J. H. Thomas
James Henry Thomas
Thomas circa 1920
|Secretary of State for the Colonies|
22 January 1924 – 3 November 1924
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||The Duke of Devonshire|
|Succeeded by||Leo Amery|
25 August 1931 – 5 November 1931
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||The Lord Passfield|
|Succeeded by||Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister|
22 November 1935 – 22 May 1936
|Monarch||George V |
|Prime Minister||Stanley Baldwin|
|Preceded by||Malcolm MacDonald|
|Succeeded by||William Ormsby-Gore|
|Born||3 October 1874|
|Died||21 January 1949 (aged 74)|
|Political party||Labour |
James Henry Thomas (3 October 1874 – 21 January 1949), sometimes known as Jimmy Thomas, was a British trade unionist and Labour (later National Labour) politician. He was involved in a political scandal involving budget leaks.
Early career and trade union activities
Thomas was born in Newport, Monmouthshire, the son of a young unmarried mother. He was raised by his grandmother and began work at twelve years of age, soon starting a career as a railway worker. He became an official of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants and in 1913 helped to organise its merger with two smaller trade unions on the railways to form the National Union of Railwaymen (now part of the RMT). Thomas was elected NUR general secretary in 1916, a post he held until 1931.
Thomas was general secretary during the successful national rail strike of 1919 that was jointly called by the NUR and ASLEF against proposed wage reductions. In 1921 Thomas played a leading role in the Black Friday crisis, in which rail and transport unions failed to come to the aid of the mineworkers, who were facing wage reductions. Before the 1926 General Strike the TUC asked Thomas to negotiate with Stanley Baldwin's Conservative Government, but the talks were unsuccessful and the strike went ahead.
Thomas began his political career as a Labour Party local councillor for Swindon. He was elected to Parliament in 1910 as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Derby, replacing Richard Bell. He was appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies in the incoming Labour government of 1924 under Ramsay MacDonald. In the second Labour government of 1929 Thomas was made Lord Privy Seal with special responsibility for employment. He became Secretary of State for the Dominions in 1930 and retained that position in Ramsay MacDonald's National Government (1931–1935). As a result of joining the National Government he was expelled from the Labour Party and the NUR. For the first few months of the National Government in 1931 he also served as Colonial Secretary once more. One of the problems he had to cope with was the Australian cricket bodyline affair, which he said was one of the most difficult he faced.
Thomas served as Secretary of State for the Colonies once more from 1935 until May 1936, when he was forced to resign from politics. It was revealed that he had been entertained by stock exchange speculators and had dropped heavy hints as to tax changes planned in the budget. For example, while playing golf, he shouted "Tee up!", which was taken as a suggestion that the duties on tea were to rise.
Despite his humble origins he had a reputation for mixing well with all levels of society. Among the Labour ministers he was a favourite with George V It was from laughing at a bawdy joke Thomas told the king that the latter split a post-operative wound from lung abscess surgery, delaying his recovery to near the 1929 General Election. Winston Churchill is said to have been in tears during Thomas' resignation speech as Colonial Secretary; and King Edward VIII recalled Thomas saying, as he returned his seals of office to the king, 'Thank God your old Dad never got to hear of this'. Thomas was known as a natty dresser, and was caricatured by the cartoonist David Low as "Lord Dress Suit".
After leaving parliament, Thomas served as company chairman of the British Amalgamated Transport Ltd.
Thomas is mentioned in Have His Carcase, a 1932 detective novel by Dorothy L. Sayers. Thomas' custom of wearing a dress suit is cited as an apparent certainty that could fail unlike the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which appears to govern the case in a metaphorical way.
In the 1975 BBC television production of Sayers' 1931 novel Five Red Herrings, Thomas is mentioned in a snatch of background dialogue. A Scottish railway porter bursts out in an angry tirade: "You call this a Socialist Government? Things are harder than ever for a working man, and as for Jimmy Thomas, he has sold himself, lock, stock and barrel, to the capitalists!"
He is referred to in the comic song of 1932 by Norman Long, "On the Day that Chelsea went and won the Cup". In a dream setting out the outlandish and impossible things that might happen on such an unusual day, the line is used "and De Valera put a statue of Jim Thomas on his lawn, on the day that Chelsea went and won the cup".
He is mentioned in "No Mean City" by A. McArthur and H. Kingsley Long, "Now he insisted on reading extracts from a speech by J. H. Thomas, declaring, moreover, that the railwaymen had never had abler leader" (page 89).
- Williamson, Philip (2004). "Thomas, James Henry". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 54. Oxford University Press. pp. 342–3. ISBN 0-19-861404-7.
- Historic casket returns to Newport
- Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). "George V". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 21. Oxford University Press. p. 875. ISBN 0-19-861371-7.
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/edward_viii/12923.shtml (39 minutes in)
- Thorpe, Andrew (1990). "J. H. Thomas and the Rise of Labour in Derby, 1880–1945". Midland History. University of Birmingham. 15: 121. hdl:10036/17534.
- Blaxland, Gregory. J. H. Thomas: A Life for Unity (1964).
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Henry Thomas
- A short online biography of Jimmy Thomas.
- Newspaper clippings about J. H. Thomas in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)