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Jamnalal Kaniram Bajaj
4 November 1889
|Died||11 February 1942 |
Jamnalal Kaniram Bajaj (4 November 1889 – 11 February 1942) was an Indian industrialist. He founded the Bajaj Group of companies in the 1920s, and the group now has 24 companies, including six that are listed on the bourses. He was also a close and beloved associate of Mahatma Gandhi, who is known to have often declared that Jamnalal was his fifth son.
Background and early life
Jamnalal Bajaj was born in 1889 into a well to do Agarwal family, as the third son of Kaniram and Birdibai, in a village named Kashi Ka Bas, near Sikar, Rajasthan. He was later adopted as a grandson by Seth Bachhraj(bajaj) and his wife Sadibai Bachhraj(bajaj), a rich Rajasthani merchant couple hailing originally from Rajasthan but settled in Wardha, Maharashtra. Seth Bachhraj(bajaj) was a distant relative on his father's side, and was a well-known and respected trader in the British Raj.
Upon coming of age, under the tutelage of Seth Bachhraj, Jamnalal got involved in the family business of his adoptive family. During this period, he acquired the skills of being a tradesman, rigorous book keeping and buying and selling commodities. He excelled in his work by the time Seth Bachhraj died. In 1926, Jamnalal founded what would become the Bajaj group of industries.
During the First World War, the British government appeased and honoured native tradesmen, soliciting funds. They appointed Jamnalal an honorary magistrate. When he provided money for the war fund, they conferred on him the title of Rai Bahadur, a title he later surrendered during the non-co-operation movement of 1921.
Follower of Gandhi
Upon Mahatma Gandhi's return from South Africa, Jamnalal took in interest in Gandhi's way of life, his principles, such as Ahimsa (non-violence), and his dedication to the poor. He could understand Gandhi's vision that home-made goods were the answer to India's poverty. He considered that some British companies were importing cheap, raw cotton from India and sending back finished cloth. He was humbled by the simple life that Gandhi was leading at the Sabarmati Ashram. He was impressed by the Ashram's routine of prayer and physical work. He brought his wife Jankidevi and his children to live in the Ashram. However, this close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture.
In 1920, Jamanalal was elected chairman of the reception committee for the Nagpur session of the Indian National Congress. He gave up the title of Rai Bahadur conferred on him by the British government and joined the non-co-operation movement in 1921. Later, in 1923, he participated in the flag satyagraha, defying a ban on flying the national flag in Nagpur, and was detained by British forces. This earned him national admiration.
He wanted Gandhi to move to Wardha and make it the center of his activities. After the Dandi March in April 1930, Gandhi moved to Sevagram, a small village near Wardha, since he wanted to live close to the rural populace. Gandhi vowed not to return to Sabarmati Ashram until freedom was achieved.
Jamanalal was named the president of Gandhi Seva Sangha, a group of workers who dedicated their time to constructive work. He was later elected a member of the Congress Working Committee and as the treasurer of Congress in 1933.
Jamanalal Bajaj was interested in initiatives such as the removal of untouchability, promotion of Hindi, and Khadi and village Industries. He had toured across the country promoting Khadi. In 1925, he was chosen as the treasurer of the All India Spinners Association. He was also the president of the All India Hindi Sahitya Sammelan (literary convention) that promoted Hindi as the single language to unite all Indians. He was instrumental in publishing Hindi magazines and books. He initiated the Gandhi Hindi Pustak Bhandar (bookshop) in Bombay and started the Sasta Sahitya Mandal (publishing house).
From 1927, he served as the first Treasurer of the Managing Committee of Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Later in 1928, he became a life member of the university, while still serving as the treasurer.
With the intent of eradicating untouchability, he fought the non-admission of Harijans into Hindu temples in his home town of Wardha. As orthodox Hindu priests and Brahmins objected, he opened his own family temple, the Laxmi Narayan Mandir, in Wardha, for the Harijans in 1928. He began a campaign by eating a meal with Harijans and opening public wells to them. He opened several wells in his fields and gardens.
Differences with Gandhi
Bajaj differed with Gandhi when he disagreed with Congress contesting the 1938 elections to the legislature. When the Congress Working Committee informally decided to make him the President of the Haripura Session of the Congress which Gandhi personally approved, he chose to pass the honour to Subhas Chandra Bose.
Besides Bajaj Auto Ltd, the other major companies in the group include Mukand Ltd, Bajaj Electricals Ltd and Bajaj Hindusthan Ltd. One of his grandsons, Rahul Bajaj, runs the family flagship company, Bajaj Auto.
Legacy and memorials
Several institutions in India bear his name, including the Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies. A locality, JB Nagar, in the sub-urban Andheri in Mumbai has been named after him. Jamnalal Bajaj Award was established in 1978 by the Jamnalal Bajaj Foundation and are given away each year on his birth anniversary.
- "The Gandhian spirit". Financial Express. 2 January 2000. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013.
- "In Bajaj family, business sense over-rules ties". Financial Express. 6 April 2012.
- Bajaj, Rahul (16 September 2017). "Jamnalal Bajaj embodied Gandhi's ethics to such an extent that Mahatma 'adopted' him as 5th son". India Today.
- D, Avantika (31 December 2018). "Life before success of these Indian industrialists of humble beginnings will inspire every ambitious mind". Yahoo!.
- "History of Bajaj Auto".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Jamnalal Bajaj Award". Jamnalal Bajaj Foundation. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012.
- In Gandhi's Footsteps : The Life and Times of Jamnalal Bajaj by B. R. Nanda, Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-566343-3
- Shriman Narayan (1974). Jamnalal Bajaj: Gandhiji's 'fifth son'. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India.
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