James J. Corbett

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James J. Corbett
James corbett 1890.jpg
Statistics
Real nameJames John Corbett
Nickname(s)Gentleman Jim
Weight(s)Heavyweight
Height6 ft 1 in (1.85 m)
Reach73 in (185 cm)
NationalityAmerican
Born(1866-09-01)September 1, 1866
San Francisco, California, U.S.
DiedFebruary 18, 1933(1933-02-18) (aged 66)
Bayside, Queens, New York City, U.S.
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights35
Wins24
Wins by KO12
Losses4
Draws3
No contests2

James John "Jim" Corbett (September 1, 1866 – February 18, 1933) was an American professional boxer and a World Heavyweight Champion, best known as the only man who ever defeated the great John L. Sullivan (hence the "man who beat the man" concept of the championship boxing lineage.) Despite a career spanning only 20 bouts, Corbett faced the best competition his era had to offer, squaring off with a total of nine fighters who would later be enshrined alongside him in the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Corbett introduced a truly scientific approach to boxing, in which technique triumphed over brute force. He pioneered the daily boxing training routine and regimen, which was adopted by other boxers elsewhere and has survived to modern days almost intact. A "big-money fighter," Corbett was one of the first athletes whose showmanship in and out of the ring was just as good as his boxing abilities. He was also arguably the first sports sex symbol of the modern era after the worldwide airing of his championship prizefight against Robert Fitzsimmons popularized boxing immensely among the female audience.[1] He did so in an era in which prizefighting was illegal in 21 states and was still considered among the most infamous crimes against morality.[2]

He also pursued a career in acting, both before and after his boxing career.

Early life[edit]

He was a son of Patrick Corbett, who emigrated from Ballycusheen, Ballinrobe, County Mayo, Ireland in 1854. James Corbett graduated from Sacred Heart High School in San Francisco, California and was rumored to have a college education. He pursued a career in acting, performing at a variety of theatres, before becoming a boxer. He was also a boxing trainer. His brother, Joe Corbett, would become a Major League Baseball pitcher.

Boxing career[edit]

Dubbed Gentleman Jim Corbett by the media, He has been called the "Father of Modern Boxing" for his scientific approach and technical innovations.[3]

1891 Corbett vs Jackson

Corbett-Jackson fight-1891[edit]

On May 21, 1891, Corbett fought Peter "Black Prince" Jackson, a much-heralded bout between crosstown rivals, since they were both boxing instructors at San Francisco's two most prestigious athletic clubs. They fought to a no-contest after 61 rounds.[4][5]

The fight vaulted Corbett to national prominence and the public clamored for a contest between him and champion John L. Sullivan. Sullivan reluctantly agreed, and a fight date was set.

Corbett-Sullivan fight - 1892[edit]

Corbett went into rigorous training and was confident of his chances after he sparred with Sullivan in a short exhibition match on a San Francisco stage. On September 7, 1892, at the Olympic Club in New Orleans, Louisiana, Corbett won the World Heavyweight Championship by knocking out John L. Sullivan in the 21st round. Corbett's new scientific boxing technique enabled him to dodge Sullivan's rushing attacks and wear him down with jabs.[4]

Corbett did not prove to be a "Fighting Champion" in today's terms, meaning he defended the title very rarely. It was an era before boxing commissions, and regulation of the sport was minimal at best. Boxing was outlawed in most states, so arranging a time and place for a bout was largely a hit-and-miss proposition. Corbett treasured his title and viewed it as the ultimate promotional tool for his two main sources of income, theatrical performances and boxing exhibitions.

The 1894 boxing match vs Peter Courtney

In his only successful title defense on January 25, 1894, Corbett knocked out Charley Mitchell of Great Britain in three rounds.

James Corbett also returned to his father's native Ballinrobe in 1894, and among the highlights of his visit were the boxing demonstrations he gave in Ballinrobe Town Hall. The proceeds from the event's entrance fees were donated for the upkeep of the parish church in Ballyovey (now Partry), County Mayo, where his uncle, Rev. James Corbett, was then parish priest. He also donated a stained glass window to the church.[6] He coached boxing at the Olympic Club in San Francisco.[4]

On September 7, 1894, he took part in the production of one of the first recorded boxing events, a fight with Peter Courtney. It was filmed at the Black Maria studio at West Orange, New Jersey, and was produced by William K.L. Dickson. It was only the second boxing match to be recorded.[7]

The 1897 boxing match vs Fitzsimmons

Fitzsimmons-Corbett fight - 1897[edit]

in 1897 Corbett lost his Heavyweight Championship to the Cornish British boxer Bob "Ruby Robert" Fitzsimmons in Carson City, Nevada. Corbett was dominant for most of the fight and knocked Fitzsimmons to the canvas in the sixth round. Fitzsimmons recovered and, though badly cut, rallied from that point on. When Mrs. Fitzsimmons called out, "Hit him in the slats, Bob!", where "slats" meant the abdominal area, her husband followed her advice. The body blows took their toll, and though Corbett continued to outbox his opponent masterfully, ringsiders could see the champion slowing down. Fitzsimmons put Corbett down in the 14th round with a withering body blow to the solar plexus, and Corbett, despite his best efforts, could not regain his feet by the end of the ten-count.[8] The fight, lasting over an hour and a half, was released to cinemas later that year as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight, the longest film ever released at the time.

Devastated by the loss of his title, Corbett did everything he could to lure Fitzsimmons back into the ring. He was sure Fitzsimmons's victory was a fluke, believing he (Corbett) had over-trained, leaving him short on stamina in the later rounds. Perhaps Fitzsimmons felt the same way, for not even a $30,000 guaranteed purse posted by Corbett's manager, William A. Brady, could get Ruby Robert back into the ring with Gentleman Jim. It may also have been Fitzsimmon's intense personal dislike of Corbett, who had often publicly insulted him, which ruled out any chance of another fight.[9]

Corbett training for his fight with Jeffries

This set the stage for what most boxing experts and ring historians consider to be Corbett's finest fight. Refusing to face Corbett, Ruby Robert chose the hulking James J. Jeffries, a former sparring partner of Corbett's and a big heavyweight even by modern standards, for his title defense.[9]

Cover art of 1892 book Our Jim the World's Champion

Corbett-Jeffries fight - 1900[edit]

Jeffries had learned much of his trade training with Corbett and was now handled by Corbett's old manager, William Brady. After Jeffries beat Fitzsimmons, Corbett, who had been sidelined during Fitzsimmons reign, suggested a title fight between the new champion and himself. Brady, liking Corbett and reflecting after a recent poor showing against Tom Sharkey that his old fighter had little left in the tank at age 34, agreed to the match,[10] which was set for the Seaside Arena in Coney Island, New York.

While Jeffries went through the motions in training, Corbett prepared like a Spartan for battle. He knew, with his speed, he could out-box his larger and stronger opponent, but he was giving up size, strength, almost 30 lb. in weight and a seven-year age difference. The key, he felt, was stamina and the ability to last the 25-round fight limit.

The early rounds saw Corbett moving quickly while "Big Jeff" attempted body shots. However, Jeffries could not lay a glove on the "Dancing Master". Round after round, Corbett had his way, darting in to land punches, then dancing away to avoid retaliation. By the 20th round, Jeffries' corner was in a panic. Manager Brady dismissed trainer Tommy Ryan from the corner and took charge himself with the simple but direct order, "Knock him out or lose your title!" Corbett only had to stay upright for the last five rounds to be heavyweight champion once again. Jeffries stalked Corbett around the ring, looking for an opening. Corbett danced away from any threat through the 22nd round.[3]

Midway through the 23rd round, Corbett leaned back to avoid a blow from Jeffries, bounced off the ropes and was put on the canvas by a short right hand. He was counted out.[3] Corbett found himself embraced by the public after this gallant effort. The adoration was short-lived, as his next fight, a five-round knockout over Kid McCoy, was widely believed to be a fix.[3]

Later career and life after boxing[edit]

Corbett managed to contest for the heavyweight title one last time when he met Jeffries for a second match in San Francisco in 1903. Now 37, and with his reflexes slowing, Corbett survived a withering body blow in the second round and used every trick he knew to hang on until he was knocked out in the tenth.[11]

James J. Corbett applying acting makeup.

Following his retirement from boxing, Corbett returned to acting, appearing in low-budget films and giving talks about pugilism. He also performed a minstrel show in skits with Cornelius J. O'Brien.[12]

Corbett was married to Mary Olive Morris Higgins from 1886 until their divorce in 1895. He later married the actress Jessie Taylor, also known by her stage name, Vera. She survived Corbett by more than a quarter century. From 1903 until his death, Corbett lived at 221-04 Corbett Road[13] in a three-story home in the Bayside neighborhood of the borough of Queens in New York City.[14]

In 1924, he had a friendly sparring match with the future champion Gene Tunney, an admirer of Corbett's scientific style. Tunney was amazed at the ability of Corbett to spar, even at the age of about 60, and claimed that Corbett had better defense than Benny Leonard.[15]

Death and legacy[edit]

Corbett died of liver cancer on February 18, 1933, aged 66.[16] His body was interred in the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York. On its creation in 1990, he was elected posthumously to the International Boxing Hall of Fame.

Corbett's great-great-great-nephew, Dan Corbett, was a professional heavyweight boxer from San Antonio, Texas, who won the United States Boxing Federation and International Boxing Organization Intercontinental Heavyweight titles before retiring.

James J. Corbett is not related to fellow boxing Hall of Famer Young Corbett II.

Cultural references[edit]

In 1892, the Spalding company, under their own publishing company Spalding Athletic Library, issued “Life and Battles of James J. Corbett”, Volume 1, Number 1. The book includes stories of Corbett's past opponents. The editor Richard K Fox refers to Corbett as the California Wonder and a professor (of boxing).[17]

In 1894, Corbett authored his autobiography under the title The Roar of the Crowd; the story was serialized by The Saturday Evening Post in six weekly installments during October/November 1894. The following year, G.P. Putnam's Sons published it in book form, marketing it as the "True Tale of the Rise and Fall of a Champion." In 1942, the story was made into a Hollywood motion picture titled Gentleman Jim, starring Errol Flynn as Corbett.

In 1966, the actor James Davidson played Corbett in the episode "The Fight San Francisco Never Forgot" of the syndicated western television series Death Valley Days, hosted by Ronald W. Reagan. In the story line, Walter Watson (John McLiam) becomes boxing instructor at the Olympic Club in San Francisco. In this capacity, he fights off a local bully and begins training Corbett to face him in a match vital to the future of Watson and the club.[18]

Corbett is mentioned in a Season 2 episode of The Simpsons, "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment", when Mr. Burns remembers paying a nickel to attend a fight between Corbett and "an Eskimo fellow."

Gentleman Jim Corbett is shown as a character in the 1980 western movie Tom Horn starring Steve McQueen in which Tom Horn offends Jim Corbett who then gives Tom Horn a beating.

Professional boxing record[edit]

36 fights 24 wins 4 losses
By knockout 12 3
By decision 11 0
By disqualification 1 1
Draws 5
No contests 3
No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes
35 Loss 23–4–5 (3) James J. Jeffries TKO 10 (20) 14 Aug 1903 Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S. For world heavyweight title
34 Win 23–3–5 (3) Kid McCoy KO 5 (25) 30 Aug 1900 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
33 Loss 22–3–5 (3) James J. Jeffries KO 23 (25), 2:11 11 May 1900 Seaside Athletic Club, Coney Island, New York, U.S. For world heavyweight title
32 Loss 22–2–5 (3) Tom Sharkey DQ 9 (20) 22 Nov 1898 Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
31 Loss 22–1–5 (3) Bob Fitzsimmons KO 14 17 Mar 1897 The Race Track Arena, Carson City, Nevada, U.S. Lost world heavyweight title
30 Draw 22–0–5 (3) Tom Sharkey PTS 4 24 Jun 1896 Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
29 Win 22–0–4 (3) Charley Mitchell KO 3 25 Jan 1894 Duvall Athletic Club, Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. Retained world heavyweight title
28 Win 21–0–4 (3) John L. Sullivan KO 21, 1:30 7 Sep 1892 Olympic Club, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. Won world heavyweight title
27 Win 20–0–4 (3) John McCann TKO 1 6 Apr 1892 Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.
26 NC 19–0–4 (3) Joe Lannon PTS 4 16 Feb 1892 New York City, New York, U.S.
25 Win 19–0–4 (2) Ed Kinney PTS 4 8 Oct 1891 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
24 NC 18–0–4 (2) Peter Jackson NC 61 21 May 1891 California Athletic Club, San Francisco, California, U.S.
23 Win 18–0–4 (1) Dominick McCaffrey TKO 4 (4) 14 Apr 1890 Fifth Avenue Casino, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
22 Win 17–0–4 (1) Jake Kilrain PTS 6 18 Feb 1890 Southern Athletic Club, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
21 Draw 16–0–4 (1) Dave Campbell PTS 10 28 Dec 1889 Mechanic's Pavilion, San Francisco, California, U.S.
20 Win 16–0–3 (1) Australian Billy Smith PTS 6 12 Dec 1889 Portland, Oregon, U.S.
19 Win 15–0–3 (1) Australian Billy Smith PTS 6 11 Dec 1889 Portland, Oregon, U.S.
18 Win 14–0–3 (1) George Atkinson KO 1 Jul 1889 San Francisco, California, U.S.
17 Win 13–0–3 (1) Joe Choynski PTS 4 15 Jul 1889 San Francisco, California, U.S.
16 Win 12–0–3 (1) Joe Choynski KO 27 5 Jun 1889 Benicia Harbor, Benicia, California, U.S.
15 NC 11–0–3 (1) Joe Choynski NC 4 30 May 1889 Fairfax, California, U.S.
14 Win 11–0–3 William Miller PTS 6 Nov 1888 San Francisco, California, U.S.
13 Draw 10–0–3 Frank Glover PTS 3 30 Jun 1888 San Francisco, California, U.S.
12 Win 10–0–2 Bill Hayes KO 3 1887 San Francisco, California, U.S.
11 Draw 9–0–2 Jack Burke PTS 3 27 Aug 1887 San Francisco, California, U.S.
10 Win 9–0–1 Martin Costello PTS 3 2 Feb 1887 San Francisco, California, U.S.
9 Win 8–0–1 James C. Dailey TKO 2 2 Feb 1887 San Francisco, California, U.S.
8 Win 7–0–1 Duncan McDonald PTS 6 Dec 1886 Evanston, Wyoming, U.S.
7 Draw 6–0–1 Duncan McDonald PTS 6 3 Jul 1886 Opera House, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.
6 Win 6–0 Frank Smith DQ 3 3 Jul 1886 Pavilion, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.
5 Win 5–0 William T. Welch KO 1 3 Dec 1885 Oakland, California, U.S.
4 Win 4–0 Dave Eisemann TKO 2 28 Aug 1885 Olympic Club, San Francisco, California, U.S.
3 Win 3–0 Professor John Donaldson PTS 4 1885 San Francisco, California, U.S.
2 Win 2–0 Billy Keneally PTS 4 1884 San Francisco, California, U.S.
1 Win 1–0 Joe Choynski KO 1 1884 San Francisco, California, U.S.

Films[edit]

Advertising for The Midnight Man (1919).

Thomas Edison wrote "I remember Jim Corbett very well, for he was a very important part of the first motion picture that we made for public exhibition. Yes, he can justly claim the distinction of being the oldest living film star, and I extend him my hearty congratulations," from a letter in 1930.[19]

  • Corbett and Courtney Before the Kinetograph (1894, Short)[20]
  • Actor's Fund Field Day (1910, Short) – Himself
  • How Championships Are Won—And Lost (1910, Documentary short) – Himself
  • The Man from the Golden West (1913) – Gentleman Jim
  • The Burglar and the Lady (1914, based on the play of the same name that he also appeared in) – Danvers / Raffles
  • The Other Girl (1916) – Frank Sheldon, 'Kid Garvey'
  • The Midnight Man (1919) – Bob Gilmore aka Jim Stevens aka The Midnight Man
  • The Prince of Avenue A (1920) – Barry O'Connor
  • The Beauty Shop (1922) – Panatella
  • Broadway After Dark (1924) – Himself, Cameo Appearance
  • James J. Corbett and Neil O'Brien (1929, Short) – Himself – Prizefighter
  • Happy Days (1929) – Interlocutor – Minstrel Show #1 (final film role)
  • At the Round Table (1930, Short) – Himself

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Female Spectators and the Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight Film by Dan Streible in the Out of Bounds: Sports, Media, and the Politics of Identity, edited by Aaron Baker, Todd Boyd, 1997, pp. 16–47.
  2. ^ Counterpunch: The Cultural Battles over Heavyweight Prizefighting in the American West by Meg Frisbee, 2016, p. 113.
  3. ^ a b c d Sauer, Patrick (January 15, 2016). "The Boilermaker vs. the Gentleman: A look Back at The Last Heavyweight Title Fight In Brooklyn". VICE Sports. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "On This Day: Boxing pioneer James J. Corbett passes away aged 66". Boxing News. February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  5. ^ Crose, Sean (January 30, 2017). "Sixty One Rounds Of Combat: Jackson Versus Corbett". BoxingInsider.com. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  6. ^ "County Mayo". Mayo.ie. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  7. ^ "Rare and Old Boxing Film Database". Retrieved March 17, 2007.
  8. ^ Kent, Graeme (2015). Boxing's Strangest Fights: Incredible But True Encounters from Over 250 Years of Boxing History. Pavilion Books. ISBN 978-1-86105-325-1.
  9. ^ a b Dunn, Mike (July 13, 2005). "Corbett Nearly Reclaimed The Crown". East Side Boxing. Retrieved July 13, 2005.
  10. ^ Donelson, Tom; Lotierzo, Frank (2004). More Tales From Ringside. iUniverse. p. 30. ISBN 0-595-30588-1.
  11. ^ "Jeffries Was No Gentleman". The New York Times. August 14, 1903. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  12. ^ "Neil O'Brien Dies at 85. Retired Minstrel Once With Primrose and Dockstader". The New York Times. January 14, 1954. Retrieved February 2, 2015. Mr. O'Brien then joined James J. Corbett, the boxing champion, in presenting a comedy vaudeville act. ...
  13. ^ Nagler, Barney (September 1, 1985). "Gentleman in the House on Corbett Road". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
  14. ^ Rather, John. "A High Quality of Life Within the City", The New York Times, August 4, 1996. Accessed October 21, 2007. "James J. (Gentleman Jim) Corbett, the heavyweight boxing champion from 1892 to 1897, lived from 1902 to 1933 in a large three-story home on a street that bears his name."
  15. ^ Charles Heinz, Wilfred (1961). The Fireside Book of Boxing. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 332. ISBN 0671257706.
  16. ^ "Bayside's 'Gentleman Jim' Corbett | I Have Often Walked | qchron.com".
  17. ^ Open Library. [1] Retrieved Nov 22, 2020
  18. ^ "The Fight San Francisco Never Forgot on Death Valley Days". Internet Movie Database. March 17, 1966. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  19. ^ Corbett, James J.; Weir, Hugh (December 1930). "The First Film Star Tells His Own Story". The New Movie. Jamaica, New York: Tower Magazines, Inc. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
  20. ^ "JAMES J. CORBETT: Film / Movie Information". Citwf.com. Retrieved March 8, 2017.

External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by World Heavyweight Champion
September 7, 1892 – March 17, 1897
Succeeded by