James T. Conway
|James Terry Conway|
34th Commandant of the Marine Corps
December 26, 1947|
Walnut Ridge, Arkansas, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/||United States Marine Corps|
|Years of service||1970–2010|
Commandant of the Marine Corps|
I Marine Expeditionary Force
1st Marine Division
The Basic School
3rd Battalion 2nd Marines
Defense Distinguished Service Medal (3)|
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Defense Meritorious Service Medal
Meritorious Service Medal (3)
Commander of the Legion of Honour (France)
James Terry Conway (born December 26, 1947) is a retired United States Marine Corps general who served as the 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps. Among his previous postings were Director of Operations (J-3) on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Commanding General of 1st Marine Division and I Marine Expeditionary Force, taking part in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the First Battle of Fallujah, during which he controversially constructed a military base on the ruins of Babylon.
Conway was born in Walnut Ridge, Arkansas. He graduated from Roosevelt High School in St. Louis, Missouri and then attended Southeast Missouri State University, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, graduating in 1969 with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology. He was commissioned as an infantry officer in 1970.
Conway's first assignment was command of a rifle platoon with 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, based at Camp Pendleton. He also served as the battalion's 106mm recoilless rifle platoon commander. Later, he served as Marine detachment executive officer aboard the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) and as commanding officer of the Sea School at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego.
After graduating with honors from the Army's Infantry Officers Advanced Course, Conway commanded two companies in the 2nd Marine Regiment's Operations and Security section. As a field grade officer, he commanded two companies of students and taught tactics at The Basic School. He then went on to serve as operations officer for the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit, with sea duty in the western Pacific and in contingency operations off Beirut, Lebanon.
Returning to the United States, Conway was assigned as Senior Aide to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for two years. After graduating from Marine Corps Command and Staff College with honors, he took command of 3rd Battalion 2nd Marines through its eight-month deployment to Southwest Asia during the Gulf War.
After the war, he was promoted to colonel and assigned command of The Basic School. Promoted to brigadier general in December 1995, he again was assigned to the Joint Chiefs and later served as President of the Marine Corps University. After being promoted to major general, he served as commander of the 1st Marine Division and as Deputy Commanding General of Marine Forces Central. He was promoted to lieutenant general and assumed command of I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) on November 16, 2002. He commanded I MEF during two combat tours in Iraq, with 60,000 troops under his command, including Marines, soldiers, sailors, and British forces. In the book The Iraq War, Conway was described as, "big, buff, well read and well educated... he represented all that was best about the new United States Marine Corps, which General Al Gray as the commandant had set up."
In a press interview on May 30, 2003, Conway was questioned about the failure at that point to locate weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. He replied, in part:
It was a surprise to me then, it remains a surprise to me now, that we have not uncovered weapons... It's not for lack of trying. We've been to virtually every ammunition supply point between the Kuwaiti border and Baghdad, but they're simply not there... What the regime was intending to do in terms of its use of the weapons, we thought we understood—or we certainly had our best guess, our most dangerous, our most likely courses of action that the intelligence folks were giving us. We were simply wrong. But whether or not we're wrong at the national level, I think, still very much remains to be seen.
US Marines of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force under Conway's command constructed the military base "Camp Alpha" on top of ancient Babylonian ruins following the invasion. Though a US Military spokesman claimed that the project was discussed with the "head of the Babylon museum", the construction of the base drew intense criticism from archaeologists, who contend that it caused irreparable damage to one of the most important sites in the world. Dr. John Curtis of the British Museum's Near East department described how parts of the archaeological site were levelled and paved over to create a helipad as well as parking lots for heavy vehicles. Donny George, head of the Iraqi State Board for Heritage and Antiquities, stated that the "mess will take decades to sort out".
On June 13, 2006, Conway was nominated by President George W. Bush to become the 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps; the nomination was confirmed by the Senate on August 2, 2006. On November 13, Conway was promoted to the rank of general at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. and became the 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps. He was the first Commandant in nearly 40 years to have not served in the Vietnam War.
On June 11, 2009, Conway spoke at the National Press Club about the importance of maintaining the Amphibious assault ships to lift two Marine Expeditionary Brigades and the time "at home" away from the current wars to train for amphibious assault.
Conway was reported to have had "major reservations" about the repeal of "don't ask, don't tell", in contrast to the Pentagon opinion that the younger rank and file of the military did not have such reservations about serving with openly gay servicemembers. Conway, along with Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead, and Chief of Staff of the United States Army, General George Casey, supported running a one-year study on the effects of a possible repeal. Conway said that if gay Marines are allowed to serve openly, he might need to change the policy that requires unmarried Marines to share rooms. The policy was repealed on December 22, 2010, after his tenure as Commandant had ended.
On October 22, 2010, Conway turned the position of Commandant over to General James F. Amos, his Assistant Commandant, at a ceremony at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., Defense secretary Robert Gates presented Conway with his third Defense Distinguished Service Medal during the change-in-command. He then retired on November 1.
Conway is a graduate of the Infantry Officers Advanced Course, the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, and the Air War College. He is married to Annette Conway, née Drury, and they have three children. His two sons are Marine officers (infantry and reconnaissance), and his daughter is married to a Marine helicopter pilot.
Awards and decorations
Conway has been decorated for service, to include:
- He also holds 7 expert awards in both rifle and pistol marksmanship badges. In 2010, Conway was the recipient of the distinguished "Keeper of the Flame" award.
- List of United States Marine Corps four-star generals
- United States Marine Corps Wounded Warrior Regiment
- "Official Biography:General James T. Conway". Biographies: General Officers & Senior Executives. United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- "New Marine Corps Commandant Welcomed". Military.com. November 14, 2006. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- Schogol, Jeff (November 14, 2006). "Conway becomes Marine Corps Commandant". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- "Biography of General James T. Conway, USMC (Retired)". United States Marine Corps History Division. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Murray, Williamson; Scales, Robert H. (2003). The Iraq War: A Military History. Harvard University Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-674-01280-1.
- Leeman, Sue (January 16, 2005). "Damage seen to ancient Babylon". The Boston Globe.
- Bajjaly, Joanne Farchakh (2005-04-25). "History lost in dust of war-torn Iraq". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- Heritage News from around the world, World Heritage Alert!. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- Dunham, Will (June 13, 2006). "Marine Corps to get a new top general". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
- "Conway confirmed as new commandant". Marine Corps Times. August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2006.
- Marine Commandant Says Corps Fulfilled its Mission in Iraq Archived June 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (January 31, 2010). "Forces Pushing Obama on 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'". the New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- Lamothe, Dan (February 24, 2010). "Conway: Study needed before DADT repeal". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- Whitlock, Craig (March 27, 2010). "Gay, straight Marines wouldn't share rooms with don't ask' repeal, general says". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Shea, Sgt Jimmy D. (October 22, 2010). "Taking the Reins: Marine Corps Welcomes New Commandant". Headquarters Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on October 26, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- James T. Conway (October 22, 2010). The Passage of the Commandants – Gen. Conway says goodbye to the Corps (video broadcast). Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C.: United States Marine Corps. Event occurs at 8:13–10:36. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- DeFilippis, Sgt. Rocco (December 4, 2009). "Commandant of the Marine Corps awarded French Legion of Honour by French Army Chief of Staff". Paris. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James T. Conway.|
- "Official Homepage of the Commandant of the Marine Corps". United States Marine Corps. Retrieved January 21, 2009.
- Ron Harris (February 8, 2003). "Preparing for war with Iraq". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original (Biographical sketch of Gen. Conway) on August 8, 2006. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
- "General James T. Conway, USMC". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. United States Marine Corps History Division. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Shea, Sgt Jimmy D. (December 8, 2010). "General James T. Conway Reflects on Four Years, Two Wars". Marines magazine. No. Jul/Aug/Sept 2010. United States Marine Corps. pp. 14–19. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
| Commandant of the Marine Corps
James F. Amos