James Steele (United States Army officer)
|Branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||24 years|
US occupation of Iraq
James Steele is a consultant and retired United States Army officer whose military career and work as a military contractor from Vietnam to the War in Iraq drew controversy for allegations of abuse and war crimes.
Steele's military career began during the Cold War, assigned to postings in Central and South America. He was involved in the "dirty wars", training counter-insurgency commandos who later carried out violations of human rights. He later served in the Vietnam war. From 1984 to 1986, during the Salvadoran Civil War, Steele operated as a counterinsurgency specialist and was a member of a group of United States special forces advisers to the Salvadoran Army. In 1986 he was implicated in the Iran contra affair. In 2004, early in the Iraq War, Steele was sent by Donald Rumsfeld to serve as a civilian adviser to Iraqi paramilitary Special Police Commandos known as the Wolf Brigade.
Iraq war counter-insurgency activities
In 2004, during the US occupation of Iraq, Steele was sent as a civilian adviser to train the Special Police Commandos; a paramilitary unit known as the Wolf Brigade that was later accused by a UN official of torture and murder, and of being involved in the use of death squads. The Wolf Brigade was created and supported by the US and it enabled the redeployment of Saddam Hussein's Republican Guard but with the new task of suppressing the Iraqi insurgency. According to Angelina Snodgrass Godoy, this was part of the US drive to use "dirty tactics" against insurgents in Iraq, a counterinsurgency doctrine known as "fighting terror with terror," and one that had previously been exercised or promoted by the US in other countries, including Vietnam and El Salvador. Steele worked closely with Colonel James Coffman, an American Army officer who advised Iraqi Special Police Commandos during Multi-National Security Transition Command operations, and who has also been implicated in human rights abuses of Iraqi detainees. Coffman reported directly to General David Petraeus and worked alongside Steele in detention centers that were set up with US funding.
Steele was mentioned by US Ambassador Paul Wolfowitz, former secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld and others, and was present in various high-profile meetings while keeping a secret role. In 2013, The Guardian and the BBC revealed Steele's connection to torture centres which sprang up after US led Shia groups joined the security forces. According to that report, "Jim" Steele's first experience of war was in Vietnam. Later, from 1984 to 1986, "Steele – a 'counterinsurgency specialist' – was head of the US MilGroup of US special forces advisers to front line battalions of the Salvadoran military, which developed a fearsome international reputation for its death-squad activities." He later "became involved in the Iran-Contra affair, which saw the proceeds from covert arms sales by senior US officials to Iran used to fund the Contras". The Guardian writes, "Soon after the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq, now retired Colonel James Steele was in Baghdad as one of the White House's most important agents, sending back reports to Donald Rumsfeld and acting as the US defense secretary's personal envoy to Iraq's Special Police Commandos, whose intelligence-gathering activities he oversaw."
General Muntadher al-Samari, Iraqi interior ministry commander from 2003 to 2005, revealed the US role in torture carried out by the Special Commandos' interrogation units, claiming that Steele and his colleague Col. James H. Coffman, Jr. knew exactly what was being done. Al-Samari described "the ugliest sorts of torture" he had ever seen, which included the severe beating and hanging of detainees, as well as the pulling off of their fingernails. The Guardian report also claimed that the US backing of sectarian paramilitary units helped create conditions that led to sectarian civil war.
The Guardian's documentary "James Steele: America's mystery man in Iraq" shows a memo from Steele to Rumsfeld which Rumsfeld had released as part of "The Rumsfeld Papers". In the memo Steele stated that SCIRI and its Badr Brigade protected "thugs like the commander of the Wolf Brigade who has been engaged in death squad activities".
Col. James Steele is currently registered with Premiere Motivational Speakers, through which he charges $15,000 to give speeches on "Security and Counterterrorism Policy". He is also listed as the CEO of Buchanan Renewables, an energy company that produces biomass in Liberia. Steele's company has been accused of corporate malfeasance by the Liberian legislature and was the subject of an investigative report in 2011 by the Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations. The report describes "how the company, which presents itself as a highly sustainable venture, has a negative impact on the livelihoods of a number of smallholder farmers, has not taken adequate measures to improve the energy situation in Liberia, and has a corporate structure which can be optimally used to avoid paying taxes in Liberia."
- premierespeakers.com (2013). "Jim Steele". Premiere Speakers Bureau. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
- The Guardian (March 6, 2013). "From El Salvador to Iraq: Washington's man behind brutal police squads". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
- Mass, Peter (May 1, 2005). "The Way of the Commandos". New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
- As documented in Dan Kovalik's The Plot to Attack Iran. Skyhorse Publishing. New York. 2018.
- Buncombe, Andrew and Patrick Cockburn. "Iraq's death squads: On the brink of civil war", The Independent. February 26, 2006
- Spencer, Richard (October 25, 2010). "Wikileaks war logs: who are the 'Wolf Brigade'? - Telegraph". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- "Wikileaks: Americans handed over captives to Iraq torture squads - Telegraph". London: The Daily Telegraph. October 25, 2010. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Leigh, David (October 24, 2010). "Iraq war logs: US turned over captives to Iraqi torture squads". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Snodgrass Godoy, Angelina (2006), Popular Injustice: Violence, Community, And Law in Latin America, Stanford University Press, pp. 175-180, (ISBN 978-0804753838).
- "Colonel Receives DSC for Leading Iraqi Commandos". Military.com. 2005-08-29. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- O'Kane, Maggie; Mahmood, Mona; Madlena, Chavala; Smith, Teresa (March 6, 2013). "Revealed: Pentagon's link to Iraqi torture centres | World news". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
- "James Steele in Iraq: only known video footage". London: guardian.co.uk. March 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- "Report Links US Advisers to Iraq Torture Centers". Military.com. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Mahmood, Mona and Maggie O'Kane, Chavala Madlena, Teresa Smith. "Revealed: Pentagon's link to Iraqi torture centres", The Guardian. March 6, 2013.
- Mahmood, Mona (March 6, 2013). "From El Salvador to Iraq: Washington's man behind brutal police squads". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Mahmood, Mona (March 6, 2013). "Revealed: Pentagon's link to Iraqi torture centres". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Deutsche Press Agentur. "Report: US advisers in Iraq linked to torture centers", Stars and Stripes. March 7, 2013.
- "Steele memo", The Rumsfeld Papers.
- Pitzke, Marc. "Geheimgefängnisse im Irak: Die schlimmste Art von Folter", Der Spiegel. March 7, 2013.
- Mahmood, Mona and Maggie O'Kane, Chavala Madlena, Teresa Smith. "From El Salvador to Iraq: Washington's man behind brutal police squads", The Guardian. March 6, 2013.
- Zeze Eavans Ballah. "Liberia: Buchanan Renewables Engages In Bad Business Practice", The African Standard. June 02, 2012.
- "Controversy at biomass-producing company in Liberia" Archived 2013-06-21 at the Wayback Machine, SOMO: Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations. November 10, 2011.
- James Steele: America's mystery man in Iraq - video The Guardian, 6 March 2013
- BBC-Guardian Exposé Uses WikiLeaks to Link Iraq Torture Centers to U.S. Col. Steele & Gen. Petraeus Democracy Now!, 22 March 2013
- Documentary: James Steele: America’s mystery man in Iraq, March 2013
- Biography of Jim Steele, Counselor to US Ambassador for Iraqi Security Forces
- Searching for Steele – documentary by Maggie O'Kane, broadcast by Al Jazeera English in 2013 (video, 47 mins)