In 1898 he graduated from Warsaw University. He was a member of the Zet political organization, the National Democrats (Narodowa Demokracja) movement, and the National League (Liga Narodowa) until 1911. In the first years of World War I he resided in Switzerland, where he wrote articles for the Polish cause. In June 1917 he came back to Warsaw and received a job in the administration under the Regency Council. From 26 November 1917 till 27 February 1918 he was the prime minister of the Polish government. After 1920 he dedicated his life to scientific work. In 1940 (World War II) he went into exile in the USA, where he published many works for the Polish cause, mainly from an anti-communist and anti-Soviet point of view.