James McCombs between 1920 and 1925
|Member of the New Zealand Parliament
|Preceded by||George Laurenson|
|Succeeded by||Elizabeth McCombs|
|Deputy Leader of the Labour Party|
|Succeeded by||Michael Joseph Savage|
|1st President of the Labour Party|
|Vice President||Andrew Walker|
|Succeeded by||Andrew Walker|
9 December 1873|
County Leitrim, Ireland
|Died||2 August 1933
|Political party||Social Democrat (1913–1916)
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth McCombs (married 1903)|
|Children||Four (two of which were adopted), incl. Terry McCombs|
McCombs was born in Treanmore, Mohill, County Leitrim, Ireland, the elder child of George McCombs, a farmer, and his wife, Kate Rourke. He came to New Zealand with his parents in 1876 as a three-year-old. He was educated at Sydenham School and Christchurch East School. A successful businessman, McCombs owned a drapery in Christchurch.
Local political involvement
McCombs was involved in the temperance movement (with Tommy Taylor), the Progressive Liberal Association (with Harry Ell) and was a friend of George Laurenson. McCombs served on the Christchurch City Council between 1913–17 and 1931–1933.
McCombs contested the 1917 Christchurch mayoral election against the incumbent, Henry Holland, along the lines of win-the-war (Holland) and anti-conscription (McCombs). The result was a crushing defeat of McCombs; Holland received 12,177 votes and McCombs received 5,381. Holland retired from the mayoralty in 1919; the election was contested by three candidates: Henry Thacker, John Joseph Dougall (Mayor of Christchurch 1911–1912) and McCombs (who at that time was MP for Lyttelton). Thacker won the contest, and McCombs came last.
Member of Parliament
|Parliament of New Zealand|
|1916||Changed allegiance to:||Labour|
|1917||Changed allegiance to:||Independent Labour|
|1918–1919||Changed allegiance to:||Labour|
In the 1908 election, McCombs stood in Christchurch East as an Independent Liberal candidate; at the 1911 contest for Avon he was a Liberal-Labour candidate polling 2,817 votes to the official Labour candidate's 798 on the first ballot.
James McCombs represented the Lyttelton electorate for 20 years from the 1913 by-election (following the death of George Laurenson). McCombs found it difficult to support a family and maintain homes in Wellington and Christchurch on a MP’s salary of £8.10.0 a week. Once when rushing to get the ferry home, his suitcase flew open and several rolls of toilet paper fell out. Subsequently Parliament got toilet paper in paper squares instead of rolls.
When Labour's caucus leader Alfred Hindmarsh died during the Influenza epidemic, Labour's leadership was open. McCombs made claim to the title but was opposed by the more militant Harry Holland. The caucus held an election to decide between the two. The result was a tie. After drawing lots, Holland was successful.
McCombs had been the inaugural president of the New Zealand Labour Party in 1916. In the following year, he resigned the presidency and his membership of the Labour Party over the state control of liquor issue. After rejoining the party in 1918, McCombs served as Labour's deputy leader from 1919 until 1923. During the 1920s McCombs with Dan Sullivan led the opposition to Harry Holland within the Parliamentary Labour Party caucus attempting several leadership challenges, all of which were unsuccessful.
After the confusion following the 1922 general election McCombs was nominated by Holland (partly for political reasons) for the role of speaker, though lost to Reform's candidate Charles Statham 61 votes to 17. The 1925 general election was contested by Melville Lyons and the incumbent, McCombs. The original count resulted in a tie of 4,900 votes each. The returning officer gave his casting vote to Lyons and declared him elected. A recount was demanded, and on 3 December 1925, an amended result of 4,890 votes for Lyons and 4,884 votes for McCombs was determined, with the differences in the counts explained by counting informal votes in a different way. Lyons' election was declared void on 13 March 1926, and McCombs was restored as the holder of the electorate.
McCombs held the electorate until 1933, when he died in office. The electorate was then held by his wife Elizabeth McCombs from 1933 to 1935, and his son Terry McCombs from 1935 to 1951.
- "General Registrar's Office". IrishGenealogy.ie. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "Obituary". The Evening Post. CXVI (28). 2 August 1933. p. 9. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Garner, Jean. "McCombs, James". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Christchurch Mayoralty". Otago Daily Times (16988). 26 April 1917. p. 5. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "Thacker's Triumph" (725). NZ Truth. 10 May 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
- NZ elections 1905-43
- Hurley, Desmond (2000). A Dictionary of New Zealand Political Quotations. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0 19 558 4287.
- Bassett 1982, p. 32.
- Wilson 1985, p. 213.
- "Lyttelton Recount". The Evening Post. CX (135). 4 December 1925. p. 9. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 3. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "General Election, 1931". Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser. LV (5635). 27 November 1931. p. 2. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
- "A Woman M.P.". The Evening Post. CXVI (65). 14 September 1933. p. 12. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- Wilson 1985.
- "Cemeteries database". Christchurch City Council. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James McCombs.|
- Gee, David (1993). My Dear Girl: A biography of Elizabeth and James McCombs. Christchurch: Treehouse. ISBN 0-473-02084-X.
- Bassett, Michael (1982). Three Party Politics in New Zealand 1911–1931. Auckland: Historical Publications. ISBN 0-86870-006-1.
- Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913 First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.
- Wood, G. Anthony, ed. (1996). Ministers and Members: In the New Zealand Parliament. Dunedin: Otago University Press.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|Member of Parliament for Lyttelton
|Party political offices|
|New political party||President of the Labour Party
|Senior Whip of the Labour Party
|New title||Deputy-Leader of the Labour Party
Michael Joseph Savage