|United States Ambassador to Luxembourg|
June 29, 1999 – 2001
|Preceded by||Clay Constantinou|
|Succeeded by||Gerald J. Loftus
Chargé d'affaires ad interim
|Born||James Catherwood Hormel
January 1, 1933
|Spouse(s)||Alice Turner (m. 1955, div)|
|Domestic partner||Michael P. Nguyen (2006–present)|
James Catherwood Hormel (born January 1, 1933) is an American philanthropist and a former United States Ambassador to Luxembourg; appointed by U.S. President Bill Clinton in 1999, Hormel was the first openly LGBT person to serve as a U.S. Ambassador and is a noted LGBT activist.
Hormel was born in Austin, Minnesota. He is the grandson of George A. Hormel, founder of Hormel Foods (producers of Spam and other processed meat products). He earned a B.A. in history (1955) from Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania and a law degree (1958) from the University of Chicago Law School where he later served as dean of students and director of admissions. In 1981 he was one of the founders of the Human Rights Campaign. He was a member of the 1995 United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the 1996 U.S. delegation to the United Nations General Assembly, and the boards of directors of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce and the American Foundation for AIDS Research. Hormel funded the creation of James C. Hormel Gay & Lesbian Center at the San Francisco Public Library in 1995. It is the gateway to collections documenting lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history and culture, with a special emphasis on the San Francisco Bay Area.
Hormel was appointed United States Ambassador to Luxembourg by President Bill Clinton in 1999. When he was appointed through a recess appointment, Hormel became the first openly gay man to represent the United States as an ambassador.
Hormel participated in numerous events, including a conference organized in 2004 by Amnesty International in the frame of the Geneva Gay Pride. In 2010 he was given the Lifetime Achievement Grand Marshal Award by San Francisco Pride Board of Directors for his LGBT activism over several decades.
In 1994, President Bill Clinton considered Hormel for the ambassadorship to Fiji, but did not put the nomination forward due to protests from Fiji officials. Gay male sexual acts were punishable with prison sentences in Fiji and Hormel's being open about his sexuality would stand in conflict with the culture. Instead Hormel was named as part of the United Nations delegation from the US to the Human Rights Commission in 1995, and in 1996 became an alternate for the United Nations General Assembly. In October 1997 Clinton nominated Hormel to be ambassador to Luxembourg, which had removed laws prohibiting consensual same-sex acts between adults in the 1800s. This appointment was the first nomination or appointment of an openly LGBT person from the US.
The Senate Foreign Relations Committee approved his nomination with only Republican and conservative Senators Jesse Helms and John Ashcroft opposed. Three other Republicans, James Inhofe, Tim Hutchinson, and Bob Smith, with the urging of religious and social conservatives campaigned vigorously against Hormel's nomination. Trent Lott, the Republican Majority Leader, worked to block the vote and publicly called homosexuality a sin and compared it to alcoholism and kleptomania. Christian-based conservative groups like the Traditional Values Coalition (TVC) and the Family Research Council (FRC) publicly accused Hormel of being pro-pornography and anti-Catholic and the Senators presented those charges to derail the nomination. They asserted that Hormel would be rejected in the largely Catholic Luxembourg. To support the pornography allegation, a list of materials in the Hormel collection at the San Francisco Public Library was compiled by the TVC; it was later pointed out that the same works were also in the Library of Congress. The anti-Catholic allegation stemmed from a 1996 San Francisco Pride parade television interview where he was seen laughing at the same time the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, a group that pokes fun at religious conventions, walked by. The Catholic League opposed his nomination because of his "embrace" of the Sisters which the League considers an anti-Catholic group. Although it was unclear why he was laughing, Christian right conservative group FRC distributed video tapes to the entire Senate of the brief event.
Concerns about Hormel's reception in Luxembourg were "blunted when officials of the country, which has laws against discrimination based on sexual orientation, indicated that he would be welcome." Senator Alfonse D'Amato of New York found the obstruction of the nomination an embarrassment and urged that Trent Lott bring the issue up for a vote. When Lott continued to stall, Clinton employed a recess appointment in May 1999. Hormel was sworn in as ambassador in June 1999. His partner at the time, Timothy Wu, held the Bible during the ceremony. Also in attendance were Hormel's former wife, his five children, and several of his grandchildren.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (5 June 1999). "Clinton Appoints Gay Man as Ambassador as Congress Is Away". The New York Times.
- "Grand Marshals". San Francisco Pride. 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Raymond A. Smith; Donald P. Haider-Markel (2002). Gay and lesbian Americans and political participation: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio. ISBN 1-57607-256-8.
- Byrne R. S. Fone (2001). Homophobia: A History. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-42030-7.
- Nadine Strossen (2000). Defending pornography: free speech, sex, and the fight for women's rights. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-8149-7.
- Congressional Record—Senate S979 1 February 2001.
- Curtis, Kim (June 6, 1999). "Gay Philanthropist's Appointment as Envoy Causes Controversy". Seattle Times. p. A15.
- Rapp, Linda (1 March 2004). "Hormel, James C. (b. 1931)". glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2009.
- Kupfer, Peter (June 20, 2001). "After a Diplomatic Silence, the Gay Ambassador Speaks; James Hormel Responds to His Vociferous Critics". The Washington Post. p. C1.
- Leahy, Patrick (29 January 2001). "Floor Statement on the Nomination of John Ashcroft to the Office of Attorney General". Senator Patrick Leahy. Archived from the original on 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- Nichols, Jack (22 June 1998). "Republican Demagogue: 'Ambassadors Shouldn't Be (Immoral) Gays!': Senator Don Nickles (R.-Okla) Steps Up Declared War on U.S. Gays: Franklin Kameny on Nickles: 'He's a Two Bit Little Public Servant!'". Gay Today. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- Rich, Frank (3 July 1999). "Journal; Summer of Matthew Shepard". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- "Human Events". The New York Times. 16 July 1999. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- Holland, Judy (1 July 1999). "Hormel's partner sees win for minorities; Mainstream America rejected anti-gay comments, Timothy Wu says". The San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- Stern, Keith (2006). Queers in History. Beverly Hills, California: Quistory Publishers. ISBN 1-84728-348-9.
- "Alfred Bloom, Mary Schmidt Campbell '69, and James C. Hormel '55 to Receive Honorary Degrees at Swarthmore's 137th Commencement". Swarthmore College. Archived from the original on 14 October 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
|United States Ambassador to Luxembourg
June 29, 1999–2001
Gerald J. Loftus
Chargé d'Affairs ad interim