James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos
The Duke of Chandos
|Member of Parliament for Hereford|
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount Scudamore|
|Born||6 January 1673|
|Died||9 August 1744|
|Alma mater||New College, Oxford|
James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, PC DL FRS (6 January 1673 in Dewsall, Herefordshire – 9 August 1744 in Cannons) was the first of fourteen children of the 8th Baron Chandos and Elizabeth Barnard. Three days after his father's death on 16 October 1714, when he became 9th Baron Chandos, he was created Earl of Carnarvon, and he was subsequently created Duke of Chandos in 1719. He was a member of parliament for Hereford from 1698 to 1714.
Marriages and children
- First marriage
On 2 February 1695, Brydges married Mary Lake, daughter of Sir Thomas Lake (of Cannons, Middlesex) and Rebecca Langham. She died on 15 September 1712. The couple had two children who survived childhood:
- John Brydges, Marquess of Carnarvon (15 January 1703 – 8 April 1727)
- Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos (1 February 1708 – 28 November 1771)
- Second marriage
- Third marriage
On 18 April 1736, the Duke married Lydia Catherine Van Hatten, the daughter of John Van Hatten and Lydia Davall. They had no children.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, Brydges was paymaster-general of the forces abroad (1705–1713), and in this capacity he amassed great wealth. The ethics of his financial operations were called into question at the time, but it was generally accepted that people could profit from public office. He continued to engage in speculative investments after being made Duke of Chandos in 1719, but with less success – he lost money in the South Sea Bubble and the York Buildings Company.
Brydges built a magnificent house "at vast expense" at Cannons, an estate near Edgware in Middlesex. There Brydges ran through several architects prominent in the English Baroque. He began in 1713 with William Talman, whom he dismissed in favour of John James in 1714; James had partly executed his designs before James Gibbs succeeded him in 1715. Howard Colvin (ref) concludes that the south and east elevations, as well as the chapel, were the designs of Gibbs. Brydges dismissed Gibbs in 1719, and completed the house under the supervision of John Price and, in 1723–25, Edward Shepherd. Cannons was demolished in 1747. On its site, now incorporated in Greater London, is Canons Park.
Brydges is said to have contemplated the construction of a private road across his own lands between this place and his never completed house in Cavendish Square, London, probably also designed by Gibbs.
Chandos was Lord Lieutenant of the counties of Hereford and Radnor, and Chancellor of the University of St Andrews (where he established the Chandos Chair of Medicine and Anatomy in 1721). He also became involved in the efforts to create a home for foundlings in London that would alleviate the problem of child abandonment in the capital. The charity, called the Foundling Hospital, received its royal charter in 1739, on which the Duke is listed as a governor.
Handel and Pope
The Duke is chiefly remembered on account of his connections with George Frideric Handel, for whom he acted as a major patron, and with Alexander Pope, seen as having slandered Chandos in one of his poems.
Chandos and Handel
Before Chandos was made a duke, he employed the young composer George Frideric Handel over a period of two years, 1717–18. Handel lived at Cannons, where he composed his oratorio Esther and his pastoral opera Acis and Galatea. Handel also composed the Chandos Anthems for his patron; they were first performed at the parish church of St Lawrence, Little Stanmore, with the composer playing the organ of 1716 which has survived there to the present day.
Chandos and Pope
Alexander Pope, who in his Moral Essays (Epistle to the Earl of Burlington) was alleged to have ridiculed Cannons under the guise of Timon's Villa, later referred to the Duke in the line, "Thus gracious Chandos is belov'd at sight"; but Jonathan Swift, less complimentary, called him "a great complier with every court". The poet was caricatured by Hogarth for his supposed servility to Chandos. Pope published a denial of his alleged satire of the Duke's estate, in which he said that the estate of the poem "differs in every particular from" Chandos's. According to Pope biographer Maynard Mack, Chandos thereafter assured Pope by letter that he believed him, i.e. that the Epistle to Burlington was not intended as a satire of his estate. The malice, indeed, was on the part not of Pope, but of the insinuators and slanderers, the hack writers whom Pope had ridiculed as dunces in his Dunciad; Mack calls the affair a "falsehood of considerable damage to [Pope's] character".
After his death
His third wife, who survived him, moved to Shaw House, Berkshire. The Dowager Duchess of Chandos, the widow of the 1st Duke, died in 1750 at Shaw House.
Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu in a letter, dated Sandleford, 21 December 1750 to Miss Anstey, wrote: "My dear Miss Anstey, ... A little before I went to London I lost my very good neighbour, the Dutchess of Chandos, a stroke of the palsy carried her off in a few days : her bodily pains were great, but her mind felt the serenity that gilds the evening of a virtuous life. She quitted the world with that decent fare-well which people take of it, who rather consider it as a place in which they are to impart good than to enjoy it Her character has made a great impression on me, as I think her a rare instance that age could not make conceited and stiff, nor retirement discontented, nor virtue inflexible and severe..."
In a letter to Mrs. Donnellan dated Sandleford, 30 December 1750, Mrs. Montagu continued, "My rich neighbours are dull, and my poor ones are miserable ... The Dutchess of Chandos is greatly missed by the poor in this rigorous season. There is a family at Donnington Castle who are very generous and charitable, but nothing can entirely avail in a part of the world where manufacture decays; daily labour must give daily bread; occasional alms like medicine to the diseased, but can hardly procure constant health. To make the poor happy one must make them industrious..."
He was succeeded by his son, Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos, who found the estate so encumbered by debt that a demolition sale of Cannons was held in 1747, which dispersed furnishings and structural elements, with the result that elements of Cannons survive in several English country houses, notably Lord Foley's house, Witley Court at Great Witley, and its chapel (ceiling paintings by Bellucci and stained glass by Joshua Price of York after designs by Francesco Sleter). The pulpit and other fittings from Chandos's chapel were reinstalled in the parish church at Fawley, Buckinghamshire, by John Freeman of Fawley Court.
His sister, The Hon. Mary Brydges, married Theophilus Leigh: they were the great-grandparents of Jane Austen.
- Shaw House, Berkshire. A Berkshire mansion owned by the Duke
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 838–839.
- Colvin, p. 403, quoting Soane MSS
- Price published elevations of the house with his own name as architect, "Built Anno 1720" (Colvin, sub. Price)
- Two houses built by Chandos's surveyor Edward Shepherd, eventually occupied the site (Colvin).
- Nichols and Wray, on pp. 345–353, list all governors named in the charter.
- Trew p.13-14
- Deutsch, O.E. (1955), Handel. A documentary biography, p. 91. Reprint 1974.
- See the year 1719 Handel Reference Database (in progress)
- Chandos Mausoleum
- The Letters of Mrs Elizabeth Montagu: Containing her letters from an early..., published and edited by Matthew Montagu, volume iii, London, 1813.
- Howard Colvin, 1995 (3rd ed.). A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 (Yale University Press)
- R. H. Nichols and F.A. Wray, The History of the Foundling Hospital (London: Oxford University Press, 1935)
- Johnson, Joan. Excellent Cassandra: The Life and Times of the Duchess of Chandos. Alan Sutton Publishing Limited, Gloucester, England 1981.
- Trew, Peter. Rodney & the Breaking of the Line. Pen & Sword, 2006.
- Joan Johnson, 1989. Princely Chandos: James Brydges 1674–1744
- C. H. and M. I. Collins Baker, 1949. The Life and Circumstances of James Brydges,: First Duke of Chandos, Patron of the Liberal Arts (Oxford University: Clarendon Press). Still the standard work on Chandos and Cannons
- (Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke) 1935. Letters of Henry St. John to James Brydges (Harvard University Press)
- John Robert Robinson, The princely Chandos, a memoir of James Brydges, paymaster-general to the forces abroad during the most brilliant part of the Duke of Marlborough's military ... afterwards the first Duke of Chandos
- Media related to James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos at Wikimedia Commons
- The Rise and Fall of Henry James Bridges, First Duke of Chandos, for whom Handel composed the Chandos Anthems, an interesting illustrated article (which appears to have some minor inaccuracies, e.g. the statement that Francesco Scarlatti worked at Cannons).
- Six Chandos Anthems, program notes to a 2-CD recording.
- The Dukes of Chandos
|Parliament of England|
| Member of Parliament for Hereford
With: Paul Foley 1698–1699
Samuel Pytts 1699–1701
Thomas Foley 1701–1707
Parliament of Great Britain
|Parliament of Great Britain|
Parliament of England
| Member of Parliament for Hereford
With: Thomas Foley
The Viscount Scudamore
The Duke of Atholl
| Chancellor of the University of St Andrews
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland
The Earl Coningsby
| Lord Lieutenant of Herefordshire
Charles Hanbury Williams
| Lord Lieutenant of Radnorshire
Title next held byWilliam Perry
|Peerage of Great Britain|
|New creation|| Duke of Chandos
| Earl of Carnarvon|
|Peerage of England|
| Baron Chandos