James M. Landis
|James M. Landis|
|2nd Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission|
|President||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Preceded by||Joseph P. Kennedy|
|Succeeded by||William O. Douglas|
James McCauley Landis (September 25, 1899 – July 30, 1964) was an American academic, government official and legal adviser. He served as Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission from 1934 to 1937.
Landis was born in Tokyo, Japan, where his parents were teachers at a missionary school. He graduated from Princeton University and in 1924 received a LL.B from the Harvard Law School, where he was a student of Felix Frankfurter. In 1925, Landis was a law clerk to Justice Louis Brandeis of the U.S. Supreme Court. He then became a professor at the Harvard Law School, until called into government service during the New Deal.
Landis served as a member of the Federal Trade Commission (1933–1934), as a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission (1934–1937), and as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (1935–1937). While dean of the Harvard Law School from 1938 to 1946, Landis served as regional director of the U.S. Office of Civilian Defense (1941–1942) and then as its national director (1942–1943). President Franklin D. Roosevelt then sent him to Egypt as American Director of Economic Operations in the Middle East (1943–1945). In 1946, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, later appointed him chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board, a position he served until the next year. A friend of the Kennedy family for years, he served as a legal advisor to Joseph P. Kennedy and as Special Counsel to President John F. Kennedy. In 1960 he drafted the Landis Report to President-elect Kennedy, reexamining the federal regulatory commissions and recommending such reforms as strengthening the commissions' chairmen and streamlining their procedures, which the Kennedy administration adopted.
Landis failed to pay his income taxes from 1956 to 1960. After this came to light in 1963, he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to one month in jail. Because of illness, he spent the month in hospital facilities. Less than a year after he returned home, he suffered a heart attack and drowned in his swimming pool.
- 'The Business of the Supreme Court', by James M. Landis and Felix Frankfurter, (New York, 1928).
- 'The Administrative Process', by James M. Landis, (New Haven, 1938).
- McCraw, Thomas (1984). Prophets of Regulation: Charles Francis Adams, Louis D. Brandeis, James M. Landis, and Alfred Kahn. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674716078.
- O'Brien, Justin (2014). The Triumph, Tragedy and Lost Legacy of James M. Landis: A Life on Fire. Portland, OR: Hart Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84946-617-2.
- Ritchie, Donald A. (1980). James M. Landis: Dean of the Regulators. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674471717.
- The Rise and Fall of SEC Pioneer James Landis (audio story from NPR)
- "Finding aid for James McCauley Landis, Papers, 1924-1945.". Harvard Law School Library.
- "Instant Sentence, Time, Friday, Sept. 06, 1963". September 6, 1963.
|Dean of Harvard Law School
Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
|Securities and Exchange Commission Chair
William O. Douglas
L. Welch Pogue
|Civil Aeronautics Board Chair
Laurence S. Kuter