James Willard Schultz

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James Willard Schultz
JamesWillardSchultz1889.jpg
James Willard Schultz, age 30
Born (1859-08-26)August 26, 1859
Boonville, New York
Died June 11, 1947(1947-06-11) (aged 87)
Wind River Reservation, Wyoming
Resting place
Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana
48°39′31″N 112°52′18″W / 48.65861°N 112.87167°W / 48.65861; -112.87167 (Blackfee Indian Reservation)
Other names Apikuni, Appekunny

James Willard Schultz, or Apikuni, (born August 26, 1859, died June 11, 1947) was a noted author, explorer, Glacier National Park guide, fur trader and historian of the Blackfoot Indians.[1] While operating a fur trading post at Carroll, Montana 47°34′25″N 108°22′24″W / 47.57361°N 108.37333°W / 47.57361; -108.37333 (Carroll, Montana) and living amongst the Pikuni tribe during the period 1880-82, he was given the name "Apikuni" by the Pikuni chief, Running Crane.[1] Apikuni in Blackfoot means Spotted Robe. Schultz is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfoot life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park.

Early life[edit]

Schultz was born August 26, 1859 in Boonville, New York 43°29′01″N 075°20′12″W / 43.48361°N 75.33667°W / 43.48361; -75.33667 (Boonville, NY) to well-to-do parents, Frances and Philander Bushrod Schults [as it was spelled at the time]. The house where he was born is marked with a plaque as a New York State Historic Landmark.[1] Young James enjoyed the outdoors and his father ensured he was mentored by experienced outdoorsmen and hunters in the Adirondacks during camping and hunting trips. He became an experienced shooter at an early age.

Early years in Montana[edit]

As a young adult, Schultz moved to Fort Conrad, Montana, on the Marias River. He stayed at Fort Conrad from 1877 to 1885, and established a trading post there in 1880. During that time period he traded with the Pikuni and Bloods and established another trading post at Carroll, Montana on the Missouri River where he also traded with the Crees.[2]

Glacier National Park[edit]

In the mid-1880s, Schultz began to spend more time in the Two Medicine and Saint Mary Lakes region of what is now Glacier National Park guiding and outfitting local hunters. In 1885 he sent an article on the St. Mary Lakes to Forest and Stream, one of his first literary efforts. At the time George Bird Grinnell was the magazine's editor and he became intrigued with Schultz and the Glacier region. Grinnell solicited Schultz to outfit and guide him on a hunting trip in Glacier in September 1885. Although the trip was not a great success for Grinnell, he did kill a Bighorn ram on a mountain near the Upper Saint Mary Lake with a single shot. Schultz promptly named the mountain Singleshot Mountain to honor Grinnell's feat. Thus began decades of Schultz naming features in the Glacier regions for clients, friends and to honor traditional Indian names.[1]

Glacier features named by Schultz[edit]

Glacier features named for Schultz[5][edit]

Author[edit]

James Willard Schultz started writing at the age of 21, publishing articles and stories in Forest and Stream for 15 years. He did not write his first book until 1907 at age 48. The memoir: ''My Life as an Indian tells the story of his first year living with the Pikuni tribe of Blackfeet Indians East of Glacier. In 1911, he associated himself with publishers Houghton Mifflin who published Schultz's subsequent books for the next 30 years. In all, Schultz wrote and published 37 fiction and non-fiction books dealing with the Blackfoot, Kootenai, and Flathead Indians. His works received critical literary acclaim from the general media as well as academia for his story telling and contributions to ethnology. Sometime after 1902, while living in Southern California, Schultz worked for a while as the literary editor of the Los Angeles Times.[1]

Family[edit]

Schultz's first marriage in 1879 was to a Piegan Blackfeet Indian woman named Natahki—with whom he had a son named Hart Merriam Schultz, or Lone Wolf (1882–1965). Natahki died in 1903.[10] Schultz's second wife, Jessica Schultz Graham, helped publish some of Schultz's works posthumously, such as Bear Chief's War Shirt.[11]

Death[edit]

James Schultz suffered from ill health for most of his last 30 years. Guiding in the rugged Glacier area took its toll physically. He suffered from incapcitatiing lung and heart infections. He was probably an alcoholic by today's standards.[1] In 1931 he injured his spine and through treatment became addicted to morphine, but was able to break the addiction a year later. In 1942, he fell breaking his left leg and right arm. In September 1944, a fall at his home in Denver broke his hip and required major surgery to repair. His deteriorating health severely impacting his ability to write and concentrate. After moving to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming to be close to the native Americans tribes he grew up with, he suffered a fatal heart attack and died on June 11, 1947. He wanted to be buried in Montana and was laid to rest on the Blackfeet Reservation 48°39′31″N 112°52′18″W / 48.65861°N 112.87167°W / 48.65861; -112.87167 (Blackfeet Indian Reservation) near Browning, Montana in the old burial ground of the family of Natahki, his first wife.[1]

List of works[edit]

Books by Schultz[12][edit]

  • Schultz, James Willard (1907). My Life as an Indian-The Story of a Red Woman and a White Man in the Lodges of the Blackfeet. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1912). With the Indians in the Rockies. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1913). Sinopah: The Indian Boy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1913). The Quest of the Fish-dog Skin. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1914). On The Warpath. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1916). Blackfeet Tales of Glacier National Park. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1916). Apauk-Caller of Buffalo. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1917). The Gold Cache. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1918). Bird Woman (Sacajewa) - The Guide of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1918). Lone Bull's Mistake-A Lodgepole Chief Story. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1919). Rising Wolf-The White Blackfeet, Hugh Monroe's Story of his first year on the plains. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1919). Running Eagle-The Warrior Girl. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1920). In the Great Apache Forest. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1920). Dreadful River Cave. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1921). The War-Trail Fort-Further Adventures of Thomas Fox and Pitamakan. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1921). Seizer of Eagles. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1922). Trail of the Spanish Horse. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1923). The Danger Trail: A Thrilling Story of the Fur-Traders. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1923). Friends of My Life as an Indian. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1924). Sahtaki And I. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1924). Plumed Snake Medicine. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1925). Questers of the Desert. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1926). Signposts of Adventure:Glacier National Park as the Indians Know It. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1926). Sun Woman - A Novel. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1926). William Jackson-Indian Scout. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1927). A Son of the Navahos. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1927). Red Crow's Brother. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1928). In Enemy Country. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1929). Skull Head The Terrible. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1930). The White Beaver. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard; Donaldson, Jesse Louise (1930). Sun God's Children. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1931). Friends and Foes in the Rockies. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1933). Alder Gulch Gold. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1934). Gold Dust. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1936). The White Buffalo Robe. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1937). Stained Gold. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1940). Short Bow's Big Medicine. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
  • Schultz, James Willard (1961). Blackfeet Man: Stories of the Famous Montana Indian Story Writer and an Original Map and Guide to the Beautiful Region He Loved (Montana Heritage Series). Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society.  (published posthumously)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Hanna, Warren L. (1988). "James Willard Schultz-The Pikuni Storyteller". Stars over Montana-Men Who Made Glacier National Park History. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association. pp. 95–111. ISBN 091679064. 
  2. ^ Guide to the James W. Shultz Papers at the University of Montana
  3. ^ "East Flattop Mountain". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  4. ^ "Going-to-the-Sun Mountain". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  5. ^ Holterman, Jack (1985). Place Names of Glacier/Waterton National Parks. West Glacier, Montana: Glacier Natural History Association. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-916792-02-1. 
  6. ^ "Apikuni Creek". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  7. ^ "Apikuni Flat". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  8. ^ "Apikuni Falls". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  9. ^ "Apikuni Mountain". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  10. ^ "Butterfly Lodge Museum offers glimpse into adventurer's life - Navajo-Hopi Observer - Flagstaff, Arizona". Navajo-Hopi Observer. 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  11. ^ Fleck, Richard F. (1986). "Review of Bear Chief's War Shirt". American Indian Quarterly 10 (2): 148–149. 
  12. ^ Hanna, Warren L. (1986). "Appendix A-Books by James Willard Schultz". The Life and Times of James Willard Schultz (Apikuni). Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 354–357. ISBN 0-8061-1985-3. 

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