Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)
Jammu and Kashmir
Location of Jammu and Kashmir (proposed)
|Union territory||Proposed from 31 October 2019|
|• Body||Government of Jammu and Kashmir|
|• Lieutenant Governor||TBA|
|• Chief Minister||TBA|
|• Parliamentary constituency||Rajya Sabha (4) |
Lok Sabha (5)
|• High Court||Jammu and Kashmir High Court|
|• Total||42,241 km2 (16,309 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||7,135 m (23,409 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||247 m (810 ft)|
|• Density||290/km2 (750/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-JK|
|Official languages||Urdu, Hindi, English|
|Other spoken||Kashmiri, Dogri, Punjabi, Pahari, Gojri, Dadri, Bhadarwahi, Bateri, Shina, Burushaski, and Khowar|
Jammu and Kashmir[b] is a proposed union territory of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, and is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. The Line of Control separates Jammu and Kashmir from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north respectively. The proposed union territory lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of the proposed union territory of Ladakh.
Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019, which was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. The purpose of the bill is to re-constitute the existing state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories: Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, with effect from 31 October 2019.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir was accorded special status by Article 370 of the Constitution of India. In contrast to other states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had its own constitution, flag and administrative autonomy. Indian citizens from other states were banned from purchasing land or property in Jammu and Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir had three distinct areas: Hindu-majority Jammu region, Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Violence and unrest persisted in the Indian-administered Muslim majority areas and, following a disputed state election in 1987, an insurgency persisted in protest over autonomy and rights. The Bharatiya Janata Party came to power in the 2014 Indian general election and five years later included in their 2019 election manifesto the revocation of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, in order to bring Jammu and Kashmir to equal status with other states.
A resolution to repeal Article 370 was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. At the same time, a reorganisation bill was also passed, which would re-constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The reorganization will take effect from 31 October 2019. The new union territory of Jammu and Kashmir would consist of the 20 districts within the Jammu and Kashmir Valley divisions. It would have an elected legislature and would be governed by a cabinet led by a chief minister.
Government and politics
The proposed union territory of Jammu and Kashmir will be administered under the provisions of Article 239 of the Constitution of India. The Article 239A, originally formulated for the union territory of Puduchery, will also be applicable to Jammu and Kashmir.
The legislative branch will be a legislative assembly composed of 107 to 114 members, whose tenure will be five years. The legislative assembly may make laws for any of the matters in the State List except "public order" and "police", which will remain the preserve of the central Government of India.
A Council of Ministers led by a Chief Minister will be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor from the membership of the legislative assembly. Their role will be to advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of functions in matters under the jurisdiction of the legislative assembly. In other matters, the Lieutenant Governor is empowered to act in his own capacity. The Lieutenant Governor will also have the power to promulgate ordinances which will have the same force as the acts of the legislature.
The union territory will remain under the jurisdiction of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court, which will also serve as high court for Ladakh. Police services will continue to be provided by the existing Jammu and Kashmir Police until the government establishes separate police forces for the two successor union territories.
|Total for division||Jammu||26,293||4,430,191||5,350,811|
|Kashmir Valley||Anantnag District||Anantnag||3,984||734,549||1,069,749|
|Total for division||Srinagar||15,948||5,476,970||6,907,622|
In addition, the territory has a number of claimed but unadministered districts, which include Gilgit, Ladakh (northern portion - consisting of Baltistan), Gilgit Wazarat, Chilas, Tribal Territory, Muzaffarabad, Punch (western portion) and Mirpur.
- Jammu and Kashmir is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan. An area of 78,114 square kilometres (30,160 sq mi) under Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan and 5,180 square kilometres (2,000 sq mi) of Shaksgam Valley administered by People's Republic of China are not included in the total area.
- Pronounced variably as // and //; // and //.
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Shina is the most eastern of these languages and in some of its dialects such as the Brokpa of Dah and Hanu and the dialect of Dras, it impinges upon the area of the Sino-Tibetan language family and has been affected by Tibetan with an overlay of words and idioms.
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- Jan·Osma鈔czyk, Edmund; Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, pp. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5 Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."
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