Jami` at-Tirmidhi

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Jami` at-Tirmidhi
AuthorAbu ʿIsa Muhammad ibn ʿIsa at-Tirmidhi
LanguageArabic
SeriesKutub al-Sittah
Subjecthadith
GenreHadith collection
Published9th century CE

Jami' at-Tirmidhi (Arabic: جامع الترمذي‎), also known as Sunan at-Tirmidhi, is one of "the six books" (Kutub al-Sittah - the six major hadith collections). It was collected by Al-Tirmidhi.[1] He began compiling it after the year 250 A.H. (A.D. 864/5) and completed it on the 10 Dhu-al-Hijjah 270 A.H. (A.D. 884, June 9).


Title[edit]

The full title of the compilation is (Arabic: الجامع المختصر من السنن عن رسول الله ومعرفة الصحيح والمعلول وما عليه العمل, Al-Jāmiʿ al-Mukhtaṣar Min as-Sunan ʿAn Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Wa Maʿrifat al-Ṣaḥeeḥ Wal-Maʿlool Wa Mā ʿAlaihil al-ʿAmal)[2]

The term Jami within the title indicates a complete collection covering all eight Risalah (Allah's message) subjects. The term Sunan within the title refers to the collection's focus and chapter arrangement based on the particular Risalah subject, ahkam (general law).[3][4]

Al-Kattani said: "The Jamiʿ of at-Tirmidhi is also named The Sunan, contrary to those thinking them to be two separate books, and [it is also named] Al-Jamiʿ al-Kabir.[5]

Description[edit]

It contains 3,956 Ahadith, and has been divided into fifty chapters. It is also classified as a Sunan, which implies that the book has been chapterised according to legal chapters, such as Purification, Prayer, Poor-due and Fasting, narrated on the authority of Islamic prophet Muhammad, while the opinions of the companions are usually not mentioned.

Tirmidhi's method was that of placing the heading first, then mentioning one or two Ahadith which were related to the heading. These Ahadith are followed by his opinion as to the status of the Hadith. Subsequently, he mentions the opinions of the different jurists. He also indicates if there were other narrations transmitted by other companions on the same subject. His principal aim was to discuss the legal opinions of early jurists. Tirmidhi mostly mentioned those Ahadith which the jurists used as the basis for their legal decisions and he mentioned which school used which tradition/s. Hence this book became an important source for the different view-points of the various legal schools. The Jami' thus bears the distinction of being one of the oldest texts dealing with the difference of opinion amongst the various jurisprudential schools. Although Shafi'i (b. 150-d.204 A.H.) wrote his Kitab al-Umm before Tirmidhi's Jami', the Kitab al-Umm is less comprehensive in comparison to the Jami' of Tirmidhi.

Praise[edit]

Al-Hafidh Abu'l-Fadl Al-Maqdisi said: "I heard Al-Imam Abu Ismaʿil ʿAbdullah bin Muhammad Al-Ansari in Harrah - when Abu ʿIsa At-Tirmidhi and his book was mentioned before him - saying: "To me, his book is more useful than the books of Al-Bukhari and that of Muslim. This is because only an expert can arrive at the benefit of the books of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, whereas in the case of the book of Abu ʿIsa, every one of the people can attain its benefit."[6]

Ibn Al-Athir said: "(It) is the best of books, having the most benefit, the best organization, with the least repetition. It contains what others do not; like mention of the different views, angles of argument, and clarifying the circumstances of the hadith as being sahih, da'if, or gharib, as well as disparaging and endorsing remarks (regarding narrators).

Authenticity[edit]

Sunnis regard this collection as fifth in strength of their six major hadith collections.[7]

Types of hadith included relating to their authenticity[edit]

Of the four Sunan books, al-Tirmidhi's alone is divided into four categories. The first, those hadith definitively classified as authentic, he is in agreement with Bukhari and Muslim. The second category are those hadith which conform to the standard of the three scholars, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa'i and Abu Dawood, at a level less than Bukhari and Muslim. Third, are the hadith collected due to a contradiction; in this case, he clarifies its flaw. And fourth, those hadith which some fiqh specialists have acted upon.[8]

Contents[edit]

The book is divided into 48 chapters.[9][10]

  1. purification
  2. salat (prayer)
  3. al-witr
  4. the day of friday
  5. the two eids
  6. traveling
  7. zakat
  8. fasting
  9. hajj
  10. jana'iz (funerals)
  11. marriage
  12. suckling
  13. divorce and li'an
  14. s on judgements from the messenger of allah
  15. blood money
  16. legal punishments (al-hudud)
  17. hunting
  18. sacrifices
  19. vows and oaths
  20. military expeditions
  21. virtues of jihad
  22. jihad
  23. clothing
  24. food
  25. drinks
  26. righteousness and maintaining good relations with relatives
  27. medicine
  28. inheritance
  29. wasaya (wills and testament)
  30. wala' and gifts
  31. al-qadar
  32. al-fitan
  33. dreams
  34. witnesses
  35. zuhd
  36. the description of the day of judgement, ar-riqaq, and al-wara'
  37. the description of paradise
  38. the description of hellfire
  39. faith
  40. knowledge
  41. seeking permission
  42. manners
  43. parables
  44. the virtues of the qur'an
  45. recitation
  46. tafsir
  47. supplication
  48. virtues


Examples of some Hadith found in Tirmidhi[edit]

It is related by Abdullah bin Masud that Muhammad said, “A faithful believer neither attacks with his tongue nor utters a curse nor speaks ill of anyone nor calls names.” From Tirmidhi

Commentaries[edit]

  • Aridhat al-Ahwathi bi Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi written Ibn al-Arabi d. 543H (1148-49 CE)
  • Sharh Jaami' al-Tirmidhi of which only the last portion of remains - Sharh 'Ilal at-Tirmidhi - by Ibn Rajab
  • Commentary on al-Tirmidhi's Hadith Collection by al-Zayn al-Iraqi
  • Footnotes, including explanation and verification, of approximately the first third of the Sunan by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir
  • al-ʿUrf al Shadhi Sharh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi by Anwar Shah Kashmiri
  • Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi Bi Sharh Jamiʿ Al-Tirmidhi by 'Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman, 10 vols., Beirut
  • Fuyoodh Un Nabi, Sharh Jami Al Tirmidhi (in Urdu Language) by 'Allama Mufti Muhammad Arshad ul Qadri', Taleem wo Tarbiyat Publisher, Lahore, Pakistan [11]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jonathan A.C. Brown (2007), The Canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Canon, p.10. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004158399. Quote: "We can discern three strata of the Sunni hadith canon. The perennial core has been the Sahihayn. Beyond these two foundational classics, some fourth/tenth-century scholars refer to a four-book selection that adds the two Sunans of Abu Dawud (d. 275/889) and al-Nasa'i (d. 303/915). The Five Book canon, which is first noted in the sixth/twelfth century, incorporates the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892). Finally the Six Book canon, which hails from the same period, adds either the Sunan of Ibn Majah (d. 273/887), the Sunan of al-Daraqutni (d. 385/995) or the Muwatta' of Malik b. Anas (d. 179/796). Later hadith compendia often included other collections as well.' None of these books, however, has enjoyed the esteem of al-Bukhari's and Muslim's works."
  2. ^ Imam Tirmidhi and his Al-Jami’ al-Sunan: http://daruliftaa.com/node/7130
  3. ^ "Hadith – Z is typing…". lifetimesandcrimes.wordpress.com.
  4. ^ "Imam Tirmidhi and his Al-Jami' al-Sunan (الجامع السنن للإمام الترمذي رضي الله عنه) - daruliftaa.com". daruliftaa.com.
  5. ^ Al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah, pg. 11.
  6. ^ Shurut al-A'immah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 101.
  7. ^ Haddad, G. F. "Various Issues About Hadiths".
  8. ^ Shurut al-A'immah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 92.
  9. ^ "All books and chapters of jami al tirmizi". www.islamicfinder.org. Retrieved Jun 27, 2019.
  10. ^ "Jami` at-Tirmidhi". sunnah.com. Retrieved Jun 27, 2019.
  11. ^ "the-book-launching-ceremony-fuyoodh-un-nabi-sharh-jami-al-tirmidhi". Archived from the original on 2016-04-20.

External links[edit]

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/ar:%D8%B3%D9%86%D9%86_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%B0%D9%8A