Jana Gana Mana

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This article is about the national anthem of India. For the song from which the anthem was excerpted, see Jana Gana Mana (hymn). For the 2012 film, see Jana Gana Mana (film). For the 2000 video, see Jana Gana Mana Video.
"Jana Gana Mana"
জন গণ মন
जन गण मन
English: Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People
Jônô Gônô Mônô
Janaganamana-score.png
Sheet music for "Jana Gana Mana".

National anthem of  India
Lyrics Rabindranath Tagore, 1911
Music Rabindranath Tagore, 1911
Adopted 24 January 1950
Music sample

"Jana Gana Mana"[α] is the national anthem of India. Written in highly Sanskritised (Tatsama) Bengali, the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was falsely propagated by colonial authorities that the song was written and first sung to praise and felicitate King George V and Queen Mary on their visit to India in 1911. The rumours gave way when Tagore wrote a letter to the Emperor, stating the mentor and creator of Bharath (India) mentioned in the song is not King George V but God himself. The copy of the letter can be found in his autobiography and Jana Gana Mana (hymn) .[1] "Jana Gana Mana" was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950.[2]

The original poem written by Rabindranath Tagore was translated into Hindi-Urdu by Abid Ali. The original Hindi version of the song Jana Gana Mana, translated by Ali and based on the poem by Tagore, was a little different. It was "Subh Sukh Chain Ki Barkha Barse, Bharat Bhaag Hai Jaaga....".

A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally.[3] Tagore wrote down the English translation[4] of the song and along with Margaret Cousins (an expert in European music and wife of Irish poet James Cousins), set down the notation at Madanapalle in Andhra Pradesh, which is followed only when the song is sung in the original slow rendition style of singing. However, when the National Anthem version of the song is sung, it is often performed in the orchestral/choral adaptation made by the English composer Herbert Murrill at the behest of Nehru. An earlier poem by Tagore (Amar Sonar Bangla) was later selected as the national anthem of Bangladesh.

Lyrics[edit]

The text, though Bengali, is highly sanskritised (written in a literary register called Sadhu bhasa). The song has been written almost entirely using nouns that also can function as verbs. Most of the nouns of the song are in use in all major languages in India. Therefore, the original song is quite clearly understandable, and in fact, remains almost unchanged in several widely different Indian languages. Also as quasi-Sanskrit text, it is acceptable in many modern Indic languages, but the pronunciation varies considerably across India. This is primarily because most Indic languages are abugidas in that certain unmarked consonants are assumed to have an inherent vowel, but conventions for this differ among the languages of India. The transcription below reflects the Bengali pronunciation, in both the Bengali script and romanisation. The following are officially recognised versions of the national anthem by the Indian government, in some of the officially recognised languages.

জন গণ মন (Bengali) Bengali romanisation

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে, তব শুভ আশিষ মাগে,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

Jônogônomôno-odhinayoko joyo he bharatobhaggobidhata!
Ponjabo shindhu gujôraṭo môraṭha drabiṛo utkôlo bôngo
binddho himacôlo jomuna gôngo ucchôlojôlodhitôroṅgo
tôbo shubho name jage, tôbo shubho ashish mage,
gahe tôbo joyogatha.
Jônogônomôngolodayôko jôyo he bharatobhaggobidhata!
Jôyo he, jôyo he, jôyo hē, jôyo jôyo jôyo jôyo he..

Devanagari script[edit]

जनगणमन-अधिनायक जय हे भारतभाग्यविधाता!
पंजाब सिंधु गुजरात मराठा द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग
विंध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा उच्छलजलधितरंग
तव शुभ नामे जागे, तव शुभ आशिष मागे,
गाहे तव जयगाथा।
जनगणमंगलदायक जय हे भारतभाग्यविधाता!
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय जय हे।।

English translation[edit]

The following translation (edited in 1950 to replace Sindh with Sindhu as Sindh after partition was allocated to Pakistan), attributed to Tagore, is provided by the Government of India's national portal: [5]

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Odisha and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.

Lyrics of all 5 stanzas[edit]

The English translation below has been adapted from an unverifiable source.[6]

Bengali Romanization English Translation

Jono gono mono odhinayoko joyo he,
Bharoto bhaggo bidhata
Punjab Sindh Gujrat Maratha,
Dravid Utkol Bongo
Bindho Himachol Jomuna Gonga,
Uchchholo jolodhitorongo
Tobo shubho naame jage,
Tobo shubho ashish mange
Gahe tobo joyo gatha
Jono gono mongolo dayoko joyo he,
Bharoto bhaggo bidhata
Joyo he joyo he joyo he Joyo joyo joyo joyo he.

Ohoroho tobo ahoban procharito,
Shuni tobo udaro bani
Hindu Buoddho Shikh Jeino Parshiko,
Musolman Chrishtani
Purob poshchim ashe,
Tobo shinghoshono pashe
Premhar hoy gãtha
Jono gono oikko bidhayoko joyo he,
Bharoto bhaggo bidhata
Joyo he joyo he joyo he Joyo joyo joyo joyo he.

Potono obhbhudhoyo bondhur pontha,
Jugo Jugo dhabito jatri
He chirosharothi, tobo rotho chokre,
Mukhuritho potho dinratri
Doruno biplob majhe,
Tobo shongkhodhoni baje
Shonkoto dukkho trata
Jono gono potho porichayoko joyo he,
Bharoto bhaggo bidhata
Joyo he joyo he joyo he Joyo joyo joyo joyo he.

Ghor timir ghono nibir nishithe,
Pirit murchhito deshe
Jogroto chilo tobo obicholo mongolo,
Notonoyo ne onimeshe
Duhshopne atongke,
Rokkha korile ongke
Snehomoyi tumi mata
Jono gono duhkho trayoko joyo he,
Bharoto bhaggo bidhata
Joyo he joyo he joyo he Joyo joyo joyo joyo he.

Ratri probhatilo udilo robichhobi,
Purbo udoyo giri bhale
Gahe bihongom punno shomiron,
Nobo jibono rosh dhale
Tobo korunoruno raage,
Nidrito bharot jage
Tobo chorone noto matha
Joyo joyo joyo he, Joyo rajeshwor
Bharoto bhaggo bidhata
Joyo he joyo he joyo he Joyo joyo joyo joyo he.

Oh! the ruler of the minds of people, Victory be to You,
Dispenser of the destiny of India!
Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Dravid (South India), Orissa, and Bengal,
The Vindhya, the Himalayas, the Yamuna, the Ganges,
And the oceans with foaming waves all around.
Wake up listening to Your auspicious name,
Ask for Your auspicious blessings,
And sing to Your glorious victory.
Oh! You who impart well being to the people,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

Your call is announced continuously,
We heed Your gracious call
The Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains, Parsees,
Muslims, and Christians,
The East and the West come together,
To the side of Your throne
And weave the garland of love.
Oh! You who bring in the unity of the people!
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

The way of life is somber as it moves through ups and downs,
But we, the pilgrims, have followed it through ages.
Oh! Eternal Charioteer, the wheels of your chariot
Echo day and night in the path
In the midst of fierce revolution,
Your conch shell sounds.
You save us from fear and misery.
Oh! You who guide the people through torturous path,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

During the bleakest of nights,
When the whole country was sick and in swoon
Wakeful remained Your incessant blessings,
Through Your lowered but winkless eyes
Through nightmares and fears,
You protected us on Your lap,
Oh Loving Mother!
Oh! You who have removed the misery of the people,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

The night is over, and the Sun has risen
over the hills of the eastern horizon.
The birds are singing, and a gentle auspicious breeze
Is pouring the elixir of new life.
By the halo of Your compassion,
India that was asleep is now waking
On your feet we now lay our heads
Oh! Victory, victory, victory to you, the Supreme King,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!


Apart from the above translation which follows the original very closely, Tagore's own interpretation of Jana Gana Mana in English is available as Wikisource link to The Morning Song of India. Wikisource. .

Lyrics in Bengali script[edit]

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে, তব শুভ আশিষ মাঘে ,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

অহরহ তব আহ্বান প্রচারিত, শুনি তব উদার বাণী
হিন্দু বৌদ্ধ শিখ জৈন পারসিক মুসলমান খৃস্টানী
পূরব পশ্চিম আসে তব সিংহাসন-পাশে
প্রেমহার হয় গাঁথা।
জনগণ-ঐক্য-বিধায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

পতন-অভ্যুদয়-বন্ধুর পন্থা, যুগ যুগ ধাবিত যাত্রী।
হে চিরসারথি, তব রথচক্রে মুখরিত পথ দিনরাত্রি।
দারুণ বিপ্লব-মাঝে তব শঙ্খধ্বনি বাজে
সঙ্কটদুঃখত্রাতা।
জনগণপথপরিচায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

ঘোরতিমিরঘন নিবিড় নিশীথে পীড়িত মূর্ছিত দেশে
জাগ্রত ছিল তব অবিচল মঙ্গল নতনয়নে অনিমেষে।
দুঃস্বপ্নে আতঙ্কে রক্ষা করিলে অঙ্কে
স্নেহময়ী তুমি মাতা।
জনগণদুঃখত্রায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

রাত্রি প্রভাতিল, উদিল রবিচ্ছবি পূর্ব-উদয়গিরিভালে –
গাহে বিহঙ্গম, পূণ্য সমীরণ নবজীবনরস ঢালে।
তব করুণারুণরাগে নিদ্রিত ভারত জাগে
তব চরণে নত মাথা।
জয় জয় জয় হে জয় রাজেশ্বর ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

Musical composition and English translation[edit]

Courtyard in Madanapalle where Jana Gana Mana was first sung.

Jana Gana Mana was written on 11 December 1911.[7] Rabindranath Tagore translated the song from Bengali to English and also set it to music in Madanapalle,[8] a town located in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Though the Bengali song had been written in 1911, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Brahmo Samaj journal, Tatva Bodha Prakasika, of which Tagore was the editor.

During 1919, Tagore accepted an invitation from friend and controversial Irish poet James H. Cousins to spend a few days at the Besant Theosophical College situated at Madanapalle of which Cousins was the principal. On the evening of 28 February 1919 he joined a gathering of students and upon Cousins' request, sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali. The college authorities, greatly impressed by the lofty ideals of the song and the praise to God, selected it as their prayer song. In the days that followed, enchanted by the dreamy hills of Madanapalle, Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Cousins' wife, Margaret (an expert in Western music), set down the notation which is followed till this day. The song was carried beyond the borders of India by the college students and became The Morning Song of India[4] and subsequently the national anthem.

Today, in the library of Theosophical College in Madanapalle, the framed original English translation of Jana gana Mana, titled as The Morning Song of India in Tagore's handwriting, is displayed.[9]

Code of conduct[edit]

The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India for general information and guidance. The official duration of the National Anthem of India is 52 seconds.[3]

Controversies[edit]

Controversy shadowed Jana Gana Mana from the day of its first rendition on 28 December 1911 at the twenty-seventh session of the Indian National Congress at Calcutta.[7] Emperor George V was scheduled to arrive in the city on 30 December and a section of the Anglo-Indian English press in Calcutta thought – and duly reported – that Tagore's hymn was a homage to the emperor.[10]

The poet claims in a letter written in 1939: "I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity."[10] In another letter to Pulin Behari Sen, Tagore later wrote, "A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata (ed. God of Destiny) of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."[11]

In Kerala, students belonging to the Jehovah's Witnesses religious denomination were expelled by school authorities for their refusal to sing the national anthem on religious grounds, although they stood up respectfully when the anthem was sung. The Kerala High Court concluded that there was nothing in it which could offend anyone's religious susceptibilities, and upheld their expulsion. The Supreme Court reversed the High Court and ruled that the High Court had misdirected itself because the question is not whether a particular religious belief or practice appeals to our reason or sentiment but whether the belief is genuinely and conscientiously held as part of the profession or practice of a religion. "Our personal views and reactions are irrelevant" The Supreme Court affirmed the principle that it is not for a secular judge to sit in judgment on the correctness of a religious belief.[12]

Supreme Court observed in its ruling[13]

"There is no provision of law which obliges anyone to sing the National Anthem nor is it disrespectful to the National Anthem if a person who stands up respectfully when the National Anthem is sung does not join the singing. Proper respect is shown to the National Anthem by standing up when the National Anthem is sung. It will not be right to say that disrespect is shown by not joining in the singing. Standing up respectfully when the National Anthem is sung but not singing oneself clearly does not either prevent the singing of the National Anthem or cause disturbance to an assembly engaged in such singing so as to constitute the offence mentioned in s. 3 of the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act".

Historical significance[edit]

The poem was composed in December 1911, coinciding with the visit of King George V at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and "Bharat Bhagya vidhata" and "Adhinayaka" was believed to be in praise of King George V as per the British newspapers. The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on 26 Dec 1911.[14] It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the British Indian press:

"The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor." (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)
"The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor." (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)


"When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously." (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)

Counter arguments

Many historians aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided. The confusion arose in British Indian press since a different song, "Badshah Humara" written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary,[15] was sung on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. The nationalist Indian press stated this difference of events clearly:-

"The proceedings of the Congress party session started with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of benediction). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung welcoming King George V." (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Dec.28,1911)

"The annual session of Congress began by singing a song composed by the great Bengali poet Ravindranath Tagore. Then a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V was passed. A song paying a heartfelt homage to King George V was then sung by a group of boys and girls." (The Bengalee, Dec. 28, 1911)

Even the report of the annual session of the Indian National Congress of December 1911 stated this difference:

"On the first day of 28th annual session of the Congress, proceedings started after singing Vande Mataram. On the second day the work began after singing a patriotic song by Babu Ravindranath Tagore. Messages from well wishers were then read and a resolution was passed expressing loyalty to King George V. Afterwards the song composed for welcoming King George V and Queen Mary was sung."

On 10 November 1937 Tagore wrote a letter to Mr Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. That letter in Bengali can be found in Tagore's biography Ravindrajivani, volume II page 339 by Prabhatkumar Mukherjee.

"A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."

Again in his letter of 19 March 1939 Tagore writes,

"I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity as to sing in praise of George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the Eternal Charioteer leading the pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of the timeless history of mankind." (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p738.)

Moreover, Tagore was hailed as a patriot who wrote other songs too apart from "Jana Gana Mana" lionizing the Indian independence movement.He renounced his knighthood in protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The Knighthood i.e. the title of 'Sir' was conferred on him by the same King George V after receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature for "Gitanjali" from the government of Sweden. Two of Tagore's more politically charged compositions, "Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo" ("Where the Mind is Without Fear" :Gitanjali Poem#35) and "Ekla Chalo Re" ("If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk Alone"), gained mass appeal, with the latter favoured by Gandhi and Netaji.

Literary interpretations[edit]

The proponents of the controversy stress the usage of the following words and phrases to claim that Jana Gana Mana was written for the King and the Queen of England-

Stanza 1: (Indian) People wake up remembering your good name and ask for your blessings and they sing your glories.
Stanza 2: Around your 'throne' people of all religions come and give their love and anxiously wait to hear your kind words.
Stanza 3: Praise to the 'King' for being 'the charioteer'.
Stanza 4: Drowned in deep ignorance, and suffering, poverty-stricken, this unconscious country waits for the wink of our eye and your mother's (Earth's) true protection.
Stanza 5: In your compassionate plans, the sleeping Bharat (India) will wake up. We bow down to your feet O Queen(Earth), and victory come to Rajeshwara(the lord of the lords).

Counter arguments

The supporters of the nationalist message of Jana Gana Mana claim that "King","Throne" and "chariot" refer to the Almighty who will lead India to freedom. "Ma" on the other hand is more likely to refer to "The Motherland" i.e. India, than King George V's mother- The Queen. In Amar Sonar Bangla, the national anthem of Bangladesh, Tagore has used the word "ma" and "mata" numerous times to refer to the motherland. In his deeply mystic book "Gitanjali" (an offering of songs to the God) Tagore has used the same metaphor of God as "King":-

Poem #50:[16]  "I had gone a-begging from door to door in the village path when thy golden chariot appeared in the distance like a gorgeous dream and I wondered who was this King of all Kings!"
Poem #51:[17]  "The King has come- but where are lights, where are wreaths? Where is the throne to seat him?..... Open the doors, let the conch-shells be sounded!"
Poem #35:[18]  "Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high...Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake."

The following phrases ignored by the proponents of the King George V controversy strengthen credibility of Jana Gana Mana's patriotic message:-

Stanza 1:"Jana gana mangaldayako" The saving of all people waits in thy hand. The saving referred to here, could be from British imperialism.
Stanza 2: The call of the Lord (not the King or Queen)is announced in every Indian home continuously in their prayers. He brings "Oikyo" i.e. unity of the people to gain freedom.
Stanza 3: "Jugo Dhabito Jaatri" (Pilgrims of the ages) are those who follow the path leading to God, not to some King or Queen of British Empire. Similarly "Biplabo" i.e. fierce revolution is our freedom struggle and "Shankhodhwoni"(conch-shell sound) in mythology announced the start of a "battle", here- nationalist struggle against the Empire. This is a path of sacrifice and only God can protect from fear and misery (Sankato Dukho).
Stanza 4: Through nightmares and fears, our mother i.e. motherbhumi protected us in her lap, not the Queen.
Stanza 5"Nidrito Bharato Jaagey" (Sleeping India awakens). This phrase has been used at least once by every nationalist poet to awaken the masses for revolution against British Imperialism. The "Supreme King" makes a mockery of King George V in the sense that the protector of India is a king above all mortal kings.

Regional aspects[edit]

Another controversy is that only those provinces that were under British rule, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravid (South India), Orissa and Bengal, were mentioned. None of the princely states – Kashmir, Rajasthan, Hyderabad, Mysore or Kerala – or the states in North-East India, which are integral parts of India now, were mentioned. But opponents of this proposition claim that Tagore mentioned only the borders states of India to include complete India. Whether the princely states would form a part of a liberated Indian republic was a matter of debate even till Indian Independence. 'Dravida' includes the people from the south (though Dravida specifically means Tamil and even then, the same consideration is not given for the south since there are many distinct people whereas in the north each of the distinct people are named) and 'Jolodhi' (Stanza 1) is Sanskrit for "seas and oceans". Even North-East which was under British rule or holy rivers apart from Ganges and Yamuna are not mentioned to keep the song in its rhythm. India has 29 states, 7 union territories.

In 2005, there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and substitute it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer a part of India, having become part of Pakistan as a result of the Partition of 1947. Opponents of this proposal hold that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and to Sindhi culture, and that Sindhi people are an integral part of India's cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India declined to change the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Bengali: জন গণ মন, Jônô Gônô Mônô

References[edit]

  1. ^ Monish R. Chatterjee (13 August 2003). "Tagore and Jana Gana Mana". http://www.countercurrents.org. 
  2. ^ Volume XII. Tuesday, 24 January 1950. Online Transcript, Constituent Assembly Debates
  3. ^ a b National Anthem – National Symbols – Know India. Nation Portal of Government of India.
  4. ^ a b "The Morning Song of India". K. Ramanraj. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  5. ^ "English Translation of the anthem as meant by tagore". www.poetandpoem.com. 11 Feb 2015. Retrieved 2013-12-16. 
  6. ^ "All 5 stanzas of Jana Gana Mana with Bengali script". 
  7. ^ a b Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2011). Rabindranath Tagore : an interpretation. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin Books India. p. 206. ISBN 978-0670084555. Incidentally a myth regarding this song needs to be refuted and laid to rest. It is on record that the song was written on 11 December 1911. On December 12 1911 the Delhi Durbar met to honour King Emperor George V. Obviously a poem written on 11 December could not be intended for an event the following day. The song was actually sung at the twenty-seventh session of the Indian National Congress, Calcutta on 28 December 1911 as the opening song at the beginning of the day’s proceedings. Thereafter it was also sung at the foundation day anniversary of Adi Brahma Samaj in February 1912 and included in their collection of psalms, Brahma Sangit. 
  8. ^ Vani Doraisamy (19 March 2006). "India beats: A Song for the Nation". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  9. ^ "English Translation of Janaganamana". Manjula Bose. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  10. ^ a b "BBC News – Indian anthem Jana Gana Mana turns 100". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  11. ^ "Controversy Surrounding The Indian National Anthem". Rare India Fact. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "To sing or not to sing Vande Mataram". Indian Express. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "Bijoe Emmanuel & Ors V. State of Kerala & Ors [1986] INSC 167". indiankanoon.org. 11 August 1986. Retrieved 2013-12-16. 
  14. ^ "Tagore and Jana Gana Mana". Monish R. Chatterjee. 
  15. ^ "India: Are we still singing for the Empire?". Pradip Kumar Datta. 
  16. ^ "Gitanjali Poem#50". 
  17. ^ "Gitanjali Poem#51". 
  18. ^ "Gitanjali Poem#35". 

External links[edit]