James Naismith

This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James Naismith
Dr. James Naismith.jpg
Naismith holding a basketball and basket
Biographical details
Born(1861-11-06)November 6, 1861
Almonte, Canada West, Province of Canada
DiedNovember 28, 1939(1939-11-28) (aged 78)
Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.
Alma materMcGill University
University of Colorado
Coaching career (HC unless noted)
Head coaching record
Accomplishments and honors
Basketball Hall of Fame
Inducted in 1959
College Basketball Hall of Fame
Inducted in 2006

James Naismith (NAY-smith; November 6, 1861 – November 28, 1939) was a Canadian-American[1] of Scottish descent. A physical educator, physician, Christian chaplain, and sports coach, he is best known as the inventor of basketball.[2][3] After moving to the United States, he wrote the original basketball rule book and founded the University of Kansas basketball program.[4] Naismith lived to see basketball adopted as an Olympic demonstration sport in 1904 and as an official event at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, as well as the birth of the National Invitation Tournament (1938) and the NCAA Tournament (1939).

Naismith studied and taught physical education at McGill University in Montreal until 1890 before moving to Springfield, Massachusetts, United States later that year, where in 1891 he designed the game of basketball while he was teaching at the International YMCA Training School.[5] Seven years after inventing basketball, Naismith received his medical degree in Denver in 1898. He then arrived at the University of Kansas, later becoming the Kansas Jayhawks' athletic director and coach.[5] While a coach at Kansas, Naismith coached Phog Allen, who later became the coach at Kansas for 39 seasons, beginning a lengthy and prestigious coaching tree. Allen then went on to coach legends including Adolph Rupp and Dean Smith, among others, who themselves coached many notable players and future coaches.[6]

Early years[edit]

Sculpture in Almonte, Ontario

Naismith was born on November 6, 1861, in Almonte, Canada West, Province of Canada (now part of Mississippi Mills, Ontario, Canada) to Scottish parents.[7] He never had a middle name and never signed his name with an "A" initial. The "A" was added by someone in administration at the University of Kansas.[a] Gifted in farm labor, Naismith spent his days outside playing catch, hide-and-seek, or duck on a rock, a medieval game in which a person guards a large drake stone from opposing players, who try to knock it down by throwing smaller stones at it. To play duck on a rock most effectively, Naismith soon found that a soft lobbing shot was far more effective than a straight hard throw, a thought that later proved essential for the invention of basketball.[9] Orphaned early in his life, Naismith lived with his aunt and uncle for many years and attended grade school at Bennies Corners near Almonte. Then, he enrolled in Almonte High School, in Almonte, Ontario, from which he graduated in 1883.[9]

In the same year, Naismith entered McGill University in Montreal. Although described as a slight figure, standing 5 feet 10+12 inches (1.791 m) and listed at 178 pounds (81 kg)[10] he was a talented and versatile athlete, representing McGill in football, lacrosse, rugby, soccer, and gymnastics. He played centre on the football team, and made himself some padding to protect his ears. It was for personal use, not team use.[11] He won multiple Wicksteed medals for outstanding gymnastics performances.[3] Naismith earned a BA in physical education (1888) and a diploma at the Presbyterian College in Montreal (1890).[9] At the end of his career, in 1938 and 1939, he would receive honorary doctorates from both institutions.[12] [13] From 1888 to 1890, Naismith taught physical education and became the first McGill director of athletics, but then left Montreal to study at the YMCA International Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts.[14][15] Naismith played football during his one year as a student at Springfield, where he was coached by Amos Alonzo Stagg and scored a touchdown in the first exhibition of indoor college football at Madison Square Garden.[16]

Springfield College: invention of basketball[edit]

The original 1891 "Basket Ball" court in Springfield College. It used a peach basket attached to the wall.

After completing the YMCA Physical Director training program that had brought him to Springfield, Naismith was hired as a full-time faculty member in 1891.[17] At the Springfield YMCA, Naismith struggled with a rowdy class that was confined to indoor games throughout the harsh New England winter, thus was perpetually short-tempered. Under orders from Luther Gulick, head of physical education there, Naismith was given 14 days to create an indoor game that would provide an "athletic distraction"; Gulick demanded that it would not take up much room, could help its track athletes to keep in shape[3] and explicitly emphasized to "make it fair for all players and not too rough".[10]

In his attempt to think up a new game, Naismith was guided by three main thoughts.[9] Firstly, he analyzed the most popular games of those times (rugby, lacrosse, soccer, football, hockey, and baseball); Naismith noticed the hazards of a ball and concluded that the big, soft soccer ball was safest. Secondly, he saw that most physical contacts occurred while running with the ball, dribbling, or hitting it, so he decided that passing was the only legal option. Finally, Naismith further reduced body contact by making the goal unguardable by placing it high above the player's heads with the plane of the goal's opening parallel to the floor. This placement forced the players to score goals by throwing a soft, lobbing shot like that which had proven effective in his old favorite game duck on a rock.[18] For this purpose, Naismith asked a janitor to find a pair of boxes, but the janitor brought him peach baskets instead.[19] Naismith christened this new game "Basket Ball"[9] and put his thoughts together in 13 basic rules.[20]

The first game of "Basket Ball" was played in December 1891. In a handwritten report, Naismith described the circumstances of the inaugural match; in contrast to modern basketball, the players played nine versus nine, handled a soccer ball, not a basketball, and instead of shooting at two hoops, the goals were a pair of peach baskets: "When Mr. Stubbins brot [sic] up the peach baskets to the gym I secured them on the inside of the railing of the gallery. This was about 10 feet [3.0 meters] from the floor, one at each end of the gymnasium. I then put the 13 rules on the bulletin board just behind the instructor's platform, secured a soccer ball, and awaited the arrival of the class ... The class did not show much enthusiasm, but followed my lead ... I then explained what they had to do to make goals, tossed the ball up between the two center men and tried to keep them somewhat near the rules. Most of the fouls were called for running with the ball, though tackling the man with the ball was not uncommon."[21] In contrast to modern basketball, the original rules did not include what is known today as the dribble. Since the ball could only be moved up the court by a pass early players tossed the ball over their heads as they ran up court. Also following each "goal", a jump ball was taken in the middle of the court. Both practices are obsolete in the rules of modern basketball.[22]

In a radio interview in January 1939, Naismith gave more details of the first game and the initial rules that were used:

I showed them two peach baskets I'd nailed up at each end of the gym, and I told them the idea was to throw the ball into the opposing team's peach basket. I blew a whistle, and the first game of basketball began. ... The boys began tackling, kicking, and punching in the clinches. They ended up in a free-for-all in the middle of the gym floor. [The injury toll: several black eyes, one separated shoulder, and one player knocked unconscious.] "It certainly was murder." [Naismith changed some of the rules as part of his quest to develop a clean sport.] The most important one was that there should be no running with the ball. That stopped tackling and slugging. We tried out the game with those [new] rules (fouls), and we didn't have one casualty.[23][24]

Naismith was a classmate of Amos Alonzo Stagg at the YMCA School, where Stagg coached the football team. They became close friends and Naismith played on the football team and Stagg played on the basketball team. Naismith invited Stagg to play in the first public basketball game on March 12, 1892. The students defeated the faculty 5–1 and Stagg scored the only basket for the faculty.[25] The Springfield Republican reported on the same: "Over 200 spectators crammed their necks over the gallery railing of the Christian Workers gymnasium while they watched the game of 'basket ball' between the teachers and the students. The most conspicuous figure on the floor was Stagg in the blue Yale uniform who managed to have a hand in every scrimmage."[26]

By 1892, basketball had grown so popular on campus that Dennis Horkenbach (editor-in-chief of The Triangle, the Springfield college newspaper) featured it in an article called "A New Game",[7] and there were calls to call this new game "Naismith Ball", but Naismith refused.[9] By 1893, basketball was introduced internationally by the YMCA movement.[7] From Springfield, Naismith went to Denver, where he acquired a medical degree, and in 1898, he joined the University of Kansas faculty at Lawrence.[10]

The family of Lambert G. Will, disputing Naismith's sole creation of the game, has claimed that Naismith borrowed components for the game of basketball from Will, citing alleged photos and letters. In an interview, the family did give Naismith credit for the general idea of the sport, but they claimed Will changed aspects of Naismith's original plans for the game and Naismith took credit for the changes.[27][28]

Spalding worked with Naismith to develop the official basketball and the Spalding Athletic Library official basketball rule book for 1893–1894.[29][30]

University of Kansas[edit]

1899 University of Kansas basketball team, with James Naismith at the back, right
Basketball games at Allen Fieldhouse take place on the James Naismith Court.

The University of Kansas men's basketball program officially began following Naismith's arrival in 1898, seven years after Naismith drafted the sport's first official rules. Naismith was not initially hired to coach basketball, but rather as a chapel director and physical-education instructor.[31] In those early days, the majority of the basketball games were played against nearby YMCA teams, with YMCAs across the nation having played an integral part in the birth of basketball. Other common opponents were Haskell Indian Nations University and William Jewell College. Under Naismith, the team played only one current Big 12 school: Kansas State (once). Naismith is, ironically, the only coach in the program's history to have a losing record (55–60).[32] However, Naismith coached Forrest "Phog" Allen, his eventual successor at Kansas,[33] who went on to join his mentor in the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.[34] When Allen became a coach himself and told him that he was going to coach basketball at Baker University in 1904, Naismith discouraged him: "You can't coach basketball; you just play it."[3] Instead, Allen embarked on a coaching career that would lead him to be known as "the Father of Basketball Coaching". During his time at Kansas, Allen coached Dean Smith (1952 National Championship team) and Adolph Rupp (1922 Helms Foundation National Championship team). Smith and Rupp have joined Naismith and Allen as members of the Basketball Hall of Fame.

By the turn of the century, enough college teams were in the East that the first intercollegiate competitions could be played out.[33] Although the sport continued to grow, Naismith long regarded the game as a curiosity and preferred gymnastics and wrestling as better forms of physical activity.[33] However, basketball became a demonstration sport at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis. As the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame reports, Naismith was not interested in self-promotion nor was he interested in the glory of competitive sports.[35] Instead, he was more interested in his physical-education career; he received an honorary PE master's degree in 1910,[9] patrolled the Mexican border for four months in 1916, traveled to France, and published two books (A Modern College in 1911 and Essence of a Healthy Life in 1918). He took American citizenship on May 4, 1925.[5] In 1909, Naismith's duties at Kansas were redefined as a professorship; he served as the de facto athletic director at Kansas for much of the early 20th century.

Naismith had "strong feelings against segregation," dating back to his World War I-era service in France and his service on the United States-Mexico border, and he strove for progress in race relations through modest steps. During the 1930s, he would not or could not get African-Americans onto Kansas' varsity Jayhawks, but he did help engineer the admission of black students to the university's swimming pool. Until then, they had been given automatic passing grades on a required swimming test without entering the pool, so it could remain all-white.[36]

Through Naismith's association with Baker University Basketball Coach Emil Liston, he became familiar and impressed with Emil Liston's fraternity at Baker University, Sigma Phi Epsilon (SigEp). As a result, he started the effort to bring a Sigma Phi Epsilon chapter to his University of Kansas (KU). On February 18, 1923, Naismith, intending to bring a SigEp Chapter to KU, was initiated as a SigEp member by national office of the fraternity. Under Naismith's leadership, the University of Kansas Sigma Phi Epsilon Chapter was founded and officially Charted on April 28, 1923, with Naismith leading the new 40-member fraternity as "Chapter Counselor." Naismith was deeply involved with the members, serving as Chapter Counselor for 16 years, from 1923 until his death in 1939. During those 16 years as Chapter Counselor, he married SigEp's housemother, Mrs. Florence Kincaid. Members who were interviewed during that era remembered Naismith: "He was deeply religious", "He listened more than he spoke", "He thought sports were nothing but an avenue to keep young people involved so they could do their studies and relate to their community", and "It was really nice having someone with the caliber of Dr. Naismith, he helped many a SigEp"

In 1935, the National Association of Basketball Coaches (founded by Naismith's pupil Phog Allen) collected money so the 74-year-old Naismith could witness the introduction of basketball into the official Olympic sports program of the 1936 Summer Olympic Games in Berlin.[35] There, Naismith handed out the medals to three North American teams: the United States, for the gold medal, Canada, for the silver medal, and Mexico, for their bronze medal.[37] During the Olympics, he was named the honorary president of the International Basketball Federation.[9] When Naismith returned, he commented that seeing the game played by many nations was the greatest compensation he could have received for his invention.[33] In 1937, Naismith played a role in the formation of the National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball, which later became the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA).[38]

Naismith became professor emeritus at Kansas when he retired in 1937 at the age of 76. In addition to his years as a coach, for a total of almost 40 years, Naismith worked at the school and during those years, he also served as its athletic director and was also a faculty member at the school. In 1939, Naismith suffered a fatal brain hemorrhage. He was interred at Memorial Park Cemetery in Lawrence, Kansas. His masterwork "Basketball — its Origins and Development" was published posthumously in 1941.[9] In Lawrence, Naismith has a road named in his honor, Naismith Drive, which runs in front of Allen Fieldhouse and James Naismith Court therein are named in his honor, despite Naismith's having the worst record in school history. Naismith Hall, a dormitory, is located on the northeastern edge of 19th Street and Naismith Drive.[39]

Head-coaching record[edit]

Naismith as University of Kansas athletics director, c. 1920

In 1898, Naismith became the first basketball coach of University of Kansas. He compiled a record of 55–60 and is ironically the only losing coach in Kansas history.[32] Naismith is at the beginning of a massive and prestigious coaching tree, as he coached Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame coach Phog Allen, who himself coached Hall of Fame coaches Dean Smith, Adolph Rupp, and Ralph Miller who all coached future coaches as well.[33] In addition to Allen, Naismith also can be seen as a mentor and therefore beginning for the coaching tree branches of John McLendon who wasn't permitted to play at Kansas but was close to Naismith during his time as an athletic director.[40] Amos Alonzo Stagg, was primarily a football coach, but he did play basketball for Naismith in Springfield, coached a year of basketball at Chicago and had several football players who also coached basketball such as Jesse Harper, Fred Walker and Tony Hinkle.[25]

Statistics overview
Season Team Overall Conference Standing Postseason
Kansas Jayhawks (IAAUS Independent) (1898–1907)
1898–99 Kansas 7–4
1899–1900 Kansas 3–4
1900–01 Kansas 4–8
1901–02 Kansas 5–7
1902–03 Kansas 7–8
1903–04 Kansas 5–8
1904–05 Kansas 5–6
1905–06 Kansas 12–7
1906–07 Kansas 7–8
Total: 55–60 (.478)

      National champion         Postseason invitational champion  
      Conference regular season champion         Conference regular season and conference tournament champion
      Division regular season champion       Division regular season and conference tournament champion
      Conference tournament champion


Statue of James Naismith at Basketball Hall of Fame and Museum in Springfield, Massachusetts

Naismith invented the game of basketball and wrote the original 13 rules of this sport;[35] for comparison, the NBA rule book today features 66 pages. The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, Massachusetts, is named in his honor, and he was an inaugural inductee in 1959.[35] The National Collegiate Athletic Association rewards its best players and coaches annually with the Naismith Awards, among them the Naismith College Player of the Year, the Naismith College Coach of the Year, and the Naismith Prep Player of the Year. After the Olympic introduction to men's basketball in 1936, women's basketball became an Olympic event in Montreal during the 1976 Summer Olympics.[41] Naismith was also inducted into the Canadian Basketball Hall of Fame, the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame, the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame, the Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame, the McGill University Sports Hall of Fame, the Kansas State Sports Hall of Fame, FIBA Hall of Fame.[9][42] The FIBA Basketball World Cup trophy is named the "James Naismith Trophy" in his honor. On June 21, 2013, Naismith was inducted into the Kansas Hall of Fame during ceremonies in Topeka.[43]

Naismith's home town of Almonte, Ontario, hosts an annual 3-on-3 tournament for all ages and skill levels in his honor. Every year, this event attracts hundreds of participants and involves over 20 half-court games along the main street of the town.[44] All proceeds of the event go to youth basketball programs in the area.[citation needed]

Today basketball is played by more than 300 million people worldwide, making it one of the most popular team sports.[3] In North America, basketball has produced some of the most-admired athletes of the 20th century. ESPN and the Associated Press both conducted polls to name the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century. Basketball player Michael Jordan came in first in the ESPN poll and second (behind Babe Ruth) in the AP poll. Both polls featured fellow basketball players Wilt Chamberlain (of KU, like Naismith) and Bill Russell in the top 20.[45][46]

Typewritten first draft of the rules of basketball by Naismith

The original rules of basketball written by James Naismith in 1891, considered to be basketball's founding document, was auctioned at Sotheby's, New York, in December 2010. Josh Swade, a University of Kansas alumnus and basketball enthusiast, went on a crusade in 2010 to persuade moneyed alumni to consider bidding on and hopefully winning the document at auction to give it to the University of Kansas. Swade eventually persuaded David G. Booth, a billionaire investment banker and KU alumnus, and his wife Suzanne Booth, to commit to bidding at the auction. The Booths won the bidding and purchased the document for a record US$4,338,500, the most ever paid for a sports memorabilia item, and gave the document to the University of Kansas.[47] Swade's project and eventual success are chronicled in a 2012 ESPN 30 for 30 documentary "There's No Place Like Home" and in a corresponding book, The Holy Grail of Hoops: One Fan's Quest to Buy the Original Rules of Basketball.[48] The University of Kansas constructed an $18 million building named the Debruce Center, which houses the rules and opened in March 2016.[49]

Naismith was designated a National Historic Person in 1976, on the advice of the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board[50]

In 1991, postage stamps commemorated the centennial of basketball's invention: four stamps were issued by Canada Post, including one with Naismith's name; one stamp was issued by the US Postal Service. Another Canadian stamp, in 2009, honored the game's invention.

In July 2019, Naismith was inducted into Toronto's Walk of Fame.[51]

On January 15, 2021, Google placed a Google Doodle celebrating James Naismith on its home page in 18 countries, on five continents.[52]

Personal life[edit]

Naismith was the second child of two Scottish immigrants.[9] His father, John Naismith, was born in 1833,[53] left Europe when he was 18, and also settled down in Lanark County.

On June 20, 1894, Naismith married his wife (1870–1937) in Springfield, Massachusetts. The couple had five children.[10]

He was a member of the Pi Gamma Mu and Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternities.[10] Naismith was a Presbyterian minister and was also a Freemason.[54]

His first wife died in 1937, and on June 11, 1939, he married his second wife, Florence Kincaid. On November 19 of that year, Naismith suffered a major brain hemorrhage and died nine days later in his home in Lawrence.[55] He was 78 years old.[56] Naismith died eight months after the birth of the NCAA Basketball Championship, which today has evolved to one of the biggest sports events in North America. Naismith is buried with his first wife in Memorial Park Cemetery in Lawrence.[57] Florence Kincaid died in 1977 at the age of 98 and is buried with her first husband, Frank B. Kincaid, in Elmwood Cemetery in Beloit, Kansas.

During his lifetime, Naismith held these educational and academic positions:[10]

Location Position Period Remarks
Bennie's Corner Grade School (Almonte, Ontario) Primary school 1867–1875
Almonte High School Secondary school 1875–1877, 1881–83 Dropped out and re-entered
McGill University University student 1883–87 Bachelor of Arts in Physical Education
McGill University Instructor in Physical Education 1887–1890 Gold Wickstead Medal (1887), Best All-Around Athlete; Silver Cup (1886), first prize for a one-mile walk; Silver Wickstead Medal (1885), Best All-Around Athlete; Awarded one of McGill's first varsity letters
The Presbyterian College, Montreal Education in Theology 1887–1890 Silver medal (1890), second highest award for regular and special honor work in Theology
Springfield College Instructor in Physical Education 1891–1895 Invented "Basket Ball" in December 1891
YMCA of Denver Instructor in Physical Education 1895–1898
University of Kansas Instructor in Physical Education and Chapel Director 1898–1909
University of Kansas Basketball Coach 1898–1907 First-ever basketball coach
University of Kansas Professor and University Physician 1909–1917 Hiatus from 1914 on due to World War I
First Kansas Infantry Chaplain/Captain 1914–1917 Military service due to World War I
First Kansas Infantry (Mexican Border) Chaplain 1916
Military and YMCA secretary in France Lecturer of Moral Conditions and Sex Education 1917–1919
University of Kansas Athletic Director 1919–1937 Emeritus in 1937

See also[edit]


  1. ^ In 1982, Naismith's only living child stated that his father never had the middle initial "A". According to Canadian basketball historian Curtis J. Phillips, other members of Naismith's family and friends also confirm this.[8]


  1. ^ Porter, David L. (2005). Basketball: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0313309526.
  2. ^ "James A. Naismith". Biography.com. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e Zukerman, Earl (December 17, 2003). "McGill grad James Naismith, inventor of basketball". Varsity Sports News. McGill Athletics. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  4. ^ Sandomir, Richard (December 15, 2015). "Basketball's Birth, in James Naismith's Own Spoken Words". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Porter, David (2005). Basketball : a biographical dictionary. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. pp. 346347. ISBN 9780313061974. OCLC 562553759.
  6. ^ "Dean Smith's Coaching Tree Displays Incredible Reach Across Decades". BleacherReport.com.
  7. ^ a b c Laughead, George. "Dr. James Naismith, Inventor of Basketball". Kansas Heritage Group. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  8. ^ Phillips, Curtis J. (1996). "The original Dr. J." Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Laughead, George. "Dr. James Naismith". Kansas Heritage Group. Retrieved September 14, 2013. In the late 1930s he played a role in what became the National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Dodd, Hellen Naismith (January 6, 1959). "James Naismith's Resume". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 19, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  11. ^ John Melady (2013). Breakthrough!: Canada's Greatest Inventions and Innovations. Dundurn. p. 56. ISBN 9781459708532.
  12. ^ "James Naismith | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved February 13, 2023.
  13. ^ "About Dr. James Naismith". Naismith Basketball Foundation. March 10, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2023.
  14. ^ "A Shot at History: Basketball". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
  15. ^ "McGill University · James Naismith's Life and Legacy: Celebrating 150 Years · KU Libraries Exhibits". exhibits.lib.ku.edu. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  16. ^ "Foot-ball at the S.I.A.C. Games, Yale Daily News". Yale Daily News Historical Archive. December 13, 1890.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ "Springfield College · James Naismith's Life and Legacy: Celebrating 150 Years · KU Libraries Exhibits". exhibits.lib.ku.edu. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  18. ^ "Duck on the Rock (History Channel Brief Documentary)". Youtube.com. Rob's Innovation Station. June 7, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  19. ^ Ladd, Travis C. "History Of Basketball: Who, When, Where and How It Was Invented?". Sportsierra. Retrieved May 7, 2021.
  20. ^ Naismith, James. "Dr. James Naismith's 13 Original Rules of Basketball". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  21. ^ Naismith, James. "James Naismith Handwritten Manuscript Detailing First Basketball Game". Heritage Auction Galleries. Archived from the original on December 17, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  22. ^ "Official basketball rules". International Basketball Federation. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  23. ^ "Basketball's Birth, in James Naismith's Own Spoken Words". The New York Times. December 16, 2015.
  24. ^ Wagner, Laura (March 11, 2022). "How James Naismith created basketball when he was a gym teacher". NPR. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  25. ^ a b Sumner, David E. (2021). Amos Alonzo Stagg: College Football's Greatest Pioneer. Jefferson, NC`: McFarland Books. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-4766-8576-2.
  26. ^ "Basket Football Game". The Springfield Republican, Springfield College Digital Collection. March 12, 1982. Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  27. ^ Baruth, Philip. "Basketball Inventor". Vermont Public Radio. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
  28. ^ Fosty, George & Darril. "Basketball's Origins, Lingering Questions Remain". Box Score News. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
  29. ^ "History". Spalding. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  30. ^ "Basketball: A book written by Dr. James Naismith and Dr. Luther Gulick, 1894". Digital Commonwealth. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  31. ^ Chimelis, Ron. "Naismith Untold". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  32. ^ a b "Naismith's Record". kusports.com. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  33. ^ a b c d e "James Naismith, A Kansas Portrait". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  34. ^ "Forrest C. "Phog" Allen". Naismith Museum And Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  35. ^ a b c d "Hall of Fame Feature: James Naismith". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  36. ^ Michael Beschloss (May 2, 2014). "Naismith's Choices on Race, From Basketball's Beginnings". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  37. ^ "James Naismith, the inventor of basketball". collegesportsscholarships.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  38. ^ Kerkhoff, Blair. "The NAIA basketball tournament? Throw 32 teams in the same building and see which is the last one standing at the end of a weeklong frenzy". Retrieved September 30, 2008.[dead link]
  39. ^ "Google Maps Route". Google Maps. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  40. ^ Katz, Milton S. (2010). Breaking Through: John B. McLendon, Basketball Legend and Civil Rights Pioneer. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1557289513.
  41. ^ Jenkins, Sally. "History of women's basketball". WNBA.com. Women's National Basketball Association. Archived from the original on January 6, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  42. ^ "James Naismith". oshof.ca. Ontario Sports Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on December 26, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  43. ^ "Naismith, Dr. James". Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  44. ^ "Naismith 3 on 3 Basketball Tournament Aug. 11 in Almonte". NewHamburgIndependent.ca. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  45. ^ "Top N. American athletes of the century". ESPN.com. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  46. ^ "Top 100 athletes of the 20th century". USA Today. December 21, 1999. Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  47. ^ "Sotheby's – Auctions – James Naismith's Founding Rules of Basketball – Sotheby's".
  48. ^ "There's No Place Like Home – ESPN Films: 30 for 30".
  49. ^ "Updates from the DeBruce Center, future home of Naismith's 'Rules of Basket Ball' - Heard on the Hill / LJWorld.com".
  50. ^ James Naismith National Historic Person, Directory of Federal Heritage Designations, Parks Canada
  51. ^ "James Naismith". Canada's Walk of Fame.
  52. ^ Dr. James Naismith Google Doodle | History of Basketball Invention on YouTube
  53. ^ "Dr. James A. Naismith and the Barony Naismiths".
  54. ^ "James Naismith". Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon the great couple had five kids. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  55. ^ "Naismith Museum & Hall of Fame: Biography of James Naismith". Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
  56. ^ Schlabac, Mark (January 15, 2005). "James Naismith Biography". bookrags.com. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  57. ^ "Hoops inventor's grave fails to draw KU fans". LJWorld.com. June 5, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]