James Spriggs Payne

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James Spriggs Payne
James Payne2.jpg
4th President of Liberia
In office
January 6, 1868 – January 3, 1870
Vice President Joseph Gibson
Preceded by Daniel Bashiel Warner
Succeeded by Edward James Roye
8th President of Liberia
In office
January 3, 1876 – January 7, 1878
Vice President Charles Harmon
Preceded by Joseph Jenkins Roberts
Succeeded by Anthony W. Gardiner
Personal details
Born (1819-12-19)December 19, 1819
Richmond, Virginia, United States
Died January 31, 1882(1882-01-31) (aged 62)
Monrovia, Liberia
Political party Republican

James Spriggs Payne (December 19, 1819 – January 31, 1882) served as the fourth and eighth President of Liberia, from 1868 to 1870 and from 1876 to 1878.[1] He was the last President to belong to Liberia's Republican Party.

Early life[edit]

Payne was born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1819 to former slaves who were each of mixed race, of European and African ancestry. Payne grew up in a highly religious Methodist family and was a devout Christian.[2] His father, David M. Payne, was a Methodist minister and was ordained as a deacon by the Virginia Conference in 1824.[3] Payne was very fair; he was said to be of seven-eighths European-American ancestry, or one-eighth African. When Payne was ten years old, his family emigrated to Liberia through sponsorship by the American Colonization Society on the ship The Harriet, the same ship that Joseph Jenkins Roberts, Liberia's future first president, was on.[4]

Aside from religion, the young Payne showed interest in politics and economics. He later became a successful writer in these areas.[2] As an adult, he was appointed by the Liberian government to work to complete the severance of Liberia's ties to the American Colonization Society.[2]

Political career[edit]

Payne was elected as the fourth president in 1868 and served a two-year term. During his presidency, he worked to end the slave trade that still took place along Liberia's coast.[2] Other reports, such as History of Liberia and Joseph Jenkins Roberts say: "The slave trade from Liberian ports was ended by the British Navy in the 1850s." Payne improved government relations with the native communities and peoples, whom he believed the newer settlers and politicians had for the most part ignored.[2]

He worked to extend Liberia's trading and political ties with Europe.[5]

Payne was elected a second time in 1876 and served until 1878. Escalating economic difficulties began to weaken the state's dominance over the coastal indigenous population. When the financially burdened ACS withdrew its support from the colony in the years after the American Civil War, conditions worsened as Liberia struggled to modernize its largely agricultural economy. The cost of imported goods was far greater than the income generated by the nation's exports of coffee, rice, palm oil, sugarcane, and timber. Payne increased the country's foreign trade.

Later life and family[edit]

On leaving political office in 1878, Payne continued his lifelong involvement in church work. In 1880, he was the Liberian delegate at the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.[2] The next year, he was elected president of the Methodist Annual Conference of Liberia.[2] James Spriggs Payne died in Monrovia in 1882.

Legacy and honors[edit]



  • Melton, J. Gordon, A Will to Choose: The origins of African American Methodism, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007, ISBN 0-7425-5265-9
Political offices
Preceded by
Daniel Bashiel Warner
President of Liberia
Succeeded by
Edward James Roye
Preceded by
Joseph Jenkins Roberts
President of Liberia
Succeeded by
Anthony W. Gardiner