Jana Gana Mana
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|English: Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People|
Sheet music for "Jana Gana Mana".
National anthem of India
|Lyrics||Rabindranath Tagore, 1911|
|Music||Rabindranath Tagore, 1911|
|Adopted||24 January 1950|
"Jana Gana Mana" (Instrumental)
The first stanza of the song Bharata Bhagya Bidhata was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India as the National Anthem on 24 January 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta (now, Kolkata) Session of the Indian National Congress. This is the first of five stanzas of Tagore's Bengali song Bharot Bhagyo Bidhata.
The poem is written in a literary register of the Bengali language called sadhu bhasa. The song has been written almost entirely using nouns that also can function as verbs. Most of the nouns of the song are in use in all major languages in India. Therefore, the original song is quite clearly understandable, and in fact, remains almost unchanged in several widely different Indian languages. The transcription below reflects the Bengali pronunciation, in both the Bengali script and romanisation.
|জন গণ মন (Bengali Script)||जन गण मन (Devanagari)||Official Latin transliteration |
You, the ruler of our minds, our nation
To you our humble salutations!
You, the custodian of so many!
You, the guardian of India's destiny!
Through Punjab and Sindh, Gujarat and Maratha
Dravida, Utkala and Bengal
Across lofty crests and mellow leas of the Vindhyas and the Himalayas
Your name awakens one and all!
It rests upon the melodies of the Yamuna and Ganga in harmony
And swells the waves of the titanic sea!
Your blessings we seek, your praises replicate you
As the Protector of India's fate!
Victory! Victory! Victory!
Victory forever to you!
Jana Gana Mana was sung on 27 December 1911 at the Indian National Congress, Calcutta and again in January 1912 at the annual event of the Adi Brahmo Samaj. Though the Bengali song had been written in 1911, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Adi Brahmo Samaj journal, Tattwabodhini Patrika, of which Tagore was the editor.
Code of conduct
The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India for general information and guidance. The approximate duration of the National Anthem of India is 52 seconds.
In Kerala, students belonging to the Jehovah's Witnesses religious denomination were expelled by school authorities for their refusal to sing the national anthem on religious grounds, although they stood up respectfully when the anthem was sung. The Kerala High Court concluded that there was nothing in it which could offend anyone's religious susceptibilities, and upheld their expulsion. On 11 August 1986, the Supreme Court reversed the High Court and ruled that the High Court had misdirected itself because the question is not whether a particular religious belief or practice appeals to our reason or sentiment but whether the belief is genuinely and conscientiously held as part of the profession or practice of a religion. "Our personal views and reactions are irrelevant" The Supreme Court affirmed the principle that it is not for a secular judge to sit in judgment on the correctness of a religious belief.
Supreme Court observed in its ruling
"There is no provision of law which obliges anyone to sing the National Anthem nor is it disrespectful to the National Anthem if a person who stands up respectfully when the National Anthem is sung does not join the singing. Proper respect is shown to the National Anthem by standing up when the National Anthem is sung. It will not be right to say that disrespect is shown by not joining in the singing. Standing up respectfully when the National Anthem is sung but not singing oneself clearly does not either prevent the singing of the National Anthem or cause disturbance to an assembly engaged in such singing so as to constitute the offence mentioned in s. 3 of the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act".
On 30 November 2016, Supreme Court of India ordered the National Anthem must be played before movies in theaters, in order to instill "committed patriotism and nationalism". On February 10, 2017, 2 Kashmiris were booked for not standing during anthem in Jammu Cinema, under provisions of the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971. This was the first arrest of its kind made by a state government in India. In January 2018, the government reversed its stance and requested that the Supreme Court rescind the order until a government panel could consider the issue in more depth; the court agreed, and so around 9 January 2018 the National Anthem ceased being compulsory in movie theaters.
The composition was first sung during a convention of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta on 27 December 1911. It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the British Indian press:
"The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor." (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)
"The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor." (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)
"When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously." (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)
Many historians aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided. The confusion arose in British Indian press since a different song, "Badshah Humara" written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary, was sung on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. The nationalist Indian press stated this difference of events clearly:
"The proceedings of the Congress party session started with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of benediction). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung welcoming King George V." (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Dec.28,1911)"The annual session of Congress began by singing a song composed by the great Bengali poet Ravindranath Tagore. Then a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V was passed. A song paying a heartfelt homage to King George V was then sung by a group of boys and girls." (The Bengalee, Dec. 28, 1911)
Even the report of the annual session of the Indian National Congress of December 1911 stated this difference:
"On the first day of 28th annual session of the Congress, proceedings started after singing Vande Mataram. On the second day the work began after singing a patriotic song by Babu Ravindranath Tagore. Messages from well wishers were then read and a resolution was passed expressing loyalty to King George V. Afterwards the song composed for welcoming King George V and Queen Mary was sung."
On 10 November 1937 Tagore wrote a letter to Mr Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. That letter in Bengali can be found in Tagore's biography Ravindrajivani, volume II page 339 by Prabhatkumar Mukherjee.
"A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Bidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."
Again in his letter of 19 March 1939 Tagore writes:
"I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity as to sing in praise of George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the Eternal Charioteer leading the pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of the timeless history of mankind." (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p. 738.)
Moreover, Tagore was hailed as a patriot who wrote other songs too apart from "Jana Gana Mana" lionising the Indian independence movement. He renounced his knighthood in protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The Knighthood (i.e. the title of 'Sir') was conferred on him by the same King George V after receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature for "Gitanjali" from the government of Sweden. Two of Tagore's more politically charged compositions, "Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo" ("Where the Mind is Without Fear", Gitanjali Poem #35) and "Ekla Chalo Re" ("If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk Alone"), gained mass appeal, with the latter favoured by Gandhi and Netaji.
Another controversy is that only those provinces that were under British rule, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravid (South India), Odisha and Bengal, were mentioned. None of the princely states – Kashmir, Rajasthan, Hyderabad, Mysore or Kerala – or the states in Northeast India, which are now integral parts of India were mentioned. But opponents of this proposition claim that Tagore mentioned only the border states of India to include complete India. Whether the princely states would form a part of a liberated Indian republic was a matter of debate even till Indian Independence. 'Dravida' includes the people from the south (though Dravida specifically means Tamil and even then, the same consideration is not given for the south since there are many distinct people whereas in the north each of the distinct people are named) and 'Jolodhi' (Stanza 1) is Sanskrit for "seas and oceans". Even North-East which was under British rule or holy rivers apart from Ganges and Yamuna are not mentioned to keep the song in its rhythm. India has 29 states, 7 union territories.
In 2005, there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and substitute it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer a part of India, having become part of Pakistan as a result of the Partition of 1947. Opponents of this proposal hold that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and to Sindhi culture, and that Sindhi people are an integral part of India's cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India declined to change the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.
On 17 December 2013, MLA of Assam, Phani Bhushan Choudhury cited article of 'The Times of India' published on 26 January 1950, stating that in the originally the word 'Kamarup' was included in the song, but was later changed to 'Sindhu' and claimed that Kamarup should be re-included. To this, the then minister Rockybul Hussain replied that the state government would initiate steps in this regard after response from the newspaper. The debate was further joined by the then minister Ardhendu Dey, mentioning 'Sanchayita' (edited by Tagore himself) etc. where he said Kamrup was not mentioned.
- Subh Sukh Chain, the National Anthem of the Provisional Government of Free India
- Vande Mataram, the National Song of India
- Amar Shonar Bangla, the National Anthem of Bangladesh
- Indian National Army
- Capt.Ram Singh Thakur
- http://www.news18.com/news/india/national-anthem-of-india-a-brief-on-jana-gana-mana-498576.html Quote: "Though written in Bengali, the language used was sadhu Bengali or tatsama Bengali which was heavily sanskritised. Many of the words exist with the same meaning in different Indian languages and thus, all Indian people understand the words and meaning of the national anthem"
- "National Symbol: National Anthem". National Portal of India. Retrieved 10 April 2017. Quote: "The National Anthem of India Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950."
- http://mha.nic.in/sites/upload_files/mha/files/pdf/NationalAnthem(E).pdf Quote: "The composition consisting of the words and music of the first stanza of the late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore’s song known as “Jana Gana Mana” is the National Anthem of India"
- Britannica, Editors of Encyclopedia (2008), Britannica Encyclopedia of India (Set of 5 Volumes), Encyclopedia Britannica India, p. 167, ISBN 978-81-8131-008-8 Quote: "Adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem of India on January 24, 1950, the song Jana-gana-mana, in its Hindi version of the first stanza, was originally composed in Bengali by poet Rabindranath Tagore"
- "National Anthem- National Identity Elements of India - Know India: National Portal of India". knowindia.gov.in (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Chowdhury, Arunangsu Roy. "100 years since 'Jana Gana Mana' was born". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- "'Bharat Bhagya Bidhata' from 'Rajkahini' is a Tagore song and not an extended version of the national anthem". IBNliveNews.
- Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2011). Rabindranath Tagore : an interpretation. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin Books India. p. 206. ISBN 978-0670084555.
Incidentally a myth regarding this song needs to be refuted and laid to rest. It is on record that the song was written on 11 December 1911. On December 12, 1911 the Delhi Durbar met to honour King Emperor George V. Obviously a poem written on 11 December could not be intended for an event the following day. The song was actually sung at the twenty-seventh session of the Indian National Congress, Calcutta on 28 December 1911 as the opening song at the beginning of the day's proceedings. Thereafter it was also sung at the foundation day anniversary of Adi Brahma Samaj in February 1912 and included in their collection of psalms, Brahma Sangit.
- "To sing or not to sing Vande Mataram". Indian Express. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Bijoe Emmanuel & Ors V. State of Kerala & Ors  INSC 167". indiankanoon.org. 11 August 1986. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Supreme Court orders National Anthem must be played before movies in theaters
- 2 Kashmiris booked for not standing during anthem in Jammu Cinema
- In a first, state govt employee amongst two arrested for not standing during national anthem Archived 12 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- "India anthem not mandatory in cinemas". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
- "Tagore and Jana Gana Mana". Monish R. Chatterjee.
- "India: Are we still singing for the Empire?". Pradip Kumar Datta.
- "Controversy Surrounding The Indian National Anthem". Rare India Fact. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "BBC News – Indian anthem Jana Gana Mana turns 100". Bbc.co.uk. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- State to seek newspaper clarification on report. STAFF Reporter. Assam Tribune, 17-12-2013