphal text had been lost in Europe since the Middle Ages, with the exception of a few quotations in the Church Fathers and some Greek fragments preserved in the work of the Byzantine chronicler George Synkellos (IX sec.) and first published by Joseph Justus Scaliger in 1606. Although it was known since the mid-16th century that the full text was preserved in Ethiopia, any attempt at acquiring the manuscript had failed. Of the three copies, Bruce presented one to King Louis XV on his arrival in Paris in 1773 for the French National Library. The second copy was given a year later to the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, while the third copy was kept by Bruce himself, to be also added to the Bodleian collections after his death in 1794. The three manuscripts brought by Bruce mark the beginning of modern studies on the Book of Enoch.
- Bruce's travels and discoveries inspired the founders of the British African Association (1788) in their efforts to promote exploration to discover the course of the Niger and the city of Timbuktu.
- James Boswell (1774), "Some Account of the Very Extraordinary Travels of the Celebrated Mr. Bruce". London Magazine, 43 (August–September 1774), 388-91, 429-31. Reprinted with notes in Facts and Inventions: Selections from the Journalism of James Boswell, ed. Paul Tankard. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014; pp. 45–57.
- Major (afterwards Sir) Francis Head (1830), The Life of Bruce, the African traveller, London.
- Sir Robert Lambert Playfair (1877), Travels in the Footsteps of Bruce in Algeria and Tunis. London: Kegan Paul. Includes a selection of his drawings, published for the first time.
- J. M. Reid (1968), Traveller Extraordinary: The Life of James Bruce of Kinnaird New York, Norton.
- Miles Bredin (2001) The Pale Abyssinian: a life of James Bruce, African explorer and adventurer, Flamingo.
Editions of his book
- Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, In the Years 1768, 1769,1770, 1771, 1772 and 1773. Five Volumes, G.G.J. and J. Robinson, London, 1790.
- Travels, ed. Alexander Murray. Seven volumes, London: 1805 and 1813.
- Bruce, James, Travels. Abridged edition. Horizon Press, New York, 1964.
- E.A. Wallis Budge, A history of Ethiopia, p 397
- R.E. Cheesman, Lake Tana and the Blue Nile
- Bruce, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1805 edition), vol. 4, pp. 326–331
- J.M. Reid, Traveller Extraordinary: The Life of James Bruce of Kinnaird (New York, Norton, 1968), pp. 219–236
- Reid, Traveller Extraordinary, pp. 237–249
- Reid, Traveller Extraordinary, pp. 250–266
- Edward Ullendorff, "James Bruce of Kinnaird", Scottish Historical Review, 32 (1953), p. 132
- Book of Enoch (መጽሐፈ ፡ ሄኖክ /Metsahaf Henoc), Bodleian Library of Oxford Mss 531 and Bibliothèque royale de Paris, cf. http://www.tau.ac.il/~hacohen/Biblia.html ; Book of Jubilees (መጽሐፈ ፡ ኩፋሌ /Metsahaf Kufale) ; The Conflict of Adam and Eve (/Gadla Adan wa Hewan), British Museum Oriental Ms 751.
- Ullendorff, "James Bruce", p. 133
- George W.E. Nicklelsburg, 1 Enoch: A Commentary, Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001 (Hermeneia).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bruce, James". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bruce, James.|