James L. Buckley
|Senior Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|
|Assumed office |
August 31, 1996
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|
December 17, 1985 – August 31, 1996
|Appointed by||Ronald Reagan|
|Preceded by||Edward Tamm|
|Succeeded by||John Roberts|
|Counselor of the Department of State|
September 9, 1982 – September 26, 1982
|Preceded by||Bud McFarlane|
|Succeeded by||Ed Derwinski|
|Undersecretary of State for International Security Affairs|
February 28, 1981 – August 20, 1982
|Preceded by||Matthew Nimetz|
|Succeeded by||William Schneider|
|United States Senator|
from New York
January 3, 1971 – January 3, 1977
|Preceded by||Charles Goodell|
|Succeeded by||Daniel Patrick Moynihan|
James Lane Buckley
March 9, 1923
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Political party||Conservative (Before 1976)|
Ann Frances Cooley
(m. 1953; died 2011)
|Education||Yale University (BA, LLB)|
|Branch/service||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1942–1946|
|Rank||Lieutenant (Junior Grade)|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
James Lane Buckley (born March 9, 1923) is an American jurist, politician, civil servant, attorney, businessman, and author.
In 1970, Buckley was elected to the U.S. Senate as the nominee of the Conservative Party of New York; he won 39 percent of the vote in a six-candidate race and served from 1971 until 1977. To date, he is the only candidate of his party—and the last third party registrant—to be nominated and elected to the U.S. Congress. Buckley was the lead petitioner in a landmark Supreme Court case, Buckley v. Valeo (1976).
During the first Reagan administration, Buckley served as Undersecretary of State for International Security Affairs. He was also President of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty from 1982 to 1985.
Buckley was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on October 16, 1985. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1985 and received commission on December 17, 1985. Buckley assumed senior status on August 31, 1996.
Early life, education, and early career
Buckley was born in New York City. He is the son of Aloise Josephine Antonia (née Steiner) and lawyer and businessman William Frank Buckley, Sr. He is the older brother of the late conservative writer William F. Buckley, Jr. and the uncle of Christopher Taylor Buckley. He is also the uncle of Brent Bozell III and political consultant William F. B. O'Reilly. His mother, from New Orleans, was of Swiss-German, German, and Irish descent, while his paternal grandparents, from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, were of Irish ancestry. Graduating from Yale University in 1943 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, where he was a member of Skull and Bones, Buckley enlisted in the United States Navy in 1942 and was discharged with the rank of lieutenant in 1946. After receiving his Bachelor of Laws from Yale Law School in 1949, he was admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1950 and practiced law until 1953, when he joined Catawba as vice president and director.
In 1968, Buckley challenged liberal Republican U.S. Senator Jacob K. Javits for re-election. Buckley ran on the Conservative Party line. Javits won easily, but Buckley received a large number of votes from disaffected conservative Republicans. The New York Times called Buckley's 1968 senatorial campaign "lonely and unsuccessful."
In 1970, Buckley ran for U.S. Senate on the Conservative Party line once again. This time, he faced Republican incumbent Charles Goodell and Democratic nominee Richard Ottinger. Goodell, who had been appointed to the Senate by Governor Nelson Rockefeller following the assassination of Senator Robert F. Kennedy, had moved left, especially as an opponent of the Vietnam War. Buckley's campaign slogan, plastered on billboards statewide, was: "Isn't it time we had a Senator?" With Goodell and Ottinger splitting the liberal vote, Buckley received 39% of the vote, won the election, and entered the U.S. Senate in January 1971. According to scholar Gerald Russello, Buckley "performed well in New York City itself, at a time when the city still had a beating conservative heart in the middle-class neighborhoods of the outer boroughs."
In his 1976 re-election bid, with Rockefeller's liberal faction falling apart, Buckley received the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate along with the Conservative Party nomination. He was initially favored for re-election because the frontrunner in the crowded Democratic field was Manhattan Congresswoman Bella Abzug, a liberal feminist reviled by the right. But when Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, made a late entrance into the Democratic primary and narrowly defeated Abzug, Buckley could no longer count on getting the votes of moderate Democrats. Moynihan went on to defeat Buckley 54% to 45%.
After his loss, Buckley moved to Connecticut, and in 1980 received the Republican nomination for the Senate seat being vacated by the retirement of Abraham Ribicoff. He lost the general election to Christopher Dodd, who would go on to hold the seat until his retirement in 2011.
U.S. Senate tenure
In 1974, Buckley proposed a Human Life Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. If passed, the Amendment would have defined the term "person" in the Fourteenth Amendment to include the embryo. His enacted legislation includes the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) that governs use of student records and the Protection of Pupils' Rights Act (PPRA) that requires parent notification, right to review, and consent for administration of student surveys to minors if the survey collects information on any of eight specified topics.
In the spring of 1974, with the Watergate scandal continuing to grow in magnitude and seriousness, Buckley surprised and, in some cases, angered some of his allies among Republicans when he called upon the increasingly-embattled Richard M. Nixon to voluntarily resign the presidency. Buckley said that in doing so, he was making no judgment as to Nixon's technical legal guilt or innocence of the accusations made against him and in fact denounced those "in and out of the media who have been exploiting the Watergate affair so recklessly" in what he called an effort "to subvert the decisive mandate of the 1972 election." However, he said that the burgeoning scandal might result in an impeachment process that would tear the country even further apart and so he declared: "There is one way and one way only by which the crisis can be resolved, and the country pulled out of the Watergate swamp. I propose an extraordinary act of statesmanship and courage—an act at once noble and heartbreaking; at once serving the greater interests of the nation, the institution of the Presidency, and the stated goals for which he so successfully campaigned"—Nixon's resignation. Buckley was the first major conservative figure to call for such a resignation. Nixon did not resign at that time but eventually did lose the support of key Republican figures, including Senator Barry Goldwater. Nixon ultimately resigned on Aug. 9, 1974.
1976 Republican National Convention
During the 1976 Republican National Convention, then-Senator Jesse Helms encouraged a "Draft Buckley" movement in an effort to stop the nomination of Ronald Reagan for President. (Reagan had announced that Pennsylvania Senator Richard Schweiker would be his running mate; Helms objected to this decision, believing Schweiker to be too liberal.) The "Draft Buckley" movement was rendered moot when President Gerald Ford narrowly won the party's nomination on the first ballot.
On October 16, 1985, Buckley was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The seat had previously been held by Judge Edward Allen Tamm. Buckley was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1985 and received commission on December 17, 1985. He assumed senior status on August 31, 1996. He is currently in inactive senior status and does not maintain chambers or perform judicial duties.
Buckley is the author of four books. Freedom at Risk: Reflections on Politics, Liberty, and the State, was released in December 2010. Buckley discussed Freedom at Risk on C-SPAN on January 12, 2011. His latest book "Saving Congress from Itself" (released December 2014) was sent to every member of the US Senate (114th Congress) by Dallas businessman and Buckley family devotee Chris M. Lantrip.
- William Carney was registered as a Conservative, but won the Republican primary in New York's 1st congressional district in 1978. Robert Spitzer (1994), "Third Parties in New York State", in Jeffrey M. Stonecash, John Kenneth White, and Peter W. Colby, edd., Governing New York State, Third Edition, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
- While elected in 2006 on the "Connecticut for Lieberman" line, Joe Lieberman's voter registration was and is Democratic. Vermont independent Bernie Sanders is not registered as a member of any political party. Neither Vermont Independent Jim Jeffords nor the Independence Party of Minnesota's Dean Barkley was ever elected as an Independent, though after leaving office, Barkley ran as the Independence Party's candidate in the 2008 Senate election.
- "Ancestry of William F. Buckley". www.wargs.com.
- "The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Being the History of the United States as Illustrated in the Lives of the Founders, Builders, and Defenders of the Republic, and of the Men and Women who are Doing the Work and Moulding the Thought of the Present Time". University Microfilms. January 1, 1967 – via Google Books.
- Alexandra Robbins, Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power, Little, Brown and Company, 2002, page 168, 174
- "People in the News", Associated Press, May 27, 1983
- Bob Dart, "Skull and bones a secret shared by Bush, Kerry", The Gazette, March 7, 2004
- "Buckley, James Lane - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov.
- "Isn't It Time We Had a Senator". New York. p. 47.
- Carroll, Maurice (3 November 1976). "Moynihan Defeats Buckley For New York Senate Seat". New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Russello, Gerald. Mr. Buckley Goes to Washington, The American Conservative
- "Why Richard Nixon Should Resign the Presidency".
- Goldberg, Robert Alan (1995), Barry Goldwater, the standard scholarly biography, page 282
- World Almanac and Book of Facts 1977
- "Vanderbilt Television News Archive". Tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. 1976-08-11. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
- C-SPAN program on Freedom at Risk
- Buckley, James Lane (1975). If Men Were Angels: A View From the Senate. New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-11589-7.
- Buckley, James Lane (2006). Gleanings from an Unplanned Life: An Annotated Oral History. Wilmington: Intercollegiate Studies institute. ISBN 978-1-933859-11-8.
- Buckley, James Lane (2010). Freedom at Risk: Reflections on Politics, Liberty, and the State. New York: Encounter Books. ISBN 1-59403-478-8.
- Buckley, James Lane (2014). Saving Congress from Itself: Emancipating the States and Empowering Their People. New York: Encounter Books.
- United States Congress. "James L. Buckley (id: B001026)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- James Lane Buckley at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- Official website of James L. Buckley [incorrect link]
- Appearances on C-SPAN
| United States Senator (Class 1) from New York
Served alongside: Jacob K. Javits
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
|Party political offices|
| Conservative nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
Florence M. Sullivan
| Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from New York|
| Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Connecticut
| Undersecretary of State for International Security Affairs
William Schneider, Jr.
| Counselor of the Department of State
Edward Allen Tamm
| Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit