James Paine (architect)

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James Paine
Born late 1717
Andover, Hampshire
Died Autumn 1789
Nationality English
Occupation Architect
Buildings Nostell Priory
Heath House
Kedleston Hall
Chatsworth House
Worksop Manor
Hickleton Hall

James Paine (1717–1789) was an English architect.

Essentially a Palladian, early in his career he was Clerk of Works at Nostell Priory, and worked on many other projects in the area including Heath House in the village of Heath in between Nostell Priory and Wakefield.

From the 1750s, he had his own practice, and designed many villas, usually consisting of a central building, often with a fine staircase, and two symmetrical wings. The most important house which he was involved with was Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire where he succeeded Matthew Brettingham from 1759 to 1760 and suggested the colonnaded hall, but he was himself displaced by Robert Adam, who altered his designs.

At around the same time he designed the very grand stables at Chatsworth House in the same county. He was a favourite architect of the powerful Catholic families of the time. In the 1760s he was commissioned to rebuild Worksop Manor for the Duke of Norfolk as well as the new Thorndon Hall (1764–70) in Essex for Lord Petre and his house on Park Lane, London. From 1770 to 1776, he built New Wardour Castle in Wiltshire (which featured as the Royal Ballet School in the film Billy Elliot).

Paine held various posts, some sinecures, in the Office of Works culminating in appointment as one of the two Architects of the Works in 1780 but lost the post in a reorganisation in 1782. He was appointed High Sheriff of Surrey for 1783.

His practice declined in his later years as he refused to participate in the Neoclassical fashions established by the Adam brothers. He published much of his own work in his two volumes of Plans, elevations and sections of Noblemen and Gentlemen's Houses (1767 and 1783).

His son James Paine (1745–1829) was a sculptor.[1]

List of architectural works[edit]

The following are major works attributed to Paine:[2]

The Mansion House and New Betting Room, Doncaster, engraved by John Rogers after a drawing by Nathaniel Whittock, published by Isaac Taylor Hinton, London, 1829.

Gallery of architectural works[edit]



  1. ^ 'Paine, James', in Robert Gunnis, ed., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1851
  2. ^ pages 171 to 217, James Paine, Peter Leach, 1988, A. Zwemmer Ltd
  3. ^ Middleton Lodge, leodis.net, retrieved 2 December 2009