J. J. M. de Groot

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J.J.M. de Groot
Jan Jakob Maria de Groot.jpg
Born(1854-02-18)18 February 1854
Died24 September 1921(1921-09-24) (aged 67)
Scientific career
FieldsChinese history, religion
InstitutionsLeiden University
Academic advisorsGustaaf Schlegel
Notable studentsJ.J.L. Duyvendak
Chinese name

Jan Jakob Maria de Groot (18 February 1854 – 24 September 1921) was a Dutch sinologist and historian of religion. He taught at the Leiden University and later at the University of Berlin, and is chiefly remembered for his monumental work, The Religious System of China, Its Ancient Forms, Evolution, History and Present Aspect, Manners, Customs and Social Institutions Connected Therewith. The two "books" of this detailed and well-illustrated treatise appeared in six volumes - and, according to the preface in the first volume, the System was originally meant to include several more "books".

De Groot became a corresponding member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1887, a foreign member in 1892 and a regular member in 1911.[1]

Among a plethora of other topics, de Groot's Religious System of China contains a detailed study of China's funerary stelae, and the mythical animals used to decorate them


  • J. J. M. De Groot, The Religious System of China, Brill, Leiden, 1892-1910, rééd. Taipei 1964 [1]
    • vol. I : Disposal of the Dead. Part I : Funeral rites. Part II : The ideas of resurrection, 1892, XXIV-360 p [2]
    • vol. II : Disposal of the Dead. Part III : The Grave (first half), 1894, 468 p. : book I : Disposal of the Dead, p. 359-827 [3]
    • vol. III : Disposal of the Dead. The Grave (second half). Fung-shui,1897, 640 p.
    • vol. IV : The soul and Ancestral Worship. Part I : The Soul in Philosophy and Folk-Conception, 464 p. [4]
    • vol. V : The soul and Ancestral Worship. Part II : Demonology. Part III : Sorcery, 1908, 464 p. [5]
    • vol. VI : The soul and Ancestral Worship. Part IV : The War against Spectres. Part V : The prietshood of Animism (wu), 1910, 414 p. [6]
    • index for volumes I, II, III, 40 p.


  1. ^ "J.J.M. de Groot (1854 - 1921)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 24 January 2016.