Jamestown Associates is a political, public affairs and corporate advertising firm active in the United States, specializing in media production, direct mail, press relations and campaign management, for candidates of the Republican Party. Its CEO is Larry Weitzner. Among its best-known political clients are Donald Trump (both 2016 and 2020), several governors (including Charlie Baker of Massachusetts, Chris Sununu of New Hampshire, and Chris Christie of New Jersey), Senator Mike Braun, and the Republican National Committee. Past corporate and governmental clients include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection.
Overview and awards
Jamestown Associates is currently headquartered in Philadelphia.
As of the end of the 2010 general election season, Jamestown Associates was the 7th largest grossing Republican consulting firm in the United States.
Campaign ads produced by Jamestown have been cited in various media sources among the most notable in various election seasons over the past two decades—by the New York Times in 1998, and by the Washington Post in 2006 (their selection of that year's "Best Campaign Commercials"). The firm has won a number of Pollie Awards and Reed Awards. In 2016, Jamestown received 9 Pollie Awards and 8 Reed Awards, the most that year of any political consulting group, according to Campaigns & Elections magazine and the American Association of Political Consultants. In February 2017, Jamestown received 7 Reed Awards for ads and mail, again the most of any firm.
By Jamestown's count, over the total 2015-16 election cycle and including all clients, the firm produced more than 22 million pieces of mail as well as 398 TV, radio and web advertisements.
2010-20 - candidates for governor and Congress
In 2010, Weitzner and Jamestown worked for several candidates winning election for the first time, as Republicans recaptured control of the U.S. House of Representatives. Among Jamestown clients capturing Democratic seats were Frank Guinta (NH), Richard Hanna (NY), Tim Walberg (MI), Bob Dold (IL) and Joe Walsh (IL). Jamestown also produced ads for businessman Bill Binnie, in his unsuccessful bid for Senate from New Hampshire.
In February 2011, Jamestown client Jonathan Perry won a special election for State Senate in Louisiana, which gave the Republicans control of both houses of the Louisiana legislature for the first time since Reconstruction. In a mild controversy, the firm said in October 2010 that a contractor it hired had used the phrase "hicky blue collar" in describing the actors wanted for a National Republican Senatorial Committee ad to be broadcast in West Virginia.
Beginning in 2012 and continuing through 2016, Miller and Jamestown took on several insurgent candidates challenging Republican incumbents. These included Richard Mourdock, in Indiana (who defeated longtime Sen. Richard Lugar in the 2012 primary, losing to Democrat Joe Donnelly in the fall; Congressman Paul Broun, who lost his nomination bid for Georgia Senator; and radiologist Milton Wolf, who nearly upset Kansas Sen. Pat Roberts in the August 2014 primary. They were retained by the Club for Growth PAC, in its challenge to a GOP incumbent in Mississippi and support for a Tea Party conservative (Ben Sasse) in Nebraska. And in early 2015, they were retained by the presidential campaign of Tea Party insurgent Ted Cruz for the GOP nomination. Political reporter Stuart Rothenberg noted in February 2014: "New Jersey-based Jamestown [w]as a regional consulting firm that worked mostly with moderate or even liberal Republicans running in the Northeast. Now it has become a national firm (with offices around the country) that will be one of a handful of firms promoting anti-establishment libertarian and tea party hopefuls this cycle. . . .it's also a fascinating story of how a media firm has evolved and adapted to a changing political environment."
At the same time, Jamestown continued to work for more moderate and "mainstream" Republicans. Their 2012 clients included longtime St. Sen. Joe Kyrillos, who lost his bid for U.S. Senate from New Jersey, and in 2013 they produced ads and direct mail for the successful re-election of Gov. Chris Christie in New Jersey. Indeed, Jamestown produced ads for four winning gubernatorial campaigns in four years—Christie in 2013, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker in 2014, Kentucky Governor Matt Bevin in 2015 and New Hampshire Governor Chris Sununu in 2016. Jamestown also produced ads for the losing gubernatorial primary effort of businessman Bruce Lisman in Vermont. Baker, a moderate running in liberal Massachusetts, hired Jamestown in the final months of 2014. His closing 90-second spot, "Remarkable State," was dubbed "the selfie ad" and was described as "...one of the best campaign ads I saw . . . featuring clip after clip of the candidate posing for selfies with voters across the state" by political author Kristin Soltis Anderson.
in 2013, Jamestown produced ads for Mark Sanford's comeback campaign for the U.S. House, following the former Governor's scandalous affair with an Argentinian journalist and subsequent divorce. Despite being actively shunned by national party committees and major donors, Sanford won the GOP nomination with 56.5%, and then captured the coastal 1st District seat with 54% in the May special election.
In 2015, Jamestown was the principal media and communications consultant for Matt Bevin gubernatorial campaign in Kentucky. Bevin, who had lost his insurgent challenge to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell a year earlier, was the surprise winner of a three-way fight for the nomination in May—a victory attributed in part to a closing ad by Jamestown, "Food Fight." (The ad may be viewed here.) After a hard-fought campaign in which he trailed in most public surveys, Bevin that November posted a smashing 53% to 44% victory against attorney general Jack Conway.
The firm's most notable work in 2018 was on behalf of businessman Mike Braun of Indiana, one of three leading challengers for the GOP nomination to face one-term Democratic incumbent Joe Donnelly, a marquee race in the fight to control the US Senate. Braun, the underdog against better-known Congressmen Todd Rokita and Luke Messer used a Jamestown ad to highlight his outsider / non-politician status, carrying cardboard cutouts ("The Difference", which may be viewed here). Braun won the primary, and beat Donnelly in the general. "Difference" was called one of the best ads of 2018 by Roll Call newspaper, and was praised for its effectiveness by POLITICO, PBS, and ABC News.
In 2016, 2018 and 2020, Jamestown created ads for the successful gubernatorial campaigns of Chris Sununu in New Hampshire.
2016 presidential campaign
Cruz, March 2015 to May 2016
Jamestown served as the lead media firm in the presidential primaries for the losing campaign of Ted Cruz, placing second to Trump. Weitzner produced ads, with his then-Executive Vice President Jason Miller serving as a senior media spokesman. One of Jamestown's primary spots, "Cruz Commander," was named by Time magazine among the top 10 most notable advertisements of the year. (The spot may be viewed here.)
Trump, June to November 2016
In the fall presidential campaign, Jamestown was the primary media firm producing TV spots for Donald Trump, according to AdWeek magazine. Miller served as Senior Communications Advisor (and frequently chief spokesman), and Larry Weitzner was lead ad creator. The firm's most-seen ads came in the campaign's final two months.
Weitzner told the Washington Post, "Mr. Trump wanted high-energy, high-impact ads that fit his message, and that is what we gave him. He instantly rejected ads he deemed 'boring.' . . . Mr. Trump is also a pro when it comes to production and lighting. We had to make sure lighting and set-ups were perfect on production shoots. . . . Submitting spots for review was another unorthodox aspect of the campaign. Steve Bannon, Jared Kushner and Brad Parscale directed me to produce spots for review without approving scripts — they wanted to see our vision. I loved that. It gave us a chance to do some interesting ads without idly waiting around for script approval. One of the closing ads, “Choice” was the result of a brainstorming session at Jamestown Associates’ Philadelphia office, where our team came up with the concept of uniquely focusing on one American voter and the choice she was tasked with making.") (The "Choice" ad may be viewed here. )
"Movement" (a 30-second TV spot) "particularly satisfied Mr. Trump's desire for high-energy, high-impact, non-boring communication. Steve Bannon and KellyAnne Conway told me we needed an ad capturing the fact that Mr. Trump started 'a movement, not a campaign.'", Weitzner related in December. "The ad isn't issue-oriented, but it captures the feeling everyone on the Trump campaign, everyone at his rallies, and everyone supporting his candidacy saw as great enthusiasm for his movement.'” The spot was later honored with the Reed Award for Ad of the Year 2016 by Campaigns & Elections magazine. (The ad may be viewed here.)
The two-minute summation piece, "Argument for America," had an unusual genesis, Weitzner said. "It was originally produced as a web video. After seeing it and sharing it with the Trump team, Parscale — who gets credit for the idea — told me, 'Everyone loves it, we are putting it on TV.' Now, that is unorthodox. Two-minute political commercials don't usually air nationwide. It blew up on social media, with more than 8 million hits, greater than any TV ad produced by either campaign. So many people have told us that ad was the turning point in deciding to vote for President-elect Trump.". ("Argument" may be viewed here.)
After the election, Miller left Jamestown and joined the Trump transition team, serving as its chief spokesman. He was offered, but turned down the job of White House Communications Director, and later took a senior position with Teneo, a corporate advisory and lobbying firm. Miller stated that he wished to spend more time with his family. His decision came after allegations of personal involvement with a Trump campaign staffer, and an earlier report of Miller visiting a strip club with other staffers and members of the press before a presidential debate. He later sold his partnership in the firm.
2020 presidential campaign
Jamestown continued its close association with the Trump operation after 2016, producing ads aired (at great expense) during the 2019 World Series and proximate to the Super Bowl in January and February 2020. The World Series ad, "No Mr. Nice Guy" (viewable here), touted Trump's achievements while taunting his opposition in Congress: "The Democrats would rather focus on impeachment and phony investigations, ignoring the real issues. But that's not stopping Donald Trump. He's no Mr. Nice Guy, but sometimes it takes a Donald Trump to change Washington." The ad cost $250,000 to broadcast nationally, and was noted as one of the earliest ever to be aired by an incumbent President.
The first Super Bowl ad was "Got It Done," featuring Alice Marie Johnson and highlighting Trump's criminal-justice reform bill, which freed many low-level offenders like Johnson who had served disproportionate sentences. (The ad may be viewed here.) An NPR analysis contrasted the impact of the two ads: "One ad seemed aimed right at his base supporters, while the other was a rare pitch to those who might not be among his core voters."
The second was "Stronger, Safer" (which may be viewed here). Chris Cillizza of CNN termed it "a pitch-perfect, 30-second distillation . . . Notice how the Trump campaign -- right off the bat -- tries to mitigate Trump's demeanor and tone in office. 'Americans demanded change,' says the ad's narrator. 'And change is what we got.'" The two 30-second Super Bowl ads, costing an estimated $11 million to air, came at a high-water mark for Trump, with the economy still strong and COVID weeks away.
Through the summer and into the fall, as Trump's prospects darkened, Jamestown continued as one of the Trump campaign's ad makers, creating several that were hard-hitting and controversial. "Break-In," first aired in July 2020 in swing-markets like Orlando, Tampa, and Cincinnati, raised the specter of cuts in police funding (advocated during the BLM protests of May and June), and tying this to Biden, who with his allies hotly disputed this charge. The Los Angeles Times called it "a mini-thriller that shows an older woman telephoning 911 to report an intruder, but all she gets is a recording. 'Joe Biden wants to defund the police,' the ad claims. 'You won't be safe in Joe Biden's America.'” The ad may be viewed here.
Other Jamestown ads for Trump, such as "Abolished," (view here) and "You Won't Be Safe" (view here) drove the point further, and were also attacked as inaccurate and unfair to Biden. In December 2020, after the election, the president-elect acknowledged the effectiveness of Trump's defund-the-police attacks: ". . .They beat the living hell out of us across the country, saying that we're talking about defunding the police. We're not. We're talking about holding them accountable."
Jamestown also created Trump's Latino-targeted ads, including "Sammy's," featuring husband-and-wife business owners (viewable here) and "Capacidad Mental" (a compilation of Biden "senior moments," viewable here). Trump's blue-collar Latino ads were later credited by POLITICO for helping him to increase vote margins in 78 of 100 Hispanic-majority counties, from 2016 to 2020.
In 2018, Executive Vice Presidents Barney Keller and Jon Kohan were promoted to partner, and former Vice President Lisa Morrison was named partner and Chief Operating Officer of the firm. Carlos Cruz (formerly with the Republican Party of Iowa) and John Corbett were named Vice Presidents in 2021. Weitzner remains CEO.
Clients (partial list)
- President Donald Trump
- RJC for Susan Collins for U.S. Senate, ME 
- Chris Sununu for NH 
- Jason Lewis for U.S. Senate, MN
- Bradley Byrne for US Senate, AL
- Lisa McClain for US House MI-10
- Jay Obernolte for US House CA-8
- Jeff Van Drew for US House NJ-2
- Mike Braun for U.S. Senate, Indiana 
- Charlie Baker for MA Governor 
- Chris Sununu for NH 
- Bob Hugin for U.S. Senate, NJ 
- Hunter Hill for GA Governor
- Foster Fries for WY Governor
- Republican Leadership Committee 
- Kim Guadagno for NJ Governor 
- Bryce Reeves for VA Lt. Governor
- Chris Brown for NJ State Senate
- President Donald Trump (general election)
- Presidential candidate Ted Cruz (primary elections)
- New Hampshire Governor Chris Sununu
- Vermont gubernatorial candidate Bruce Lisman
- Kentucky Governor Matt Bevin
- Fix the Debt
- A Great Maryland
- Club for Growth
- New York Gubernatorial candidate Rob Astorino
- Congressman Brian Babin
- Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker
- Senate candidate Paul Broun
- Senator Ted Cruz
- Congressman Ron DeSantis (FL)
- Drug Free Florida
- Freedom Partners
- Generation Opportunity
- Congressman Richard L. Hanna
- Congressman Jody Hice
- Congressman Sam Johnson
- Florida state Representative Mike LaRosa
- Congressman Barry Loudermilk (GA)
- Connecticut Gubernatorial candidate John P. McKinney
- Congressman Dan Newhouse
- Congressman Dennis Ross (FL)
- Congressional candidate Jake Rush
- Congressman Mark Sanford (SC)
- Senate Conservatives Fund
- Congressional candidate Tony Strickland
- Congressman Fred Upton
- Congressman Tim Walberg
- Senate candidate Milton R. Wolf
- New Jersey Governor Chris Christie
- Senate candidate Richard Mourdock
- Senate candidate Joe Kyrillos of New Jersey
- Congressman Roger Williams (U.S. politician)
- Jonathan Perry (Louisiana State Senate)
- Justin Amash – MI-3
- Robert Dold – IL-10
- Frank Guinta – NH-1
- Richard L. Hanna – NY-24
- Tim Walberg – MI-7
- Joe Walsh – IL-8
- Mary Bono Mack – CA-45
- Sam Johnson – TX-3
- Leonard Lance – NJ-7
- Connie Mack IV – FL-14
- Lee Terry – NE-2
- Tom Horne, Attorney General (AZ)
- Curtis Loftis, State Treasurer (SC)
- Alan Wilson, Attorney General (SC)
- Former Congressman Mike Ferguson (NJ)
- New Jersey gubernatorial candidate Doug Forrester
- Former Congresswoman Nancy Johnson (CT)
- Connecticut Governor Jodi Rell
- Former Congressman Chris Shays (CT)
- ^ Rothenberg, Stuart (February 20, 2014). "How Jamestown Associates Adapted and Prospered". Roll Call. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ "Larry Weitzner - Jamestown Associates". Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- ^ "Contact". Jamestown Associates. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- ^ "Business's big winners in the 2010 campaign". The Washington Post. November 8, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ Herszenhorn, David (October 30, 1998). "THE 1998 CAMPAIGN: THE AD CAMPAIGN; An Effort to Turn the Tables on the Trust Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ Cillizza, Chris (November 6, 2006). "The Best Campaign Commercials of 2006". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ "Jamestown Associates wins 10 Pollies". Politicker NJ. Observer. March 23, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ Sanders, Kevin (February 22, 2016). "Led by Jamestown Associates, Jersey Firms Clean Up at the Reed Awards". PolitickerNJ. Observer. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ "2016 Reed Award Winners". Campaignsandelections.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "AAPC Winners Book Final 2016" (PDF). Theaapc.org. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ a b "2017 Reed Award Winners". Campaignsandelections.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "About - Jamestown Associates". Archived from the original on November 10, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- ^ Greg Sargent (October 14, 2010). "NRSC admits responsiblity [sic] for 'hicky' language". Washington Post.
- ^ a b Rothenberg, Stuart (February 20, 2014). "How Jamestown Associates Adapted and Prospered". Rollcallcom. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Rothenberg, Stuart (February 20, 2014). "How Jamestown Associates Adapted and Prospered". Rollcall.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "Jamestown Associates Congratulates Our 2016 Winners - Jamestown Associates". Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- ^ "Bruce's Worst Investment, and Other Gleanings from Campaign Finance Day". Thevpo.org. July 16, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ The Selfie Vote: Where Millennials Are Leading America (And How Republicans Can Keep Up), Kristin Soltis Anderson (Broadside Brooks: New York, 2015), p. 4
- ^ Charlie Baker (November 3, 2014). "Charlie Baker: "Remarkable State"". YouTube. Retrieved December 10, 2017.[dead YouTube link]
- ^ "Sanford admits affair: 'I've let down a lot of people'". Thestate.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "SC - Election Results". www.enr-scvotes.org. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "Mark Sanford: The new comeback kid". Thestate.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "GOP mounts late offensive in key Kentucky race". Politico.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "Sam Youngman: How Matt Bevin (probably) won the GOP nomination for governor". Kentucky.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Lasley, Matt (November 4, 2015). "Bevin elected Kentucky Governor". News Democrat and Leader. Russellville, Kentucky.
- ^ "The Best and Worst Campaign Ads of 2018". Roll Call. November 6, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Shepard, Steven. "Indiana mystery man upends bloody GOP Senate primary". POLITICO. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ "Indiana businessman Mike Braun to take on Dem Sen. Donnelly in the fall". PBS NewsHour. May 8, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ "In Indiana Senate primary, a Republican fight over who is the Trumpiest of Trump supporters". ABC News. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ DiStaso, John (October 29, 2020). "NH Primary Source: Sununu has more than $400K, Feltes $60K cash on hand heading into final stretch". WMUR. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ "Watch the 10 Most Notable Campaign Ads of 2016". Time. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Ted Cruz (January 19, 2016). "Cruz Commander - TV Ad". YouTube. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ "How Jamestown Associates Helped Elect Donald Trump". Adweek.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Cillizza, Chris (December 7, 2016). "Nothing about the way Team Trump made TV ads was normal". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Jim Acosta; Euan McKirdy (February 17, 2017). "Officials: Mike Dubke to be named as WH comms director". Cnn.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Lanyon, Charley (December 26, 2016). "Trump Communications Director Resigns Amid Allegations of Affair". New York. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- ^ "Trump staffer allegedly entangled in sex scandal," New York Post, December 26, 2016, retrieved January 3, 2017.
- ^ "Trump advisers went to strip club with members of media," The New York Post, October 22, 2016, retrieved January 2, 2017.
- ^ "Axios AM". Axios.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/business/articles/2019-10-31/early-and-pricey-trumps-world-series-ad-an-expensive-pitch[bare URL]
- ^ Deggans, Eric (February 2, 2020). "Super Bowl Ads 2020: Strange, Serious, Smaaht, and So Very Expensive". NPR.
- ^ Editor-at-large, Analysis by Chris Cillizza, CNN. "Donald Trump's Super Bowl ad shows how he can win again". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
|last=has generic name (help)
- ^ Peters, Cameron (February 2, 2020). "Mike Bloomberg and Donald Trump's dueling Super Bowl ads". Vox. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ "The 19 greatest and worst presidential campaign ads of the 2020 election". theweek.com. October 26, 2020. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Many places, e.g. https://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2020-53997196 and https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/joe-biden-defund-police/
- ^ "Column: This year's political ads: The good, the bad and the deceptive". Los Angeles Times. October 25, 2020. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ For example, https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/21/politics/fact-check-trump-ad-biden-police-911/index.html and https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/21/us/politics/trump-campaign-ads.html
- ^ "In leaked recording, Biden says GOP used 'defund the police' to 'beat the living hell' out of Democrats". NBC News. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Caputo, Marc. "Culture wars fuel Trump's blue-collar Latino gains". POLITICO. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ "Jamestown Associates Announces New Partners and COO". Jamestown Associates. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ UTC, Sahil Kapur138d ago / 4:53 PM. "Joe Lieberman endorses Susan Collins, appears in ad for her in Maine". NBC News. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Mary Frances McGowan, “Sununu Leads in Cash on Hand,” The Hotline, October 29, 2020
- ^ a b c d e "Vendor/Recipient Profile: Jamestown Assoc". OpenSecrets. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Nia Prater, “Braun Company Sells Parts Manufactured Overseas, The Republican has given $6.3M to an ad firm the Trump campaign utilized in 2016”. The Hotline, August 13, 2018
- ^ "In final 2018 campaign ad, Gov. Baker makes 90-second pitch for votes". masslive. November 5, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Kevin Landrigan; The New Hampshire Union Leader, Manchester, December 14, 2017
- ^ "Vendor/Recipient Profile: Jamestown Associates". OpenSecrets. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Lindsey Erdody, “Braun leans heavily on Trump's ad firm,” Indianapolis Business Journal, August 10, 2018
- ^ ”The Candidate's Coffers: Murphy's in the Money, Guadagno's Struggling,” New Jersey Spotlight, October 13, 2017
- ^ Youngman, Sam (May 23, 2015). "How Matt Bevin (probably) won the GOP nomination for governor". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- ^ Irwin, Janelle (August 6, 2015). "Conservative group to air anti-debt ad during GOP presidential debate". SaintPetersBlog. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- ^ Shane, Brian (October 31, 2014). "Harris-funded PAC fuels local anti-Democrat ad". DelmarvaNow. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Rothenberg, Stuart (February 20, 2014). "How Jamestown Associates Adapted and Prospered". Roll Call. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Kaplan, Thomas (September 15, 2014). "In New Commercial, Astorino Laments the State of the State". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ "Disbursements, DR BRIAN BABIN FOR CONGRESS filing #930360 Influence Explorer". Influence Explorer. The Sunlight Foundation. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- ^ Miller, Joshua (September 23, 2014). "Charlie Baker drops media firm, hires new ad maker". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Levenson, Michael (October 10, 2014). "Charlie Baker releases upbeat TV ad". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Haberman, Maggie (September 7, 2014). "Ted Cruz woos donors, party elites". Politico. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- ^ a b c Schorsch, Peter. "The ultimate list of Florida election 2014 Winners & Losers". Saint Petersblog. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Call, James. "SaintPetersblog". Saint Petersblog. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Curry, Christopher. "Adelson pumps another $1 million into anti-medical marijuana campaign". Ocala.com. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ "Independent Expenditures, FREEDOM PARTNERS ACTION FUND INC. filing #958607 Influence Explorer". Influence Explorer. The Sunlight Foundation. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (June 18, 2014). "Young-adult group hits Landrieu in new ad: 'We can't afford that!'". The Hill. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ "Disbursements JODY HICE FOR CONGRESS filing #958493 Influence Explorer". Influence Explorer. The Sunlight Foundation. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- ^ Pazniokas, Mark (July 11, 2014). "Meet The Folks Who Want to Sell You the Next Governor". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Davis, Christina (August 8, 2014). "McKinney outspends Foley as primary nears". Hartford Business Journal. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ Titus, Elizabeth; Delreal, Jose (July 28, 2014). "Energy group boosts Alexander — Abercrombie trails by 10 — Chamber: No decisions in Louisiana Senate — You've got the wrong twin". Politico. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- ^ "Disbursements, DAN NEWHOUSE FOR CONGRESS filing #974871 Influence Explorer". Influence Explorer. The Sunlight Foundation. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- ^ Thompson, Bill (March 20, 2014). "Alachua lawyer Jake Rush predicts 'intense' campaign against Yoho". Ocala Star Banner. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- ^ Cillizza, Chris; Sullivan, Sean (May 8, 2013). "How Mark Sanford won". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ "Disbursements, UPTON FOR ALL OF US filing #992857 Influence Explorer". Influence Explorer. Sunlight Foundation. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- ^ Haberman, Maggie (May 1, 2013). "Chris Christie keeps Mitt Romney ad man, hires new one". Politico. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- ^ "Leadership Institute Faculty Brent Barksdale". Leadership Institute. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- ^ "Republican Jewish Coalition: "Concerned About Obama?"". National Journal. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- ^ Benson, Josh (October 23, 2005). "Who's Really Running The Race?". Query.nytimes.com. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- ^ Thurber, James A. (May 13, 2004). The Battle for Congress: Consultants, Candidates, and Voters. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815798989. Retrieved December 10, 2017 – via Google Books.