James Lawson (activist)
James Lawson speaking at a community meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, in 2005
|Born||James Morris Lawson, Jr.|
September 22, 1928
|Known for||Mahatma Gandhi, Civil Rights leader, political and social activist|
James Morris Lawson, Jr. (born September 22, 1928) is an American activist and university professor. He was a leading theoretician and tactician of nonviolence within the Civil Rights Movement. During the 1960s, he served as a mentor to the Nashville Student Movement and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. He was expelled from Vanderbilt University for his Civil Rights activism in 1960, and later served as a pastor in Los Angeles, California, for 25 years.
Early life and education
Lawson was born to Philane May Cover and James Morris Lawson, Sr., on September 22, 1928, in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. He was the sixth out of nine children. He grew up in Massillon, Ohio. Both Lawson's father and grandfather were Methodist ministers. Lawson received his ministry license in 1947 during his senior year of high school.
While a freshman at Baldwin Wallace College in Berea, Ohio, he studied sociology. Because of his refusal to serve in the US military when drafted, he was convicted of draft evasion and sentenced to two years in prison. He served 13 months of his sentence and returned to college, finishing his degree. He joined the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), an organization led by A. J. Muste, and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), an organization affiliated with FOR. Both FOR and CORE advocated nonviolent resistance to racism.
He went as a Methodist missionary to Nagpur, India, where he studied satyagraha, a form of nonviolence resistance developed by Mohandas Gandhi and his followers. He returned to the United States in 1955, entering the Graduate School of Theology at Oberlin College in Ohio. One of his Oberlin professors introduced him to Martin Luther King, Jr., who had also embraced Gandhi's principles of nonviolent resistance. In 1957, King urged Lawson to move to the south telling him, "Come now. We don't have anyone like you down there." He moved to Nashville, where he attended Vanderbilt University and began teaching nonviolent protest techniques.
Lawson studied at Oberlin College from 1956 to 1957 and after being there for a year, he married Dorothy Wood and had three sons, John, Morris and Seth. He attended Vanderbilt from 1958 to 1960. Lawson was expelled from Vanderbilt in March 1960 for civil rights arrests, but received his S.T.B from Boston University that same year. Lawson received a post as pastor of the Scott Church in Shelbyville, Tennessee.
Leadership during the Civil Rights Movement
Lawson moved to Nashville, Tennessee, and enrolled at the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University, where he served as the southern director for CORE and began conducting nonviolence training workshops for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in his church basement in 1958. While in Nashville, he met and mentored a number of young students at Vanderbilt, Fisk University, and other area schools in the tactics of nonviolent direct action. In Nashville, he trained many of the future leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, among them Diane Nash, James Bevel, Bernard Lafayette, Marion Barry, and John Lewis. In 1959 and 1960, they and other Lawson-trained activists launched the Nashville sit-ins to challenge segregation in downtown stores. In February 1960, following the lunch sit-ins by students at the Woolworth's stores in Greensboro, North Carolina, Lawson and several others were arrested. Their actions led to desegregation of some lunch counters.
Lawson was expelled from Vanderbilt due to his participation in these activities. James Geddes Stahlman, the publisher of the Nashville Banner who served on the university's board of trust, published misleading stories that led to his expulsion. Another trustee, John Sloan, the president of Cain-Sloan, supported Stahlman's suggestion to expel him. Chancellor Harvie Branscomb enforced the decision, and remained unapologetic as late as 1980. During the 2006 graduation ceremony, Vanderbilt apologized for its treatment of Lawson. Lawson taught at Vanderbilt from 2006 to 2009, and donated his papers in 2013.
Lawson's students played a leading role in the Open Theater Movement, the Freedom Rides, the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade, the 1965 Selma Voting Rights Movement, the 1966 Chicago Open Housing Movement, and the Anti-Vietnam War Movement over the next few years. In 1962, Lawson brought King and Bevel together for a meeting that resulted in the two agreeing to work together as equals. Bevel was then named SCLC's Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education.
In 1961, Lawson helped develop strategy for Freedom Riders. Lawson encouraged the students to plan a second wave of Freedom Riders from Alabama to continue the work and Lawson joined the group. They arrived in Jackson safe, but when they filed into a "whites only" waiting room they were arrested. The NAACP offered to pay for bail, but Lawson and others refused bail and waited for trial. The judge found all 27 guilty and they remained in jail. Lawson and the Freedom Riders met with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and, in September 1961, President John F. Kennedy ordered that passengers be able to sit anywhere.
Lawson became pastor of Centenary Methodist Church in Memphis, Tennessee in 1962. In 1968, when black sanitation workers began the Memphis Sanitation Strike for higher wages and union recognition after two of their co-workers were accidentally crushed to death, Reverend Lawson served as chairman of their strike committee. He co-founded the Committee on the Move to Equality (COME). Lawson extended an invitation to Dr. King to speak in Memphis. King delivered his famous "Mountaintop" speech, and was killed in Memphis in April 1968.
Lawson moved to Los Angeles in 1974, where he was pastor of Holman United Church. He retired in 1999, but continued his civil rights work. While in Los Angeles, he was active in the labor movement, the American Civil Liberties Union, and movements for reproductive choice and gay rights. He served as chairman of the Laity United for Economic Justice. During this time, Lawson hosted Lawson Live, a weekly call-in radio show, where he discussed human- and social-rights issues. He has continued to train activists in nonviolence and supports immigrants' rights in the United States, the rights of Palestinians, and workers' rights to a living wage. In 2004, he received the Community of Christ International Peace Award.
Lawson took part in a well-publicized three-day Freedom Ride commemorative program sponsored by Vanderbilt University's Office of Active Citizenship and Service in January 2007. The program included an educational bus tour to Montgomery and Birmingham, Alabama. Participants also included fellow Civil Rights activists Jim Zwerg, Diane Nash, Bernard Lafayette, C. T. Vivian and John Seigenthaler; journalists and approximately 180 students, faculty and administrators from Vanderbilt, Fisk, Tennessee State University and American Baptist College.
He spearheaded California State University Northridge's (CSUN) Civil Discourse and Social Change initiative as a visiting faculty for the academic year of 2010/11. The initiative built on CSUN's history of activism and diversity, while focusing on the current budget and policy battles surrounding education. Lawson helped bring perspective, knowledge, and strategic thinking to the campus.
The International Center on Nonviolent Conflict held an eight-day program on civil resistance facilitated by Lawson in Nashville in 2013 and 2014. A class taught by Lawson, Kent Wong, Kelly Lytle Hernandez, and Ana Luz Gonzalez inspired UCLA students to publish Nonviolence and Social Movements, a book that focuses on the principles of nonviolence and social change that Lawson teaches.
Lawson was portrayed in the 2013 motion picture The Butler by actor Jesse Williams. The film chronicles Lawson's training sessions during the civil rights protests of the 1950s and 1960s. Lawson was the subject of the film Love and Solidarity: Rev. James Lawson and Nonviolence in the Search for Workers Rights by Michael K. Honey. The film is an introduction to Lawson's contributions to labor rights struggles and the civil rights movement.
- "Freedom Riders: James Lawson". PBS. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Hughes, Richard A. (2009). Pro-justice Ethics: From Lament to Nonviolence. New York: Peter Lang. p. 226. ISBN 143310525X.
- Catsam, Derek Charles (2009). Freedom's Main Line: The Journey of Reconciliation and the Freedom Rides. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813125111.
- "James M. Larson, Jr." in Notable Black American Men Book II, Thomson Gale, Reproduced in Biography Resource Center (Fee). Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale. 2008 . K1622000673. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Dreier, Peter. "A Totally Moral Man: The Life of Nonviolent Organizer Rev. James Lawson". Thrthout. Retrieved 22 Feb 2018.
- "This Far by Faith . James Lawson | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
- Dowdy, Gerald Wayne. "James Lawson". Encyclopedia of African American History. 3: 856–858. Retrieved 27 Feb 2018.
- Houck, Davis W.; Dixon, David E. (2006). Rhetoric, religion and the civil rights movement, 1954-1965. Baylor University Press. pp. 356–363.
- "Martin Luther King Jr., and the Global Freedom Struggle". James Lawson. Stanford University. Retrieved 22 Feb 2018.
- Dowdy, Gerald Wayne. "James Lawson". Encyclopedia of African American History. 3: 856–858.
- "Lawson, James M. (1928- )". kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
- Mogul, Jonathan. Barbara de Boinville, ed. "A Force More Powerful (English study guide)" (PDF). pp. 4 et seq. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
Inspired by a trip to India to study Gandhi and by the 1955 bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, led by Martin Luther King Jr, Lawson decides to try his own hand at nonviolent struggle against racial segregation.
- "THE NASHVILLE SIT-IN STORY" (PDF). Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
- Sumner, David E. (Spring 1997). "The Publisher and the Preacher: Racial Conflict at Vanderbilt University". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 56 (1): 34–43. JSTOR 42627327. (Registration required (help)).
- Houston, Benjamin (2012). The Nashville Way: Racial Etiquette and the Struggle for Social Justice in a Southern City. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 9780820343266. OCLC 940632744.
- Theo Emery, Activist Ousted From Vanderbilt Is Back, as a Teacher, The New York Times, October 4, 2006
- Deer Owens, Ann Marie (February 19, 2013). "James Lawson donates papers to Vanderbilt". Vanderbilt News. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- "Movement Revision Research Summary Regarding James Bevel" by Randy Kryn, October 2005, published by Middlebury College
- Dreier, Peter. "A Totally Moral Man: The Life of Nonviolent Organizer Rev. James Lawson". Truthout. Retrieved 22 Feb 2018.
- "Recipients". Community of Christ International Peace Award.
- Lewis, Princine (30 January 2007). "Freedom Ride 2007 inspires participants to create change". Vanderbilt News.
- "Civil Discourse and Social Change". csun.edu. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Civil Discourse & Social Change". CSUN Website.
- Lindley, Robin. "Why It's Time to Get to Know Black Civil Rights Activist James Lawson: An Interview with Michael K. Honey". History News Network. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–1963. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.
- Burns, Stewart. To the Mountain Top: Martin Luther King Jr.'s Sacred Mission to Save American, 1955–1968. New York: Harper Collins, 2004.
- Clayborne, Carson. In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981.
- Conkin, Paul K. Gone with the Ivy: A Biography of Vanderbilt University. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985.
- Halberstam, David. The Children. New York: Random House. 1998.
- Riches, William T. Martin. The Civil Rights Movement: Struggle and Resistance. New York: Palgrave, 2004.
- Sumner, David. "James Lawson, Jr." Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Ed. Carroll Van West. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press, 1998.
- Zinn, Howard. SNCC: The New Abolitionists. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press, 2002.
- "James Lawson Named 2005 Vanderbilt University Distinguished Alumnus." Tennessee Tribune, 22 December 2005.
- Mielczarek, Natalia. "Vanderbilt Hires Ex-student It Expelled for Civil Rights Activism." Tennessean, 19 January 2006.
- Summer, David E. "The Publisher and the Preacher: Racial Conflict at Vanderbilt University." Tennessee Historical Quarterly LVI (Spring 1997): 34–43.
- Wynn, Linda T. "The Dawning of a New Day: The Nashville Sit-Ins, February 13, 1960 – May 10, 1960." Tennessee Historical Quarterly L (Spring 1991): 42–54.
- "Interview: Rev. James Lawson." A Force More Powerful: Nashville 1960 at the Wayback Machine (archived December 9, 2004) (Accessed 28 November 2008).
- Lefer, Diane (Mar–Apr 2013). "James Lawson". The Believer. 11 (3): 73–82.
- SNCC Digital Gateway: James Lawson, Documentary website created by the SNCC Legacy Project and Duke University, telling the story of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee & grassroots organizing from the inside-out
- A short UK page on Lawson
- Vanderbilt Announces Distinguished Alumnus award
- A Force More Powerful - Interview: Rev. James Lawson at the Wayback Machine (archived December 9, 2004)
- Lawson to Return to Vanderbilt as Professor at the Wayback Machine (archived July 13, 2007)
- “The Rev. James Lawson: An Advocate of Peaceful Change” - an interview on National Public Radio
- Oral History Interview with James M. Lawson from the Southern Oral History Program at Oral Histories of the American South
- The Non-Violent Struggle. Course Podcast series from Rev. James Lawson, Fall 2007, Vanderbilt University.
- "The Butler (2013) - IMDb". imdb.com. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
- Appearances on C-SPAN