James Whitney Young

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James W. Young
Born (1941-01-24) 24 January 1941 (age 76)
Portland, Oregon, U.S.
Nationality American
Fields Astronomy
Minor planets discovered: 256 [1]
see § List of discovered minor planets

James Whitney Young (January 24, 1941) is an American astronomer who worked in the field of asteroid research. After nearly 47 years with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at their Table Mountain Facility, Young retired July 16, 2009.

He was a very prolific minor planet-observer of both physical properties and astrometric positions, and had discovered more than 250 asteroids since 2002,[1] most of them from the main-belt, as well as several near-Earth objects, Mars-crossers and Jupiter trojans. He also discovered SN 2004eg, an extra-galactic supernova.

The Florian asteroid 2874 Jim Young was named in his honor.[2]

Biography[edit]

James W. Young (aka Jim Young) was born in Portland, Oregon and recently retired as the resident astronomer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) near Wrightwood, California having been with them for 47 years.

Young was the lead technical guide at the NASA exhibit of the Seattle World's Fair during 1962. It was there he was encouraged to apply for an 'assistant observer' and 'darkroom technician' position at the recently developed Table Mountain Observatory with its new 16-inch (410 mm) telescope which had just begun full operations in late 1962.

Table Mountain Observatory[edit]

Along with Charles F. Capen, Jr. (TMO's first resident astronomer), Young carried out photographic synoptic patrols using specific colors (UV through IR) of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Several technical reports were published of 'patrol' images of Mars during two Martian apparitions (1964–65 and 1966–67). The 1964 inferior conjunction of Venus was well observed from TMO. Color astrophotography was carefully investigated for planetary imaging using recently developed high speed color film emulsions.

With the newly (1966) installed 24-inch (610 mm) Cassegrain/Coudé telescope, Young began his asteroid observations with JPL astronomers, Ellis D. Miner and Alan W. Harris. Asteroid rotational rates became his speciality soon thereafter and by 1980, over 30 publications in Icarus with Alan W. Harris resulted in nearly half of the (then) known rotational rates of these small solar system bodies.

With the advent of powerful lasers, Young became involved with several projects that aimed lasers successfully, first at the Surveyor VII spacecraft on the Moon (1968), later as two laser ranging programs developed at JPL in the 1990s found their marks on low and high earth orbiting satellites, and finally to the Galileo spacecraft some 6 million kilometers from Earth. In each case, Young was responsible for aiming/tracking the 24-inch (610 mm) telescope on each successive target.

Hypersensitization[edit]

Other noteworthy projects Young was involved in included the 1969 installation of a large planetary spectrograph utilizing the Coudé focus of the 24-inch (610 mm) telescope. Spectroscopic studies of the planet Venus were carried out by JPL astronomers, Andrew and Louise Young, with Jim Young assisting with hypersensitization of Eastman Kodak IR spectroscopic glass plates. Jim Young developed a new technique of cold storage for these extremely sensitive plates. His experimentation of 'clean' and properly washed plates, stored at −70 °C. for over two years, were without increased noise or loss of sensitivity. Previous experimenters could manage around a two-month reliability.

2-Micron All Sky Survey[edit]

In 1998, Young was asked to be an official observer for the 2-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), a joint venture of Caltech (California Institute of Technology) and the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass). Young carried out observations for this project at Mount Hopkins (south of Tucson, Arizona) and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile until 2000, all the while maintaining his full Table Mountain Observatory responsibilities for JPL.

Near Earth Objects[edit]

Late in 2002, Young began his last asteroid research, centering on NEOs and comets that have been discovered by several NASA funded NEO search teams such as NEAT, LINEAR, LONEOS, Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), and Spacewatch. With the use of Astrometrica software, Young become an extremely prolific astrometrist for the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The director of the MPC, Dr. Brian G. Marsden called Young the third most accurate and reliable observer in the world then. He also co-authored and authored over 1500 MPECs (Minor Planet Electronic Circulars) and IAUCs (International Astronomical Union Circulars) during these last 7 years at JPL. NASA awarded Young a three-year grant to further his studies of NEOs and comets for JPL and the MPC during the last years before his retirement.

In 2003 Young accepted a new responsibility as 'Astronomy Team Leader' at Table Mountain, and supervised a staff of three employees in maintaining two optical telescopes (0.4 and 0.6 meter cassegrain systems), four CCD cameras, and a computer network of over 20 computers. Young maintained the optical performance of the telescopes, and the vacuum requirements for the CCD cameras. He also was in charge of the telescope scheduling for all visiting astronomers and his staff. TMO recently placed their new on-line webpage for all users as well as the public (see below link).

List of discovered minor planets[edit]

James Whitney Young is credited as "J. W. Young" by the Minor Planet Center with the discovery of 256 minor planets made between 2002 and 2009.[1]

78577 JPL 10 September 2002 list
84882 Table Mountain 1 February 2003 list
90525 Karijanberg 17 March 2004 list
95939 Thagnesland 30 May 2003 list
114239 Bermarmi 21 November 2002 list
115312 Whither 19 September 2003 list
115477 Brantanica 19 October 2003 list
(115485) 2003 UR19 22 October 2003 list
115891 Scottmichael 14 November 2003 list
116446 McDermid 5 January 2004 list
116903 Jeromeapt 11 April 2004 list
120038 Franlainsher 26 January 2003 list
120174 Jeffjenny 23 May 2003 list
128297 Ashlevi 13 December 2003 list
(128621) 2004 RD 2 September 2004 list
(129066) 2004 VY28 7 November 2004 list
133280 Bryleen 18 September 2003 list
133527 Fredearly 5 October 2003 list
(134010) 2004 VW28 7 November 2004 list
142084 Jamesdaniel 29 August 2002 list
(143052) 2002 WY2 24 November 2002 list
144692 Katemary 9 April 2004 list
(145166) 2005 JL 3 May 2005 list
147397 Bobhazel 30 March 2003 list
(147735) 2005 NE 2 July 2005 list
(147799) 2005 RA34 15 September 2005 list
(149450) 2003 CE14 6 February 2003 list
(149976) 2005 UO6 24 October 2005 list
150035 Williamson 20 November 2005 list
(152212) 2005 RG 1 September 2005 list
(152471) 2005 WE1 21 November 2005 list
(158621) 2003 BJ 20 January 2003 list
158899 Malloryvale 17 August 2004 list
(161384) 2003 UK25 24 October 2003 list
163626 Glatfelter 27 October 2002 list
(163950) 2003 UN22 23 October 2003 list
(170025) 2002 VO 2 November 2002 list
(170026) 2002 VV2 4 November 2002 list
(170027) 2002 VH5 5 November 2002 list
(171287) 2006 GK3 7 April 2006 list
(172460) 2003 RT11 15 September 2003 list
(172533) 2003 UO9 20 October 2003 list
(172627) 2003 XP10 9 December 2003 list
(173075) 2006 UC 16 October 2006 list
(174758) 2003 VX2 14 November 2003 list
(177065) 2003 FP7 30 March 2003 list
(177245) 2003 WB 17 November 2003 list
(177625) 2004 JD 8 May 2004 list
(180103) 2003 FX6 26 March 2003 list
(180213) 2003 UM8 19 October 2003 list
(180216) 2003 UY9 20 October 2003 list
(180537) 2004 EB1 14 March 2004 list
(180731) 2004 JW35 13 May 2004 list
(181492) 2006 UU1 16 October 2006 list
(183309) 2002 VQ 2 November 2002 list
(183501) 2003 FU4 25 March 2003 list
(184064) 2004 GM 10 April 2004 list
185641 Judd 5 March 2008 list
(186728) 2004 CH2 12 February 2004 list
(187304) 2005 UV 23 October 2005 list
(188588) 2005 NP29 8 July 2005 list
(188721) 2005 UU 23 October 2005 list
189944 Leblanc 3 October 2003 list
(190118) 2004 VR60 10 November 2004 list
(191323) 2003 KN 22 May 2003 list
(191485) 2003 TO2 7 October 2003 list
(191621) 2004 MN3 19 June 2004 list
(196297) 2003 FA 21 March 2003 list
(196926) 2003 UG5 18 October 2003 list
198110 Heathrhoades 17 September 2004 list
(199742) 2006 JD 1 May 2006 list
201777 Deronda 24 November 2003 list
(202084) 2004 SE56 30 September 2004 list
(206462) 2003 TN10 15 October 2003 list
(206755) 2004 CJ2 12 February 2004 list
(207028) 2004 VN60 10 November 2004 list
(207548) 2006 LZ 4 June 2006 list
(207690) 2007 RE19 14 September 2007 list
(209635) 2005 BR1 17 January 2005 list
(211480) 2003 FC7 26 March 2003 list
(211489) 2003 KP 22 May 2003 list
(211536) 2003 RR11 15 September 2003 list
(211917) 2004 TG8 4 October 2004 list
(213727) 2002 VF92 13 November 2002 list
(213893) 2003 TN2 7 October 2003 list
(213894) 2003 TP2 8 October 2003 list
(216242) 2006 VK14 15 November 2006 list
(216780) 2006 QP57 27 August 2006 list
(217425) 2005 RF 1 September 2005 list
(218653) 2005 SB134 30 September 2005 list
(220397) 2003 RK10 12 September 2003 list
(220578) 2004 JG 8 May 2004 list
(220634) 2004 QC25 30 August 2004 list
221019 Raine 13 August 2005 list
(221332) 2005 WB2 22 November 2005 list
(221778) 2007 KC 16 May 2007 list
(223349) 2003 RP11 15 September 2003 list
(223907) 2004 VO60 10 November 2004 list
(223908) 2004 VQ60 10 November 2004 list
(224067) 2005 NO29 8 July 2005 list
(226331) 2003 FL 22 March 2003 list
(226810) 2004 RL222 14 September 2004 list
(227331) 2005 UW 23 October 2005 list
(229368) 2005 RC3 5 September 2005 list
(229616) 2006 DK68 23 February 2006 list
(230550) 2003 BM 21 January 2003 list
(230737) 2003 WX7 18 November 2003 list
(231463) 2007 PO 5 August 2007 list
(232595) 2003 UP9 20 October 2003 list
(232936) 2005 BX2 19 January 2005 list
(233332) 2006 CS10 8 February 2006 list
(233749) 2008 TF3 2 October 2008 list
(238022) 2002 VE5 5 November 2002 list
(239313) 2007 RM16 13 September 2007 list
(240556) 2004 RQ164 8 September 2004 list
(242640) 2005 ND 2 July 2005 list
(245486) 2005 PF17 13 August 2005 list
(248904) 2006 VE 1 November 2006 list
(250711) 2005 RZ33 15 September 2005 list
(250907) 2005 WK 19 November 2005 list
(253333) 2003 FA7 26 March 2003 list
(253383) 2003 KA 20 May 2003 list
(253859) 2004 AL 11 January 2004 list
(254157) 2004 PT92 11 August 2004 list
(255307) 2005 WR 20 November 2005 list
(255743) 2006 RV 4 September 2006 list
(256128) 2006 VD 1 November 2006 list
(256602) 2007 VO1 2 November 2007 list
(259615) 2003 VZ2 14 November 2003 list
(259680) 2003 XC11 13 December 2003 list
(260097) 2004 MX3 22 June 2004 list
(260384) 2004 VP60 10 November 2004 list
(260835) 2005 QD29 29 August 2005 list
(261932) 2006 MU1 19 June 2006 list
(261984) 2006 QT23 22 August 2006 list
(265031) 2003 OT 21 July 2003 list
(265526) 2005 NA 1 July 2005 list
(267625) 2002 RD232 11 September 2002 list
(267767) 2003 RJ10 3 September 2003 list[A]
(270920) 2002 UT 25 October 2002 list
(271110) 2003 RO11 15 September 2003 list
(271474) 2004 FG6 24 March 2004 list
(273959) 2007 KX1 18 May 2007 list
(273995) 2007 OB 16 July 2007 list
(274335) 2008 RW22 5 September 2008 list
(276361) 2002 VG5 5 November 2002 list
(276471) 2003 KL3 23 May 2003 list
(277029) 2005 CG7 4 February 2005 list
(278734) 2008 SN82 23 September 2008 list
(278736) 2008 SX84 28 September 2008 list
(281235) 2007 JE36 15 May 2007 list
281445 Scotthowe 28 September 2008 list
(287374) 2002 VR 2 November 2002 list
(287417) 2002 WX2 24 November 2002 list
(287577) 2003 FE42 31 March 2003 list
(287842) 2003 SX219 29 September 2003 list
(288425) 2004 EE 11 March 2004 list
(288474) 2004 FE6 24 March 2004 list
(288691) 2004 QE 16 August 2004 list
(288703) 2004 RE 2 September 2004 list
(288957) 2004 TJ9 7 October 2004 list
(290002) 2005 PC17 12 August 2005 list
(290183) 2005 SZ4 25 September 2005 list
(291399) 2006 CD60 11 February 2006 list
(293605) 2007 KB 16 May 2007 list
(295035) 2008 EU83 12 March 2008 list
(295442) 2008 LU16 15 June 2008 list
(298635) 2004 BM41 23 January 2004 list
(298793) 2004 QE3 18 August 2004 list
(299291) 2005 PK17 13 August 2005 list
(299453) 2006 BS55 22 January 2006 list
(299509) 2006 CJ10 7 February 2006 list
(299693) 2006 QZ110 30 August 2006 list
301021 Sofiarodriguez 23 September 2008 list
(303265) 2004 RH111 8 September 2004 list
(303452) 2005 BL14 20 January 2005 list
(306209) 2011 QZ18 26 March 2003 list
(309524) 2007 XG24 15 December 2007 list
(311831) 2006 VS13 13 November 2006 list
(313892) 2004 JF 8 May 2004 list
(314457) 2005 WL 20 November 2005 list
(319134) 2005 YV8 20 December 2005 list
(319798) 2006 VJ14 15 November 2006 list
(320088) 2007 EX87 14 March 2007 list
(323552) 2004 TB 2 October 2004 list
(324275) 2006 CH10 4 February 2006 list
(327009) 2004 RK84 10 September 2004 list
(327421) 2005 WP 20 November 2005 list
(327552) 2006 CO10 4 February 2006 list
(329740) 2003 YP117 17 December 2003 list
(329778) 2004 MA4 22 June 2004 list
(329876) 2005 BT2 19 January 2005 list
(330226) 2006 JU26 7 May 2006 list
(330476) 2007 FH6 17 August 2004 list
(330697) 2008 KZ11 29 May 2008 list
(335014) 2004 JJ 8 May 2004 list
(335028) 2004 PU92 11 August 2004 list
(335332) 2005 RD 1 September 2005 list
(335466) 2005 WQ 20 November 2005 list
(338400) 2003 BK 20 January 2003 list
(339384) 2005 BZ1 18 January 2005 list
(339385) 2005 BU2 19 January 2005 list
(341868) 2008 GU1 4 April 2008 list
(343399) 2010 CE170 14 February 2004 list
(344595) 2003 CN11 5 February 2003 list
(344830) 2004 FE18 25 March 2004 list
(346391) 2008 SV84 28 September 2008 list
(347901) 2002 VD5 4 November 2002 list
(347932) 2003 FW4 25 March 2003 list
(348172) 2004 MY7 29 June 2004 list
(349766) 2009 AH43 7 January 2009 list
(350968) 2003 CH14 6 February 2003 list
(351235) 2004 PW92 11 August 2004 list
(351677) 2006 AM78 11 January 2006 list
(354835) 2005 YB 19 December 2005 list
(359771) 2011 UV127 1 September 2006 list
(361139) 2006 HN57 29 April 2006 list
(364166) 2006 JB 1 May 2006 list
(364819) 2008 CB2 2 February 2008 list
(371789) 2007 OE3 21 July 2007 list
(372232) 2008 UR91 28 October 2008 list
(373986) 2004 AK 11 January 2004 list
(374404) 2005 WM 20 November 2005 list
(377081) 2002 VA1 3 November 2002 list
(378266) 2007 ED10 10 March 2007 list
(378370) 2007 ON5 24 July 2007 list
(378918) 2008 UQ91 28 October 2008 list
(380522) 2004 GK 10 April 2004 list
(382979) 2005 BK14 20 January 2005 list
(383620) 2007 NG3 13 July 2007 list
(386087) 2007 OD3 21 July 2007 list
(387730) 2003 FF42 31 March 2003 list
(388018) 2005 SA26 29 September 2005 list
(391766) 2008 FA 19 March 2008 list
(391796) 2008 RH78 10 September 2008 list
(394428) 2007 KA 16 May 2007 list
(400291) 2007 TS69 14 October 2007 list
(405301) 2003 UH5 18 October 2003 list
(410817) 2009 MN 19 June 2009 list
(413647) 2005 VS7 12 November 2005 list
(416273) 2003 GS28 8 April 2003 list
(416583) 2004 JH 8 May 2004 list
(417020) 2005 UX64 29 October 2005 list
(417380) 2006 HM57 29 April 2006 list
(423163) 2004 FD18 25 March 2004 list
(427688) 2004 ET 13 March 2004 list
(427928) 2005 VQ1 4 November 2005 list
(427939) 2005 WG 19 November 2005 list
(428067) 2006 GM3 7 April 2006 list
(431625) 2007 WX3 18 November 2007 list
(434491) 2005 SZ25 29 September 2005 list
(447078) 2004 TF8 4 October 2004 list
(447286) 2005 WA2 22 November 2005 list
(457275) 2008 RK78 10 September 2008 list
(481388) 2006 RD1 6 September 2006 list
(483592) 2004 MY3 22 June 2004* list
Co-discovery made with:
A A. Grigsby

Outreach[edit]

Young taught an astronomy extension course for the University of California, Riverside in 1969 and 1970 specifically for high school and junior college teachers and educators.

Young frequently lectures about his work to youth, school, civic, and church groups around the western USA. In 2006 He attended the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) General Assembly 2006 in Prague, Czech Republic. Young gave a presentation on his activities taking astrometric observations of NEOs and comets at Table Mountain Observatory in the S236 Symposium on August 14. Young, and his wife Karen (a HS Science and Math teacher), hold annual star-parties for their local communities as an Outreach Program. The 13th annual event, was held on October 15, 2010. The event was attended by approximately 80 people, with many school children, parents, and Boy Scouts present. With six telescopes, many from members of the High Desert Astronomical Society (HiDAS), participants viewed the moon, and later when the clouds cleared in the east, a shadow transit of Io across Jupiter's cloud surface was seen.

Mr. Young spoke at the Imiloa Astronomy Center in Hilo, Hawaii on December 23, 2010. Young's presentation, entitled "The First Asteroid Discovery to Near-Earth Hazards" featured Scott Manley's visualization titled, '1980-2010 Asteroid Discoveries', a six-minute version (made especially for this presentation, with a re-mix of the music "Transgenic" from Trifonic Music, LLC). Still in Hilo, Mr. Young also gave an evening fireside at the Hilo Stake Center of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, entitled, "The Creation as Viewed by an Astronomer". This same fireside was given in Dallas, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; and Medina, Ohio in May, 2011.

On the afternoon of June 5, Young held a viewing of the Venus transit from Wrightwood, California for the local community. Mr. Young's 6-inch telescope was used with a solar filter for the 80-100 people who attended, as well as photography to record the event with a 2000mm telephoto lens.

Honors[edit]

The Florian asteroid 2874 Jim Young, discovered by Edward Bowell in 1982, was named in his honor.[2]

Memberships and affiliations[edit]

Type Organization
Full Member American Astronomical Society (AAS)

Asteroid meanings[edit]

List of named minor planet and their meanings
Minor planet Named for Description Ref
78577 JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory Named for the NASA facility where Young was employed from 1962 to 2009. MPC
84882 Table Mountain Table Mountain Obs. Named for Young's actual work place Table Mountain Observatory, near Wrightwood, California. MPC
90525 Karijanberg Karen Young
Richard and Janet Halberg
Named for Young's wife, Karen (1953-) and her parents, Richard (1928–1978) and Janet (1932–1997). MPC
95939 Thagnesland Thaddeus and Agnes Vreeland Named for Young’s maternal grandparents, Thaddeus (1866–1921) and Agnes (1877–1961) Vreeland. MPC
114239 Bermarmi Bernard, Mary and Michael Young Named for Young's parents, Bernard (1911–1988) and Mary (1912–1996), and well as his brother, Michael (1937-). MPC
115312 Whither Whitney and Heather Young Named for Whitney and Heather Young, granddaughters of James Young; two children of son, Jeffrey. MPC
115477 Brantanica grandchildren Named for Brandon, Brittany and Monica, grandchildren of James Young, and the three children of daughter, Jennifer. MPC
115891 Scottmichael grandchildren Named for Scott and Michael, grandchildren of James Young, two children of son, Jeffrey. MPC
116446 McDermid Stuart McDermid Named for Stuart McDermid (1952-), a JPL Science Division senior research scientist responsible for development of the LIDAR facility at Table Mountain Observatory for atmospheric analysis studies. MPC
116903 Jeromeapt Jerome Apt Named for Jerome (Jay) Apt (1949-), Former director of JPL's Table Mountain Observatory, retired NASA astronaut who flew 4 missions

on the International Space Station, and currently a professor at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

MPC
120038 Franlainsher Frances and Elaine Fisher Named for Young's first wife, Frances (1944-) and her sister, Elaine (1947-) Fisher. MPC
120174 Jeffjenny Jeffrey and Jennifer Young Named for Young's first children (with Frances), Jeffrey (1966-) (1967-). MPC
128297 Ashlevi Ashlie Philpott
Levi Lemley
Named for Ashlie Philpott and Levi Lemley, grandchildren of James Young, and children of daughter, Eileen. MPC
133280 Bryleen Bryan and Eileen Young Named for Young's children (with Karen), Bryan (1976-) and Eileen (1979-). MPC
133527 Fredearly Frederick and Pearl Young Named for Young's paternal grandparents, Frederick (1889–1974) and Pearl Young (1888–1958). MPC
142084 James and Daniel Sealy Named for James (1951–1978) and Daniel (1957-), the two sons of Bob and Hazel Sealy. MPC
144692 Katemary Katelyn Young Named for Young's granddaughter, Katelyn Anne Marie Young (b. 1999), the daughter of Jim's son, Bryan. MPC
147397 Bobhazel Bob and Hazel Sealy Named for Bob (1927–2002) and Hazel (1930-) Sealy, longtime residents of Seaside, Oregon. The Sealy family were, in part, very instrumental in Jim Young's long astronomy career starting from Jim's annual summer vacations in Seaside. Bob Sealy was an amateur astronomer, and started the Seaside Amateur Astronomer's Society, as well as taught astronomy classes at Clatsop Community College in Astoria, Oregon. Hazel Sealy was very active in the Miss Oregon Pageant in the 1950s and 60s, and still is an active member of local community affairs. James Sealy tragically lost his life in a boating accident in the ocean waters just outside Seaside on July 8, 1978. Daniel is an amateur astronomer, ham radio operator, and community member while residing in Astoria, Oregon, along with his wife and two children. MPC
150035 Williamson Bruce Williamson Named for Bruce Williamson (1953-), machinist at the Table Mountain Facility. MPC
158899 Malloryvale Mallory Vale Named for Mallory Vale (1986-), a 2004 summer student at Table Mountain Observatory, who will be graduating from Northern Arizona University with a BS degree in astronomy in the Spring of 2009. MPC
163626 Glatfelter Pam Glatfelter Named for Pam Glatfelter (1955-), the operational site manager for the Table Mountain Facility. MPC
185641 Judd Michele Judd Named for Michele Judd (1965-), a Senior Engineer of JPL's Science Division who left JPL in 2008 to become the Managing Director of the Keck Institute for Space Studies at Caltech. MPC
198110 Heathrhoades Heath Rhoades Named for Heath Rhoades (1972-), the telescope computer network administrator and programmer at Table Mountain Observatory. MPC
201777 Deronda Deronda Mayes Named for Deronda Mayes (1957-), assistant astronomer at Table Mountain Observatory. MPC
221019 Raine Raine Krecic Named for Raine Ann Krecic (2011-), granddaughter of James Young, and child of daughter, Eileen. MPC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (2874) Jim Young. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 236. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 

External links[edit]