James Gray (zoologist)

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Sir James Gray
Born(1891-10-14)14 October 1891
Wood Green, London, England
Died14 December 1975(1975-12-14) (aged 84)
Alma materUniversity of Cambridge
Known for
Scientific career

Sir James Gray, CBE, MC, FRS[2] (14 October 1891, London – 14 December 1975, Cambridge, England) was a British zoologist who helped establish the field of cytology. Gray was also known for his work in animal locomotion and the development of experimental zoology. He is known for Gray's Paradox concerning dolphin locomotion.[3][4][5][6]

Career and research[edit]

Gray was born in London and graduated from King's College, Cambridge, in 1913. After serving in World War I, he returned to King's College in 1919. He was Professor of Zoology, Cambridge University, from 1937 to 1954, and president of the Marine Biological Association from 1945 to 1955.[7] Post-retirement, Gray become president of the Eugenics Society between 1962 and 1965 [8]

Awards and honours[edit]

Gray delivered the Croonian Lecture of 1939 to the Royal Society and received their Royal Medal in 1948. He gave the 1951 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures (How Animals Move). Gray was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1946 New Year Honours,[9] knighted in the 1954 New Year Honours[10] and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1931.[2]


  1. ^ Gray, James (1931). A Text-Book of Experimental Cytology. London: Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ a b c Lissmann, Hans Werner (1978). "James Gray. 14 October 1891-14 December 1975". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society publishing. 24: 54–70. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1978.0004. ISSN 0080-4606.
  3. ^ Bertram, John E A (July 2007). "How animals move: studies in the mechanics of the tetrapod skeleton". J. Exp. Biol. 210 (Pt 14): 2401–2402. doi:10.1242/jeb.000687. PMID 17601942.
  4. ^ Hardy, Alister (1976). "Obituary: Sir James Gray". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 56: 523–526. doi:10.1017/S0025315400020658.
  5. ^ Lauder, George V; Tytell, Eric D (April 2004). "Three Gray classics on the biomechanics of animal movement". J. Exp. Biol. 207 (Pt 10): 1597–1599. doi:10.1242/jeb.00921. PMID 15073191.
  6. ^ "Obituary: James Charles Gray". New Zealand Medical Journal. 83 (556): 56. January 1976. PMID 766780.
  7. ^ "Gray, Sir James (1891–1975)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31167. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ "Past Presidents of the Galton Institute". Galton Institute. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  9. ^ "No. 37407". The London Gazette. 28 December 1945. pp. 1–132.
  10. ^ "No. 40053". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1953. pp. 1–38.
Academic offices
Preceded by Fullerian Professor of Physiology
1944 – 1947
Succeeded by