James F. Blake

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First page of Parks' arrest report. Blake is listed as the complainant and warrant issuer.

James Fred Blake[1] (April 14, 1912 – March 21, 2002) was the bus driver whom Rosa Parks defied in 1955, prompting the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

Early life[edit]

Blake was drafted into the Army in December 23, 1943. He was enlisted and sworn in at Ft. Mccelellan Alabama. His enlistment record states he was married and had attended 1 year of high school. Blake also had previous experience in chauffeuring, truck, and tractor driving.[2] He served for five years in active duty during the European theatre during World War II.

He worked as a bus driver for Montgomery City Bus Lines until 1974.[3] After his retirement he became a member of The Morningview Baptist church. The children's pastor, Kem Holley, commented on his passing with, "Mr. Blake was a kind and gracious man, always had a smile on his face and always loved everybody. She also remarked that, "I know that a lot of people make a big deal out of [Parks' arrest], but Mr. Blake grew with the times, and he loved everybody.""[4]

Rosa Parks and Claudette Colvin[edit]

Previous to Rosa Parks arrest, a young woman by the name of Claudette Colvin was likewise arrested for not giving her seat up for a white passenger. Montgomery's black leaders were preparing to make a case against racial discrimination, until it was discovered that Colvin was in fact pregnant. She was deemed unfit to be used as a figurehead in the eventual civil rights movement, giving room for Rosa Parks to be the pinnacle and central case against Alabama's Jim Crowe laws and eventual bus boycotting.[5]

Twelve years prior to the 1955 incident, Parks boarded a bus driven by Blake. She entered the front door of the bus and paid her fare. As she continued on to take a seat, Blake told her to follow city rules (Jim Crowe Laws) and enter the bus again from the back door. After exiting the front door, she came around the back of the bus to use the rear entrance, only for Blake to drive off immediately. Parks sat and waited for the next one to arrive.[6]

Twelve years later, they encountered each other again on December 1, 1955, when Blake ordered Rosa Parks and three other black people to move from the middle to the back of his Cleveland Avenue bus (number 2857) in order to make room for a white male passenger.[7] By Parks' account, Blake said, "Y'all better make it light on yourselves and let me have those seats." When she refused, Blake first contacted the bus company and called his boss remarking, "I called the company first, just like I was supposed to do," Blake recalled in a later interview with the Washington Post. "I got my supervisor on the line. He said, 'Did you warn her, Jim?' I said, 'I warned her.' And he said, and I remember it just like I'm standing here, 'Well then, Jim, you do it, you got to exercise your powers and put her off, hear?' And that's just what I did."[8] Parks after being arrested was fined 10 dollars and 4 in court fees. Later he contacted the police and signed the warrant for her arrest. Chapter 6, Section 11 of the city code gave drivers police powers to racially assign seats.[9][10] This arrest sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott and led to Browder v. Gayle, the 1956 court case on the basis of which a United States District Court abolished segregation in transportation for the jurisdiction in which Montgomery, Alabama is located.

Commenting on the event afterwards, Blake stated, "I wasn't trying to do anything to that Parks woman except do my job. She was in violation of the city codes, so what was I supposed to do? That damn bus was full and she wouldn't move back. I had my orders. I had police powers--any driver for the city did. So the bus filled up and a white man got on, and she had his seat and I told her to move back, and she wouldn't do it."[11]


Blake continued working at the bus company for another 19 years. He died of a heart attack in his Montgomery home in 2002, less than a month before his 90th birthday. He and his wife had been married for 68 years. Actor Sonny Shroyer portrayed Blake in the 2002 made-for-television movie The Rosa Parks Story. Commenting on his death, Rosa Parks said, "[I'm] sure his family will miss him,"


  1. ^ McClellan, Bill (2002-04-07). "Remarkable History Surrounded Man's Unremarkable Life" (payment for full view). St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. E1. Retrieved 2009-07-27. The attorney had grown up in that city, and he was returning for the funeral of one James Fred Blake, who had died at the age of 89. [...] Fred Blake had been the bus driver who had ordered Rosa Parks to give up her seat on that fateful day December 1, 1955 
  2. ^ US National Archives and Records Administration. "Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938 - 1946 (Enlistment Records)". Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  3. ^ "Bus driver who gave her the wrong ticket then had Parks arrested dies at 89", Sun Herald, March 24, 2002
  4. ^ Thurber, Jon. "James Blake, 89; Driver Had Rosa Parks Arrested". latimes.com. latimes.com. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  5. ^ "Montgomery Bus Boycott". History.com. A+E Networks. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Woo, Elaine (2005-10-25). "She Set Wheels of Justice in Motion". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  7. ^ Pretzer, William. "The Power of 2857" American Heritage, November/December 2005.
  8. ^ Thurber, Jon. /me-blake26 "James Blake, 89; Driver Had Rosa Parks Arrested" Check |url= scheme (help). latimes.com. latimes. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "City charge faced by negro bus rider", Montgomery Advertiser, December 2, 1955
  10. ^ ""Sec. 11. Same--Powers of persons in charge of vehicle; passengers to obey directions.",Montgomery City Code,1952
  11. ^ "Obituary: James F Blake", The Guardian, 27 March 2002