James H. Bronson
|James H. Bronson|
Indiana County, Pennsylvania
|Died||March 16, 1884 (aged 45–46)|
|Place of burial||Chartiers Cemetery, Carnegie, Pennsylvania|
|Allegiance|| United States of America
|| United States Army
|Years of service||1863-1865|
|Unit||5th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War
*Battle of Chaffin's Farm
|Awards||Medal of Honor|
Bronson was born into slavery in Indiana County, Pennsylvania; it is unknown when he gained his freedom. [This is an erroneous statement. There is no indication from any county /federal documents or county historians that James H. Bronson was ever a slave. He was born and raised in Black Lick, Indiana Co., living on a farm. He went west to Ohio as many did in search of more opportunities.]Stewart, Sonja. Working Together:African American Migration and Settlement in Indiana County, Pennsylvania(thesis) In the 1860 census he was a resident of Weathersfield Township, (Trumbull County) OH and listed his occupation as that of a barber. His census record estimates his birth year as 1840. He enlisted in the Army from Trumbull County, Ohio, on August 3, 1863, at age 24 or 25. He joined as a private into Company D of the 5th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment.
By the Battle of Chaffin's Farm on September 29, 1864, he had risen to the rank of first sergeant. Bronson's regiment was among a division of black troops assigned to attack the center of the Confederate defenses at New Market Heights. The defenses consisted of two lines of abatis, the first made up of felled trees and the second of chevaux de frise, followed by one line of palisades manned by Brigadier General John Gregg's Texas Brigade. The attack was met with intense Confederate fire and stalled after reaching a line of abatis. Many of the regiment's officers had been killed or wounded in the charge, including the regimental commander and all of Company D's officers. Bronson took command of Company D, rallied the men, and led a renewed attack against the Confederate lines. They successfully broke through the abatis and palisades and captured the Confederate positions after hand-to-hand combat with the defenders. For his actions during the battle, Bronson was awarded the Medal of Honor seven months later, on April 6, 1865.
After the end of the war, the 5th Regiment was stationed in North Carolina, where Bronson's service was marred by disciplinary problems. He was imprisoned at Fort Totten on June 20, 1865 for unknown reasons. He was again in custody, this time for desertion, a day before he and the rest of the 5th Regiment were mustered out on September 20, 1865 in Carolina City.
Medal of Honor citation
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 5th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29, 1864. Entered service at: Delaware County, Ohio. Birth: Indiana County, Pa. Date of issue: April 6, 1865.
Took command of his company, all the officers having been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it.
- List of African American Medal of Honor recipients
- List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F
- Melvin Claxton and Mark Puls, Uncommon valor : a story of race, patriotism, and glory in the final battles of the Civil War, (Wiley, 2006) (ISBN 0471468231)
- Stephenson, Clarence. The Impact of Slavery on Indiana County. Indiana County Historical Society.pp. 1-10. 1964
- Stewart, Sonja. Unto Us a Child is Born: A Demographic Study of the African American Community in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, 1850-1880. (thesis)
- Bronson's citation incorrectly gives his place of enlistment as Delaware County, Ohio.
- Hanna, pp. 19-20
- "Civil War Medal of Honor recipients (A-L)". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. August 6, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
- "Civil War Medal of Honor recipients (A-L)". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. 2005-04-27. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
- Hanna, Charles W. (2002). African American recipients of the Medal of Honor: a biographical dictionary, Civil War through Vietnam War. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-7864-1355-7.