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Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

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Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Location of Jammu and Kashmir (proposed)
CountryIndia
Union territoryProposed from 31 October 2019
CapitalSrinagar (May–October)
Jammu (Nov-April)[1]
Districts20
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Jammu and Kashmir
 • Lieutenant GovernorTBA
 • Chief MinisterTBA
 • LegislatureUnicameral
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha (4)
Lok Sabha (5)
 • High CourtJammu and Kashmir High Court
Area
 • Total42,241 km2 (16,309 sq mi)
Highest elevation7,135 m (23,409 ft)
Lowest elevation247 m (810 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total12,258,433
 • Density290/km2 (750/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-JK
Vehicle registrationJK
Official languagesUrdu, Hindi, English[3]
Other spokenKashmiri, Dogri, Punjabi, Pahari, Gojri, Dadri,[4][5] Bhadarwahi,[6] Bateri,[7] Shina,[8] Burushaski,[9] and Khowar[10]
Websitehttp://jkgad.nic.in/

Jammu and Kashmir[b] is a proposed union territory of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, and is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.[12][13] The Line of Control separates Jammu and Kashmir from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north respectively. The proposed union territory lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of the proposed union territory of Ladakh.

Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019, which was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. The purpose of the bill is to re-constitute the existing state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories: Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, with effect from 31 October 2019.[14]

History

The state of Jammu and Kashmir was accorded special status by Article 370 of the Constitution of India. In contrast to other states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had its own constitution, flag and administrative autonomy.[15] Indian citizens from other states were banned from purchasing land or property in Jammu and Kashmir.[16]

Jammu and Kashmir had three distinct areas: Hindu-majority Jammu region, Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley and Ladakh.[17] Violence and unrest persisted in the Indian-administered Muslim majority areas and, following a disputed state election in 1987, an insurgency persisted in protest over autonomy and rights.[17][18] The Bharatiya Janata Party came to power in the 2014 Indian general election and five years later included in their 2019 election manifesto the revocation of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, in order to bring Jammu and Kashmir to equal status with other states.[17]

A resolution to repeal Article 370 was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. At the same time, a reorganisation bill was also passed, which would re-constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.[19] The reorganization will take effect from 31 October 2019.[14] The new union territory of Jammu and Kashmir would consist of the 20 districts within the Jammu and Kashmir Valley divisions. It would have an elected legislature and would be governed by a cabinet led by a chief minister.[20][21]

Government and politics

The proposed union territory of Jammu and Kashmir will be administered under the provisions of Article 239 of the Constitution of India. The Article 239A, originally formulated for the union territory of Puduchery, will also be applicable to Jammu and Kashmir.[22]

The President of India will appoint a Lieutenant Governor for the union territory.[22]

The legislative branch will be a legislative assembly composed of 107 to 114 members, whose tenure will be five years. The legislative assembly may make laws for any of the matters in the State List except "public order" and "police", which will remain the preserve of the central Government of India.[22]

A Council of Ministers led by a Chief Minister will be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor from the membership of the legislative assembly. Their role will be to advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of functions in matters under the jurisdiction of the legislative assembly. In other matters, the Lieutenant Governor is empowered to act in his own capacity. The Lieutenant Governor will also have the power to promulgate ordinances which will have the same force as the acts of the legislature.[22]

The union territory will remain under the jurisdiction of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court, which will also serve as high court for Ladakh.[22] Police services will continue to be provided by the existing Jammu and Kashmir Police until the government establishes separate police forces for the two successor union territories.[3]

Administrative divisions

Districts of the proposed union territory of Jammu and Kashmir

The proposed union territory of Jammu and Kashmir will consist of two divisions: Jammu Division and Kashmir Division, and will be further divided into 20 districts.[23]

Division Name Headquarters Area (km²) Population
2001 Census
Population
2011 Census
Jammu Kathua District Kathua 2,651 550,084 615,711
Jammu District Jammu 3,097 1,343,756 1,526,406
Samba District Samba 904 245,016 318,611
Udhampur District Udhampur 4,550 475,068 555,357
Reasi District Reasi 1,719 268,441 314,714
Rajouri District Rajouri 2,630 483,284 619,266
Poonch District Poonch 1,674 372,613 476,820
Doda District Doda 11,691 320,256 409,576
Ramban District Ramban 1,329 180,830 283,313
Kishtwar District Kishtwar 1,644 190,843 231,037
Total for division Jammu 26,293 4,430,191 5,350,811
Kashmir Valley Anantnag District Anantnag 3,984 734,549 1,069,749
Kulgam District Kulgam 1,067 437,885 423,181
Pulwama District Pulwama 1,398 441,275 570,060
Shopian District Shopian 612.87 211,332 265,960
Budgam District Budgam 1,371 629,309 755,331
Srinagar District Srinagar 2,228 990,548 1,250,173
Ganderbal District Ganderbal 259 211,899 297,003
Bandipora District Bandipora 398 316,436 385,099
Baramulla District Baramulla 4,588 853,344 1,015,503
Kupwara District Kupwara 2,379 650,393 875,564
Total for division Srinagar 15,948 5,476,970 6,907,622
Total 42,241 9,907,161 12,258,433

In addition, the territory has a number of claimed but unadministered districts, which include Gilgit, Ladakh (northern portion - consisting of Baltistan), Gilgit Wazarat, Chilas, Tribal Territory, Muzaffarabad, Punch (western portion) and Mirpur.[24]

Notes

  1. ^ Jammu and Kashmir is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan. An area of 78,114 square kilometres (30,160 sq mi) under Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan and 5,180 square kilometres (2,000 sq mi) of Shaksgam Valley administered by People's Republic of China are not included in the total area.
  2. ^ Pronounced variably as /ˈæm/ and /ˈʌm/; /kæʃˈmɪər/ and /ˌkæʃmɪər/.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Desk, The Hindu Net (8 May 2017). "What is the Darbar Move in J&K all about?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  2. ^ "Saser Kangri - AAC Publications - Search The American Alpine Journal and Accidents". Publications.americanalpineclub.org. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  3. ^ a b Ratan, Devesh; Johri, Iti (7 August 2019). "Salient Features Of Jammu & Kashmir Reorganization Bill [Read Bill]". LiveLaw.in: All about law. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  4. ^ Khan, N. (6 August 2012). The Parchment of Kashmir: History, Society, and Polity. Springer. p. 184. ISBN 9781137029584. Archived from the original on 23 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  5. ^ Aggarwal, J. C.; Agrawal, S. P. (1995). Modern History of Jammu and Kashmir: Ancient times to Shimla Agreement. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170225577. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Bhadrawahi". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  7. ^ Bateri.
  8. ^ Crane, Robert I. (1956). Area Handbook on Jammu and Kashmir State. University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files. p. 179. Shina is the most eastern of these languages and in some of its dialects such as the Brokpa of Dah and Hanu and the dialect of Dras, it impinges upon the area of the Sino-Tibetan language family and has been affected by Tibetan with an overlay of words and idioms.
  9. ^ "Pakistan's "Burushaski" Language Finds New Relatives". Npr.org. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  10. ^ Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth Edition. Dallas: SIL International.
  11. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
  12. ^ Akhtar, Rais; Kirk, William, Jammu and Kashmir, State, India, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 7 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The state is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947."
  13. ^ Jan·Osma鈔czyk, Edmund; Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, pp. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5 Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."
  14. ^ a b Ministry of Home Affairs (9 August 2019), "In exercise of the powers conferred by clause a of section 2 of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act." (PDF), The Gazette of India, retrieved 9 August 2019
  15. ^ K. Venkataramanan (5 August 2019), "How the status of Jammu and Kashmir is being changed", The Hindu
  16. ^ "Article 370 and 35(A) revoked: How it would change the face of Kashmir". The Economic Times. 5 August 2019.
  17. ^ a b c Article 370: What happened with Kashmir and why it matters. BBC (2019-08-06). Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  18. ^ Jeelani, Mushtaq A. (25 June 2001). "Kashmir: A History Littered With Rigged Elections". Media Monitors Network. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  19. ^ "Parliament Live | Lok Sabha passes Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, Ayes: 370, Noes 70". Thehindu.com. August 6, 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  20. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019". Prsindia.org. August 5, 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  21. ^ "THE JAMMU AND KASHMIR REORGANISATION BILL, 2019" (PDF). Prsindia.org. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d e Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Bill passed by Rajya Sabha: Key takeaways, The Indian Express, 5 August 2019.
  23. ^ "Ministry of Home Affairs:: Department of Jammu & Kashmir Affairs". Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  24. ^ http://ds.iris.edu/media/workshop/2012/01/managing-waveform-data-and-related-metadata-for-seismic-networks/files/network-reports/Jammui_Yudhbir-India-17.ppt

External links