James N. Gardner

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James N. Gardner (born 1946), professional lobbyist, complexity theorist and graduate of Yale Law School, is the author of the Biocosm Hypothesis, which argues that intelligent life eventually emerges as the architect of the Universe.[1]


Gardner is a graduate of Yale College and the Yale Law School. He studied philosophy and theoretical biology.[2] He is also an amateur cosmologist, and has published peer-reviewed articles which have been published in Complexity and the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. He is also a former U.S. Supreme Court clerk and a former Oregon state senator.[3][4]

Biocosm hypothesis[edit]

In the book Biocosm: The New Scientific Theory of Evolution: Intelligent Life Is the Architect of the Universe (2003).[5] Gardner presented the "Selfish Biocosm Hypothesis" in which he says that there is a cycle of cosmic creation, in which highly evolved intelligences with a superior command of physics spawn one or more "baby universes," designed to be able to give birth to new, intelligent life. Thus, the ability of the present universe to support intelligent life as well as it does is not an accident, but the result of evolution in a long chain of the creation of more and more "bio-friendly" universes.[6][7] Originally presented in peer-reviewed scientific journals, Gardener's "Selfish Biocosm" hypothesis proposes that life and intelligence have not emerged in a series of Darwinian accidents but are essentially hardwired into the cycle of cosmic creation, evolution, death, and rebirth. He argues that the destiny of highly evolved intelligence is to infuse the entire universe with life, eventually to accomplish the ultimate feat of cosmic reproduction by spawning one or more "baby universes," which will themselves be endowed with life generating properties.[8][9][10]


  1. ^ http://lifeboat.com/ex/bios.james.n.gardner
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 2011-11-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ http://www.natashakern.com/clients_list.htm
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2011-11-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Biocosm: The New Scientific Theory of Evolution: Intelligent Life Is the Architect of the Universe, James N. Gardner, Inner Ocean Publishing, ISBN 1-930722-26-5
  6. ^ http://innovationwatch.com/8147/biocosm-the-new-scientific-theory-of-evolution-intelligent-life-is-the-architect-of-the-universe-by-james-n-gardner-inner-ocean-publishing/
  7. ^ http://evodevouniverse.com/wiki/Selfish_biocosm_hypothesis
  8. ^ Off the Main Sequence, Tom Easton, 2006, pp. 253-254
  9. ^ The Mocking Memes: A Basis for Automated Intelligence, Evan Louis Sheehan, 2006, pp. 284-285
  10. ^ Book review digest, H.W. Wilson Company, H.W. Wilson Co., 2003, p. 423