Fraser Stoddart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from James Fraser Stoddart)
Jump to: navigation, search
Sir Fraser Stoddart
Born (1942-05-24) 24 May 1942 (age 74)
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
Residence UK, US
Nationality Scottish
Fields Supramolecular chemistry
Institutions Queen's University (1967-70)
University of Sheffield (1970-1990)
Birmingham University (1990-1997)
University of California, Los Angeles (1997-2008)
Northwestern University (2008- )
Alma mater Edinburgh University (B.S., 1964, Ph.D., 1966)
Doctoral advisor Edmund Langley Hirst
Doctoral students David Leigh
Known for Mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures
Notable awards Albert Einstein World Award of Science (2007)
Davy Medal (2008)
Spouse Norma Stoddart (1944-2004)[1][2]
Crystal structure of a rotaxane with a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) macrocycle reported by Stoddart and coworkers in the Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 2565–2571.
Crystal structure of a catenane with a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) macrocycle reported by Stoddart and coworkers in the Chem. Commun., 1991, 634–639.
Crystal structure of molecular Borromean rings reported by Stoddart and coworkers Science 2004, 304, 1308–1312.

Sir James Fraser Stoddart FRS FRSE FRSC (born 24 May 1942)[3] is a Scottish chemist currently (as of 22 March 2014) at the Department of Chemistry at Northwestern University in the United States.[4] He works in the area of supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology. Stoddart has developed highly efficient syntheses of mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures such as molecular Borromean rings, catenanes and rotaxanes utilizing molecular recognition and molecular self-assembly processes. He has demonstrated that these topologies can be employed as molecular switches and as motor-molecules.[5] His group has even applied these structures in the fabrication of nanoelectronic devices and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).[6] His efforts have been recognized by numerous awards including the 2007 King Faisal International Prize in Science.[7][8]

Biography[edit]

Fraser Stoddart was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on 24 May 1942. He was brought up on Edgelaw Farm and received early schooling at a local village school in Carrington, Midlothian before going on to Melville College in Edinburgh.[9][10] He obtained his B.Sc. (1964) and Ph.D. (1966) degrees from Edinburgh University.[11]

In 1967, he went to Queen’s University (Canada) as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, and then, in 1970, to Sheffield University as an Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) Research Fellow, before joining the academic staff as a Lecturer in Chemistry. He was a Science Research Council Senior Visiting Fellow at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1978. After spending a sabbatical (1978–81) at the ICI Corporate Laboratory in Runcorn, England, he returned to Sheffield[12] where he was promoted to a Readership in 1982.

He was awarded a DSc degree by Edinburgh in 1980 for his research into stereochemistry beyond the molecule. In 1990, he moved to the Chair of Organic Chemistry at Birmingham University and was Head of the School of Chemistry there (1993–97) before moving to UCLA as the Saul Winstein Professor of Chemistry in 1997, succeeding Nobel laureate Donald Cram.[8][13]

In July 2002, he became the Acting Co-Director of the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI). In May 2003, he became the Fred Kavli Chair of NanoSystems Sciences and served from then through August 2007 as the Director of the CNSI.[13]

During 35 years, nearly 300 PhD students and postdoctoral researchers have been trained in his laboratories.[9]

He was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the New Year's Honours December 2006, by Queen Elizabeth II.[12][14] In 2007, he received the Albert Einstein World Award of Science in recognition for his outstanding and pioneering work in molecular recognition and self-assembly, and the introduction of quick and efficient template-directed synthetic routes to mechanically interlocked molecular compounds, which have changed the way chemists think about molecular switches and machines.[15]

Research interests[edit]

One of his major contributions to the development of mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures such as rotaxanes and catenanes has been the establishment of efficient synthetic protocols based on the binding of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) with electron-rich aromatic guests.[16] His group reported the synthesis of an advanced mechanically interlocked molecular architecture called molecular Borromean rings through the use of dynamic covalent chemistry.[17] The efficient procedures developed to synthesize these molecular architectures has been applied to the construction of molecular switches that operate based on the movement of the various components with respect to one another. These interlocked molecules have potential uses as molecular sensors, actuators, amplifiers, and molecular switches, and can be controlled chemically, electrically, and optically.[18]

"His work bridges the gap between chemistry and the scientific and engineering challenges of nanoelectromechanical systems."[19]

Stoddart has pioneered the use of mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures to create nanomechanical systems.[20][21] He has demonstrated that such devices can be fabricated using a combination of the bottom-up approach of molecular self-assembly and a top-down approach of lithography and microfabrication.[22]

"The credit for making molecular machines attractive to chemists goes to Fraser Stoddart, ... He had the vision to realise that these architectures gave you the possibility of large amplitude-controlled motions, and that that could be the basis of molecular machines." David Leigh[20]

Presentation style[edit]

External video
Molecular Solomon's knot AngewChemIntEd 2007 v46 p218.jpg
“Fraser Stoddart: Mingling Art with Science”, STE[+a]M Connect
“The Beauty and Promise of Molecular Nanotechnology“, PSW Science
“Fraser Stoddart on Molecular Assembly“, 1990, University of Birmingham

Stoddart's papers and other material are instantly recognizable due to a distinctive "cartoon"-style of representation he has developed since the late 1980s. A solid circle is often placed in the middle of the aromatic rings of the molecular structures he has reported, and different colors to highlight different parts of the molecules. Indeed, he was one of the first researchers to make extensive use of color in chemistry publications. The different colors usually correspond to the different parts of a cartoon representation of the molecule, but are also used to represent specific molecular properties (blue, for example, is used to represent electron-poor recognition units while red is used to represent the corresponding electron-rich recognition units). Stoddart maintains this standardized color scheme across all of his publications and presentations, and his style has been adopted by other researchers reporting mechanically interlocked molecules based on his syntheses.[23][24]

ISI ratings[edit]

As of 2016 Stoddart has an h-index of 130.[25] He has published more than 1000 publications and holds at least ten patents.[26] For the period from January 1997 to 31 August 2007, he was ranked by the Institute for Scientific Information as the third most cited chemist with a total of 14,038 citations from 304 papers at a frequency of 46.2 citations per paper.

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) predicted that Fraser Stoddart was a likely winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with George M. Whitesides and Seiji Shinkai for their contributions to molecular self-assembly.[27] However, the Prize eventually went to Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock and Yves Chauvin.[28]

Memberships[edit]

Other Awards and Honors[edit]

  • 2014 Centenary Prize Winner, Royal Society of Chemistry[37]
  • 2012 Distinguished Citizen Award, Illinois Saint Andrew Society, Chicago, USA
  • 2010 Royal Medal of the Royal Society of Edinburgh presented by Duke of Edinburgh[38][39]
  • 2008 Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London[19]
  • 2008 Arthur C. Cope Award (American Chemical Society)[40]
  • 2007 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology (Experimental)[41]
  • 2007 Albert Einstein World Award of Science[15]
  • 2007 Tetrahedron Prize for Creativity in Organic Chemistry[42]
  • 2007 King Faisal International Prize in Science[7][8]
  • 2007 Jabir Ibn Hyyan (Geber) Medal (Saudi Chemical Society)
  • 2005 University of Edinburgh Alumnus of the Year 2005 Award[11]
  • 2004 Nagoya Gold Medal in Organic Chemistry[43]
  • 1999 Arthur C Cope Scholar Award (American Chemical Society)[44]
  • 1993 International Izatt-Christensen Award in Macrocyclic Chemistry[45]

Philanthropy[edit]

The Fraser and Norma Stoddart Prize for Ph.D. students has been established at their alma mater, the University of Edinburgh.[1] It was given for the first time in 2013.[46]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Alumnus Presents New Prize for PhD Students". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  2. ^ "Norma Stoddart (Obituary)". The Scotsman. 16 February 2004. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  3. ^ ‘STODDART, Sir (James) Fraser’, Who's Who 2013, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2013; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2012 ; online edn, Nov 2012 accessed 31 Oct 2013
  4. ^ "Nanotechnology Star Fraser Stoddart to Join Northwestern". NewsCenter. Northwestern University. 2007-08-16. 
  5. ^ A. Coskun, M. Banaszak, R. D. Astumian, J. F. Stoddart, B. A. Grzybowski, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 19-30
  6. ^ A. Coskun, J. M. Spruell, G. Barin, W. R. Dichtel, A. H. Flood, Y. Y. Botros, J. F. Stoddart. Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41 (14), 4827-59.
  7. ^ a b "Stoddart Wins King Faisal International Prize". Chemical & Engineering News 85 (12): 71. March 19, 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c "Fraser Stoddart is awarded the 2007 King Faisal International Prize for Science". California NanoSystems Institute. January 17, 2007. 
  9. ^ a b Capecelatro, Alex N. (2007). "From Auld Reekie to the City of Angels, and all the Meccano in between: A Glimpse into the Life and Mind of Sir Fraser Stoddart" (PDF). The UCLA USJ 20. 
  10. ^ "It's all Kids Stuff". FP News, The magazine and Annual Review of The Stewart's Melville FP Club. Daniel Stewart's and Melville College Former Pupils Club. December 2014. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  11. ^ a b "2005 - Professor J Fraser Stoddart". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Marcus, Jennifer (January 4, 2007). "UCLA’s J. Fraser Stoddart Adds Knight Bachelor to His List of Honors". UCLA Newsroom. 
  13. ^ a b Wolpert, Stuart (November 6, 2003). "UCLA Chemist Fraser Stoddart Named Director of California NanoSystems Institute". UCLA Newsroom. 
  14. ^ a b "Ma'am to the Rescue". Stoddart Mechanostereochemistry Group. 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  15. ^ a b "Prof. Sir Fraser Stoddart". World Cultural Council. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  16. ^ J. F. Stoddart, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2009, 38, 1802-1820
  17. ^ K. S. Chichak, S. J. Cantrill, A. R. Pease, S.-H. Chiu, G. W. V. Cave, J. L. Atwood, J. F. Stoddart, Science, 2004, 304, 1308-1312
  18. ^ "UCLA's J. Fraser Stoddart on Switching to Molecular Electronics" (PDF). Science Watch 16 (5). 2005. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "Award Winners Davy Medal". The Royal Society. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  20. ^ a b Richards, Victoria (16 February 2016). "Molecular Machines". Chemistry World. 
  21. ^ Madou, Marc J. (2009). From MEMS to bio-MEMS and bio-NEMS : manufacturing techniques and applications. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC. pp. 131–133. ISBN 9781420055160. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  22. ^ Stoddart, J. F.; Tseng, H.-R. (12 March 2002). "Chemical synthesis gets a fillip from molecular recognition and self-assembly processes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (8): 4797–4800. doi:10.1073/pnas.052708999. PMC 122671. 
  23. ^ "Fraser Stoddart: Mingling Art with Science". Ste(a)m Connect. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  24. ^ Brough, B.; Northrop, B. H.; Schmidt, J. J.; Tseng, H.-R.; Houk, K. N.; Stoddart, J. F.; Ho, C.-M. (30 May 2006). "Evaluation of synthetic linear motor-molecule actuation energetics". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (23): 8583–8588. doi:10.1073/pnas.0509645103. PMC 1482623. 
  25. ^ "1040 Highly Cited Researchers (h>100) according to their Google Scholar Citations public profiles". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  26. ^ STODDART, James Fraser. "List of Publications" (PDF). Northwestern University. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  27. ^ "Leading Information Solutions Provider Predicts Nobel Laureates; Thomson ISI Citation Laureates are Contenders for 2003 Nobel Prizes". BusinessWire. September 29, 2003. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005 Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, Richard R. Schrock". The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  29. ^ "Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)". UCLA. May 1, 2014. 
  30. ^ Anyaso, Hilary Hurd (April 18, 2012). "Faculty Members Named AAAS Fellows". Northwestern News. 
  31. ^ "Who our members are". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  32. ^ "Directory 2016/2017" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  33. ^ "J.F. Stoddart". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  34. ^ "UCLA Members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science". UCLA. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  35. ^ "List of Members: Sir J. Fraser Stoddart". Leopoldina. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  36. ^ "James Stoddart Biography". The Royal Society. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  37. ^ "Centenary Prize 2014 Winner Professor Sir Fraser Stoddart Professor Sir Fraser Stoddart". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  38. ^ "Royal Medallists". The Royal Society Of Edinburgh. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  39. ^ Fellman, Megan (August 3, 2010). "Sir Fraser Stoddart Honored With Royal Medal". Northwestern University. 
  40. ^ "Arthur C. Cope Award". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  41. ^ "2007 Foresight Institute Feynman Prize". Foresight Institute. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  42. ^ "Tetrahedron Prize for Creativity". Elsevier. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  43. ^ "The Nagoya Medal of Organic Chemistry" (PDF). Nagoya University. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  44. ^ "Arthur C. Cope Scholar Awards". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  45. ^ "Izatt-Christensen Awards". Brigham Young University. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  46. ^ "First Ever Fraser and Norma Stoddart Prize". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 

External links[edit]