View of Jammu city and the Tawi River
Jammu (orange bordered) lies in Indian state Jammu & Kashmir
|State||Jammu and Kashmir|
|District||Jammu, Doda, Kathua, Ramban, Reasi, Kishtwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, Samba|
|Founded||14th century BC|
|Founded by||Raja Jambu Lochan|
|• Body||State gov|
|• Total||26,293 km2 (10,152 sq mi)|
|Elevation||305 m (1,001 ft)|
|• Density||200/km2 (530/sq mi)|
|• Spoken||Dogri, Gojri, Kashmiri, Pahadi, Punjabi|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Jammu // is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India. It consists of the districts of Jammu, Doda, Kathua, Ramban, Reasi, Kishtwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur and Samba. Most of the land is hilly or mountainous, including the Pir Panjal Range which separates it from the Kashmir Valley and part of the Great Himalayas in the eastern districts of Doda and Kishtwar. Its principal river is the Chenab. Chenab Valley is another important division in Jammu region.
Jammu city is the largest city in Jammu and the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also known as "City of Temples" as it has many temples and shrines, with glittering shikhars soaring into the sky, which dot the city’s skyline, creating the ambiance of a holy and peaceful city.
Home to some of India's most popular Hindu shrines, such as Vaishno Devi, Jammu is a major pilgrimage centre for Hindus. A majority of Jammu's population practices Hinduism, while Islam and Sikhism enjoy a strong cultural heritage in the region. Due to relatively better infrastructure, Jammu has emerged as the main economic center of the state.
- 1 Antecedents
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Districts
- 6 Politics
- 7 Places of interest
- 8 Festivals of Jammu
- 9 Education
- 10 People
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
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Remains from the Maurya, Kushan, Kushanshahs and Gupta periods have been found in Jammu. After 480 CE the area was dominated by the Hephthalites and ruled from Kapisa and Kabul. They were succeeded by the Kushano-Hephthalite dynasty from 565 to 670 CE, then by the Shahi from 670 to the early 11th century, when the Shahi were destroyed by the Ghaznavids.
Tradition believes that the city of Jammu was founded by a ruler called Jambu Lochan in remote antiquity. During one of his hunting campaigns, he is said to have reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water side by side. Having satisfied their thirst, the animals went their own ways. Amazed, the raja decided that this place was a place of peace and tranquility and established a palace and the new capital for his kingdom be established on that site.
The hilly regions to the south and southwest of the Kashmir Valley formed the Jammu Province of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. During the declining years of the Mughal Empire, the region comprised 22 hill states that emerged from the Mughal suzerainty. Hutchison and Vogel, who first studied these states, called them the Dugar group of states. (Dugar is a medieval term with ancient form Durgara and modern form Dogra.) The state of Jammu is believed to have been the most prominent among the Dugar group, which they identified with the kingdom of Durgara.
The term Durgara is witnessed in a copper plate inscription from Chamba in the 11th century. The inscription refers to an attack on Chamba by the "Lord of Durgara" allied with Saumatikas and the Kiras of Chamba. However, no kingdom by that name is mentioned in the Rajatarangini. Durgara could have been a reference to Vallapura (modern Billawar) or Babbapura (modern Babor). Some scholars believe it to have been a regional or ethnic name current in the region.
Jammu is mentioned by name in the chronicles of Timur, who invaded Delhi in 1398 and returned to Samarkand via Jammu. In the Mughal chronicles of Babur in the early 16th century, Jammu is mentioned as a powerful state in the Punjab hills. It is said to have been ruled by Manhas Rajputs. Emperor Akbar brought the hill kingdoms of the region under Mughal suzerainty, but the kings enjoyed considerable political autonomy. In addition to Jammu, other kingdoms of the region such as Kishtwar and Rajauri were also prominently mentioned. It is evident that the Mughal empire treated these hill chiefs as allies and partners in the empire.
After the decline of the Mughal power in the 18th century, the Jammu state under Raja Dhruv Dev, of the Jamuwal (Jamwal) family, asserted its supremacy among the Dugar states. Its ascent reached its peak under his successor Raja Ranjit Dev (r. 1728–1780), who was widely respected among the hill states. Towards the end of Ranjit Dev's rule, the Sikh clans of Punjab (misls) gained ascendancy, and Jammu began to be contested by the Bhangi, Kanhaiya and Sukerchakia misls. Around 1770, the Bhangi misl attacked Jammu and forced Ranjit Dev to become a tributary. Brij Lal Dev, his successor, was defeated by the Sukerchakia chief Mahan Singh, who sacked Jammu and plundered it. Thus Jammu lost its supremacy over the surrounding country.
Gulab Singh and the Dogra dynasty
Gulab Singh, a descendant of Dhruv Dev via his third son, was 16 years old when the Sikh Empire conquered Jammu. After the loss of Jammu, Gulab Singh along with his two brothers went on to enrol in the Sikh troops. He soon distinguished himself in battles and was awarded a jagir near Jammu with an allowance to keep an independent force. After the conquest of Kishtwar (1821) and the subjugation of Rajouri, he was made a hereditary Raja of Jammu in 1822, personally anointed by Ranjit Singh. His brother Dhyan Singh received Poonch and Chibhal, and Suchet Singh Ramnagar.
By 1827, Gulab Singh brought under his control all the principalities lying between Kashmir and Jammu. Thus the entire Jammu province came under the control of the three Jamwal brothers under the umbrella of the Sikh Empire.
After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839, the Sikh court fell into anarchy and palace intrigues took over. Gulab Singh's brothers Dhyan Singh and Suchet Singh, as well as his nephew Hira Singh, were murdered in the struggles. The relations between the Sikh court and Gulab Singh deteriorated. During the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), Gulab Singh kept aloof. He was nevertheless invited to Lahore and installed as the Prime Minister of the Sikh Empire. His actions as the Prime Minister were duplicitous and contributed to a Sikh defeat.
The British decided to weaken the power of the Sikhs and set up Gulab Singh as a counterweight. Accordingly, they demanded a war indemnity from the Sikhs which included all the hilly territory between the Ravi and Indus rivers, and then transferred it to Gulab Singh, recognising him as an independent Maharaja. Gulab Singh paid 7.5 million Nanakshahee Rupees to the British for the transaction. Thus the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir came into being, ruled by Gulab Singh and his descendants, known as the Dogra dynasty.
During the Dogra rule, Jammu in the Jammu province and Srinagar in the Kashmir province were both used as capitals, six months to a year each. Poonch and Chibhal were granted as jagirs to Dhyan Singh's surviving sons, Jawahir Singh and Moti Singh. However, Jawahir Singh got involved in conspiracies and was exiled to Punjab. Chibhal (Bhimber) thus reverted to Gulab Singh, while Poonch remained under the control of Moti Singh and his descendants under the suzerainty of Jammu and Kashmir.
Partition and accession
During the partition of India, the ruler was Maharaja Hari Singh. He, along with all the other princes, was given the choice of acceding to either India or Pakistan, taking into consideration the geographical and ethnic issues. The Maharaja chose not to accede to either dominion before the appointed date, citing the mixed religious composition of his state. This technical independence was short-lived as the Maharaja faced a rebellion in the western districts and a Pakistan-inspired Pashtun tribal invasion. Unable to withstand the assaults, the Maharaja acceded to India on 26–27 October 1947. India airlifted troops to Kashmir to repel the raiders. However, major portions of the western districts of Muzaffarabad, Poonch, and Mirpur remained under the control of Pakistan. The remainder of the state was incorporated into India with an autonomous status under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution.
Geography and climate
Jammu borders Kashmir to the north, Ladakh to the east, and Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the south. In the west, the Line of Control separates Jammu from Pakistani-administered Jammu and Kashmir (known as Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan, and as Pakistani-administered Jammu and Kashmir in India-administered). In between the Vale of Kashmir to the north and the Daman Koh Plains to the south, the Shivalik Range comprises most of the region of Jammu. The Pir Panjal Range, the Trikuta Hills and the low-lying Tawi River basin add beauty and diversity to the terrain of Jammu. The Pir Panjal range separates Jammu from the Kashmir valley.
The climate of the region varies with altitude. In and around Jammu city, the climate is similar to the nearby Punjab region with hot summers, rainy monsoon, and mildly cold and foggy winters. While Jammu City itself does not experience any snowfall, the higher hills and mountains are snow-capped during the winter. People from all over India come to the Patnitop mountain resort to enjoy the winter snows. The shrine of Vaishno Devi is covered with snow in the winter. The Banihal Pass, which links the Jammu region to the Kashmir region, often experiences closure in the winter months due to extremely heavy snowfall.
|Climate data for Jammu (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||18.9
|Average low °C (°F)||7.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||52.4
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
According to the 2011 census, the total population of Jammu Division is 5,350,811. Ethnically, Jammu is largely Dogra, a group which constitutes approximately 67% of the population. Jammu's people are closely related to Punjabis.
The Jammu Division overall has a Hindu majority population – 66% of Jammu's population practise Hinduism, 30% practice Islam and most of the remainder are Sikhs. The Hindus form a majority in the Jammu, Kathua, Samba and Udhampur districts, and roughly half the population in the Reasi district. Most of Jammu's Hindus are native Dogras, Kashmiri Pandits as well as migrants from Kotli and Mirpur, and Punjabi Hindus. Many Sikhs are migrants from Pakistani Controlled Kashmir (from areas like Muzaffarabad and Punch sector areas annexed by Pakistan during 1947).
Hindus of Jammu region are subdivided into various ethnic groups, and of them Brahmins and Rajputs are the predominant ones. According to the 1941 census, 30% of them were Brahmin, 27% Rajput, 15% Thakkar, 4% Jat, 8% Khatri and 8% scheduled castes of which Megh and Chamar are the most common.
The districts of Rajouri, Poonch, Doda, Kishtwar and Ramban have a Muslim-majority population. Reasi has non-Muslim majority but Islam is the largest religious affiliation. The Muslims ethnic groups are Dogra, Gujjar and Bakerwal in Poonch and Rajouri Districts who are ethno-linguistically different from the Kashmiri Muslims. There is a substantial presence of Kashmiri Muslims in Kishtwar (68%) and Doda (55%) districts.
The Jammu region is also temporary home to about 1,00,000 Kashmiri Hindus (Pandits) who have been living in refugee camps after being driven out of the Kashmir Valley by Islamic extremists in 1990 at the onset of the Kashmir conflict. The camps are close to Jammu city.
As of 2012, the Jammu Division consists of ten districts:
|Name of District||Headquarters||Area (km²)||Population
During the Maharaja's time before the Independence and Partition of India (and of Jammu and Kashmir), the following districts were also part of Jammu region: Bhimber, Kotli, Mirpur, Poonch (Western parts), Haveli, Bagh and Sudhnati. Today these districts are a part of Pakistan-controlled Azad Jammu and Kashmir but are claimed by India.
The major political parties in the region are the Congress, the BJP, the National Conference, the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party and the Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party. Some Hindus of Jammu, including the local BJP, have been advocating the separation of Jammu region from Kashmir and its inclusion as a distinct state into the Indian Union, citing largely Kashmir-centric policies in the existing state and neglect of the Jammu region.
Places of interest
Jammu is known for its landscape, ancient temples, Hindu shrines, Mubarak Mandi Palace, Amar Mahal Palace (a castle type) now a Museum, gardens and forts. Hindu holy shrines of Amarnath (which actually lies in Kashmir) and Vaishno Devi attracts tens of thousands of Hindu devotees every year. Jammu's beautiful natural landscape has made it one of the most favoured destinations for adventure tourism in South Asia. Jammu's historic monuments feature a unique blend of Islamic and Hindu architecture styles.
Purmandal, also known as Chhota Kashi, is located 35 km from Jammu city. An ancient holy place, it has several temples of Shiva and other deities. On Shivratri, the town wears a festive look and for three days as people celebrate the marriage of Lord Shiva to Goddess Parvati.
Vaishno Devi shrine
The town of Katra, which is close to Jammu, contains the Vaishno Devi shrine. Nestling on top of the Trikuta Hills at a height of 1700 metres is the sacred cave shrine of Vaishno Devi, the mother goddess. At a distance of 48 km from Jammu, the cave is 30 metres long and just 1.5 metres high. At the end of the cave are shrines dedicated to the three forms of the mother goddess — Mahakali, Mahalakshmi and Mahasarasvati. Pilgrims start trekking to the cave temple, which is 13 km from Katra, enter in small groups through a narrow opening and walk through ice-cold waters to reach the shrines. According to legend, the mother goddess hid in the cave while escaping a demon whom she ultimately killed.
Nandini Wildlife Sanctuary
Nandini Wildlife Sanctuary is in an area of thick forests teeming with wildlife. It is a renowned natural habitat for a significant population of pheasants. Among the other avifauna are Indian mynah, blue rock pigeon, Indian peafowl, red junglefowl, cheer pheasant and chakor.
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Situated 62 km from Jammu, Mansar Lake is a beautiful lake fringed by forest-covered hills, over a mile long by half a mile wide. Besides being a popular excursion destination in Jammu, it is also a holy site, sharing the legend and sanctity of Lake Manasarovar.
On the eastern bank of Mansar Lake is a shrine dedicated to Sheshnag, a mythological snake with six heads. The shrine comprises a big boulder on which are placed a number of iron chains perhaps representing the small serpents waiting on the tutelary deity of the Sheshnag. Newlyweds consider it auspicious to perform three circumambulations (Parikarma) around the lake to seek the blessings of Sheshnag.
Two ancient temples of Umapati Mahadev and Narasimha and a temple of Durga are situated in the vicinity of the Mansar Lake and which are visited by devotees in large numbers. People take a holy dip in the water of the lake on festive occasions. Certain communities of Hindus perform the Mundan ceremony (first haircut) of their male children here.
Mansar Lake also has boating facilities provided by the Tourism Department.
With all the religious belief and heritage behind the Mansar Lake, itis also famous among tourists with all its flora and fauna. The lake is circled by an illuminated, with viewing decks to observe seasonal birds, tortoise, and fishes of different species. A wildlife sanctuary houses jungle life, including spotted deer, neelgai, and water birds such as cranes and ducks. One can also witness the traditional and typical distinct lifestyle of Gujjar and Backarwals wearing ethnic costumes, living in open Kullhas in the hills around Mansar Lake.
The Mansar Lake road joins to another important road that directly links Pathankot to Udhampur. Udhampur is a town of strategic importance, on National Highway No. 1A. The shortcut road from Mansar or Samba to Udhampur by-pass the Jammu town. Surinsar Lake, a smaller lake that is linked to Mansar, is 24 km from Jammu via the by-pass road.
Bahu Fort, which also serves as a religious temple, is situated about 5 km from Jammu city on a rock face on the left bank of the river Tawi. This is perhaps the oldest fort and edifice in Jammu city. Constructed originally by Raja Bahulochan over 300 years ago, the fort was improved and rebuilt by Dogra rulers. Inside the fort is a temple dedicated to the Goddess Kali, popularly known as Bave Wali Mata, the presiding deity of Jammu. Every Tuesday and Sunday pilgrims throng this temple and partake in "Tawi flowing worship". Today the fort is surrounded by a beautiful terraced garden which is a favourite picnic spot of the city folk.
Bagh-e-Bahu, located on the banks of Tawi river, is a Mughal-age garden. It gives a nice view of the old city and Tawi river. Bagh itself is very beautiful. There is a small canteen on one side of the garden.
On the by-pass road behind Bahu Fort, the city forest surrounds the ancient Mahamaya Temple overlooking the river Tawi. A small garden surrounded by acres of woods provides a commanding view of the city.
Opposite the Bahu Fort, overlooking the River Tawi is a temple dedicated to Mahamaya of Dogra descent, who lost her life fourteen centuries ago fighting foreign invaders. The present temple of Bawey Wali Mata was built shortly after the coronation of Maharaja Gulab Singh, in 1822. It is also known as the temple of Mahakali and the goddess is considered second only to Mata Vaishno Devi in terms of mystical power.
Amongst the temples in Jammu, the Raghunath Temple takes pride of place being situated right in the heart of the city. This temple is situated at the city center and was built in 1857. Work on the temple was started by Maharaja Gulab Singh, founder of the Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir, in 1835 CE and was completed by his son Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1860 CE. The inner walls of the main temple are covered with gold sheet on three sides. There are many galleries with lakhs of saligrams. The surrounding Temples are dedicated to various Gods and Goddesses connected with the epic Ramayana. This temple consists of seven shrines, each with a tower of its own. It is the largest temple complex in northern India. Though 130 years old, the complex is remarkable for sacred scriptures, one of the richest collections of ancient texts and manuscripts in its library. Its arches, surface, and niches are undoubtedly influenced by Mughal architecture while the interiors of the temple are plated with gold. The main sanctuary is dedicated to Lord Vishnu's eighth incarnation and Dogras' patron deity, Rama. It also houses a Sanskrit Library containing rare Sanskrit manuscripts.
Peer Kho Cave
Alongside the same Tawi river are the Peer Kho Cave temple, the Panchbakhtar temple and the Ranbireshwar temple dedicated to Lord Shiva with their own legends and specific days of worship. Peer Kho cave is located on the bank of river Tawi and it is widely believed that Ramayan character Jamvant (the bear god) meditated in this cave. The Ranbireshwar Temple has twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring 12" to 18" and galleries with thousands of saligrams fixed on stone slabs. Located on the Shalimar Road near the New Secretariat, and built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1883 CE. It has one central lingam measuring 2.3 metres (7.5 feet) in height and twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring from 15 cm to 38 cm and galleries with thousands of Shiva lingams fixed on stone slabs.
The cave shrine of Shivkhori, situated in District Reasi of Jammu and Kashmir state, depicts the natural formation of shivlingum. It is one of the most venerated cave shrines of Lord Shiva in the region. The holy cave is approximately 200 metres long, one metre wide and two to three metres high and contains Svayambhu Lingum. According to mythology, this lingum is neverending. The first entrance of the cave is so wide that 300 devotees can be accommodated at a time. Its cavern is spacious enough to accommodate a large number of people. The inner chamber of the cave is smaller. The cave has many natural impressions and images of various Hindu deities and full of divine feelings. That is why Shivkhori is known as "the Home of Gods." The route from Jammu to Shiv Khori has many beautiful and picturesque mountains, waterfalls and lakes.
A 3-day Shiv Khori mela takes places annually on Maha Shivratri and thousands of pilgrims from different parts of the state and elsewhere visit this cave shrine to seek the blessings of Lord Shiva. The Maha Shivratri festival is usually held in February or during the first week of March every year. Keeping in view the increasing rush of pilgrims to the holy cave shrine, the Shiv Khori Shrine Board has taken up a number of steps to develop this spot in a bid to provide more and more facilities to the devotees, like the construction of a Shrine Guest House at a cost of Rs.19 lakh at village Ransoo, the base camp of yatra, a reception centre and pony shed at an estimated cost of Rs.79.59 lakh, tile work of entire 3-km long track is nearing completion, plantation of ornamental and medicinal plants on track and development of parks etc. Other arrangements like electrification of the cave with modern techniques, provision of oxygen and electric generators, exhaust fans, construction of shelter sheds for yatris with toilet facilities near the cave site, 15 shelter sheds en route Ransoo to cave shrine, railing from the base camp to cave, additional facility of 15,000/EfnrKing water reservoir, proper sanitation, provision of 25 kV capacity electric transformer, clock room, starting of permanent bus services from Katra, Udhampur, and Jammu, police post and dispensary and an STD PCO are under active consideration of the Shiv Khori Shrine Development Board.
Recently, the management and development of the Shiv Khori have been taken over by Sri Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine Board who is looking after Vaishno Devi pilgrimage.
Machail Mata The Chandi Maa temple is located in the village Machel, Distt Kishtwar, Jammu Region. The place is about 290 km from Jammu. During 'Chhadi Yatra', thousands of people visit the shrine.The pilgrimage happens in the month of August only every year. The shrine was visited in 1981 by Thakur Kulveer Singh of Bhaderwah, Jammu region. From 1987 onwards, Thakur Kulveer Singh started 'Chhadi Yatra'that happens every year and thousands of people visit the shrine every year during 'Chhadi Yatra'. To reach the shrine, a lot of travel agents arrange buses from Jammu, Udhampur, Ramnagar, Bhaderwah. One can also hire a cab as well. It takes approximately 10 hours by road from Jammu to Gulabgarh. The Gulabgarh is the base camp. From Gulabgarh, the foot journey starts, that is 32 km. Usually, people take 2 days to reach the shrine by foot. On the way, there are many villages, where one can stay in the nigh but the chaddi takes three days to reach Machel. Many people organise roadside 'langers' (free food points) on the way to the Gulabgarh. The government of Jammu and Kashmir also arranges basic amenities for the pilgrims.
Another measn of reaching the shrine is by helicopter from Jammu and Gulabgarh. The helipad is only 100 m from the shrine. But if someone goes by helicopter, he will be missing many natural scenic beauties.
City centres and attractions
One of the major attractions of Jammu is a revolving restaurant named Falak, located on the top of the hotel KC Residency. Ragunath Bazar is the main tourist and shopping districts of the city. The locality of Gandhi Nagar hosts the market areas of Gole Market, on Apsara Road. On any pleasant evening, one can take a stroll in Green Belt Park alongside the magnificent bungalows that adorn Green Belt Road. Rajinder Park on Canal Road is a new development. This park is situated between two canals and features a large fountain which is lit up at night. A children's area is located next to the park.
The city has finally gotten its own shopping centre, "City Square." This has all the latest brands and accessories all under one roof, and a food court. Another Shopping mall named as 'Wave - The Wave Mall' is very popular. Also, a beautiful complex and a new age commercial hub by the name of Bahu-Plaza in Trikuta Nagar area is a popular hangout spot for youngsters and young professionals. Most of the corporate sector and most of the mobile phone companies like Airtel, BSNL, Vodafone, Aircel and Tata Indicom are based in the Bahu Plaza complex. After the opening of the K.C. Cineplex, the first multiplex in the city, the city has also gotten another multiplex in the form of the old Indira theatre being converted to K.C. Central.
This specialty made in the Ramnagar region of Jammu is famous all over the state.
Dogri food specialties include ambal, khatta meat, kulthein di dal, dal patt, maa da madra, rajma, and auriya. Pickles typical of Jammu are made of kasrod, girgle, mango with saunf, zimikand, tyaoo, seyoo, and potatoes. Auriya is a dish made with potatoes. During weddings it is typical to make kayoor and sund.
Festivals of Jammu
Lohri (13 January)
This festival heralds the onset of spring and is celebrated a day before Makar Sankranti. In rural areas, it is customary for young boys to go around asking for gifts from newlyweds and parents of newborns.
A special dance called the chajja is held on the occasion of Lohri. It makes a striking picture to see boys along with their chajjas elaborately decorated with coloured paper and flowers dance on the street in a procession. The whole atmosphere of Jammu comes alive with pulsating drumbeats.
Baisakhi (13 or 14 April)
The name Baisakhi is taken from the first month of the Vikram calendar. Every year, on the first day of Vaisakh, the people of Jammu celebrate Baisakhi. Also known as the "harvest festival," it is considered auspicious, especially for marriages. Devotees take a ritual dip every year, throng the rivers, canals, and ponds. Many people go to the Nagbani temple to witness the grand New Year celebration.
The occasion is marked by numerous fairs and people come by the thousands to celebrate the beginning of the New Year and watch the Bhangra dance of Punjab. For the Sikhs of Jammu, Baisakhi is the day their tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, formed the Khalsa sect in 1699. The Gurdwaras are full of people who come to listen to kirtans, offer prayers and feast on the ‘prasad’ from the common kitchen ('langar').
Bahu Mela (March–April and September–October)
A major festival is held at the Kali Temple in Bahu Fort twice a year.
Chaitre Chaudash (March–April)
Chaitre Chaudash is celebrated at Uttar Behni and Purmandal, about 25 km and 28 from Jammu respectively. Uttar Behni gets its name from the fact that the Devak River (locally also known as Gupt Ganga) flows here in the northerly direction.
Purmandal Mela (February–March)
Purmandal is 39 km from Jammu city. On Shivratri the town wears a festive look for three days as people celebrate the marriage of Lord Shiva to the Goddess Parvati. The people of Jammu also come out in their colourful best to celebrate Shivratri at Peer Khoh Cave Temple, the Ranbireshwar Temple, and the Panjbhaktar Temple. In fact, if one visits Jammu during Shivratri, one finds a celebration going on almost everywhere.
Jhiri Mela (October–November)
An annual fair is held in the name of Baba Jitu, a simple and honest farmer who preferred to kill himself rather than submit to the unjust demands of the local landlord to part with his crop. He killed himself in the village of Jhiri, 14 km from Jammu. A legend has grown around the Baba and his followers congregate at Jhiri on the appointed day from every corner of North India; they revere him for his compassion, courage, and honesty.
Though the yatra to the shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi is a round-the-year event, a pilgrimage undertaken during the Navratras is considered the most auspicious. In order to showcase and highlight the regional culture, heritage and traditions of the area during this period, the State Tourism Department has instituted the Navratri Festival as an annual event to be held during September/October for the nine auspicious days of the Navratras. A large number of tourists pay their obeisance to the deity during this period. This festival showcases the religious traditions as well as the popular culture of the region among the millions of pilgrims who visit the Vaishnodeviji Shrine during this period.
Urs (all year round)
The Urs (or ziarats) is a typical Kashmiri festival. The Urs are held annually at the shrines of Muslim saints on their death anniversaries. There is a saying, "It snows when the Urs of Meesha Sahib is held, it is windy when the Urs of Batamol Sahib takes place, it rains on the occasion of the Urs of Bahauddin." The Urs festivals are popular despite the rigours of weather.
Shivaratri (literally meaning Shiva's night) is a festival of great significance for Hindus all over the world, especially for those of Kashmiri origin settled in Jammu. On this day, Lord Siva and his spouse Parvati are worshipped with great devotion everywhere in the country. Esoterically, it is symbolic of the mystic union of Jiva (individual soul) with Paramatma (the Supreme Godhead) and it represents the high state of spiritual realization wherein the world of relativity fades away and perfect peace and calm prevail. Along with worshipping 'Shiva' people observe both social and cultural meets on this festival. They rejoice and exchange greetings with friends and relatives.
Jammu region has many institutes offering higher education. The colleges varies from medical colleges, to engineering colleges, and many other government and private colleges. There is also a Central University in Jammu, established in 2009.
Some of the major higher educational institutes in Jammu Region are:
- Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu
- Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu
- Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu
- Govt. Gandhi Memorial Science College
- Maharaja Harisingh Agri Collegiate School
- Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu
- Sainik School, Nagrota
- Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University
- University of Jammu
- Central University of Jammu
- Cluster University of Jammu
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jammu Division.|
- The Official Website of Jammu and Kashmir Government, India
- Official Website of District Jammu, India
- Jammu Division travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine Board – Shrines in Jammu
- Bhaderwah – Website about Bhaderwah
- Brief history of Jammu Rulers with their Coinage details
- Mata Pingla