Maria Michał Kowalski
|Maria Michał Kowalski|
|Church||Old Catholic Church of the Mariavites|
|Successor||Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska|
|Other posts||29 December 1929 in Old Catholic Mariavite Church
Continued in Catholic Mariavite Church
|Consecration||5 October 1909
by Gerardus Gul
|Birth name||Jan Kowalski|
December 25, 1871|
Latowicz, Vistula Land, Russian Empire
|Died||May 18, 1942
Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, Anschluss Austria
|Denomination||Roman Catholic (1871–1906[b])
|Spouse||Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska|
|Venerated in||Catholic Mariavite Church|
by popular acclaim
|Shrines||Felicjanów, Płock County, Poland|
|Ordination history of|
|Principal consecrator||Gerardus Gul|
|Co-consecrators||Jacobus Johannes van Thiel
Nicolaus Bartholomeus Petrus Spit
Arnold Harris Mathew
|Date of consecration||5 October 1909|
|Place of consecration||Utrecht, Netherlands|
|Maria Andrzej Gołębiowski||4 September 1910[d]|
|Maria Jakub Próchniewski||4 September 1910[d]|
|Maria Franciszek Rostworowski||October 4, 1923|
|Maria Bartłomiej Przysiecki||28 March 1929|
|Maria Filip Feldman||28 March 1929|
|Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska||28 March 1929[e]|
|Maria Szymon Bucholc||13 April 1933|
|Maria Tytus Siedlecki||May 1935[f]|
|Marie Marc Fatôme||September 1938|
|Maria Feliks Tułaba||1939[g]|
At the time of his selection, he was the most important person in this Christian movement. He was consecrated bishop in 1909 by the Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches Gerardus Gul, archbishop of the Old Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht. In 1919, the Mariavites officially changed their name to the Old Catholic Church of the Mariavites. Kowalski later called himself an archbishop.
Kowalski was killed, at 70, during World War II at the Nazi Hartheim Euthanasia Centre in Alkoven, Anschluss Austria. He was one of the victims of the Nazi war criminal Karl Brandt, who led the euthanasia Action 14f13.[h]
When Kowalski was deposed, a faction of his followers separated from the Old Catholic Mariavite Church and became the Catholic Mariavite Church in Felicjanów. His successor in the Catholic Mariavite Church was his wife, Archpriestess Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska.
- Peterkiewicz (1975, pp. 21–22) notes that biographical articles also give both 26 and 27 December as birth dates.
- He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1906.
- Mariavite was recognized as a sect in 1906.
- Co-consecrated with Old Catholic bishops.
- KSM & "Biskupi Mariawiccy" does not include this consecration.
- Peterkiewicz (1975, p. 170) contradicts this and states Siedlecki was "consecrated by the bishopesses alone" at that time.
- Peterkiewicz (1975) does not include this consecration.
- Peterkiewicz (1975, p. 183) stated he was gassed on 18 May 1942.
- Peterkiewicz 1975, p. 37.
- Peterkiewicz 1975; Collinson 1994, p. 145: "the first of Kowalski's women and regarded by the law as his wife"
- Peterkiewicz 1975, pp. 148, 190.
- Peterkiewicz 1975, p. 41.
- Peterkiewicz (1975, pp. 39, 142, 224); Rybak (n.d., pp. 107–108, 110) and KSM & "Biskupi Mariawiccy" only includes consecrations by Kowalski prior to the January 1935 deposition of Kowalski.
- Peterkiewicz 1975, p. 183; KSM "Biskupi Mariawiccy".
- Peterkiewicz 1975, p. 7.
- Peterkiewicz 1975, pp. 166–167.
- Collinson, Patrick (1994). "Not sexual in the ordinary sense: women, men, and religious transactions". Elizabethan essays. London [u.a.]: Hambledon Press. pp. 143–146. ISBN 9781852850920. Read at the Renaissance Society in 1989.
- Peterkiewicz, Jerzy (1975). The third Adam. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192121981.
- Rybak, Stanisław (n.d.). "Mariawityzm: studium historyczne" (PDF). mariawita-warszawa.com (in Polish). Michał Rybak. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-03-16.[self-published source]
- Old Catholic Mariavite Church (n.d.). "Biskupi Mariawiccy" [Mariavite bishops]. mariawita.pl (in Polish). Płock, PL: Kościół Starokatolicki Mariawitów. Archived from the original on 2014-01-10.
- Media related to Jan Maria Michał Kowalski at Wikimedia Commons