Janata Dal

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Janata Dal
जनता दल
FounderV. P. Singh
Founded11 October 1988 (35 years ago) (1988-10-11)
Merger of
Succeeded by
National affiliation
Colours  Green

Janata Dal (“People’s Party”) was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.[2][3]


V. P. Singh united the entire disparate spectrum of parties ranging from regional parties such as the Telugu Desam Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and the Asom Gana Parishad, together and formed the National Front with N. T. Rama Rao as Indian Election History President and V. P. Singh as convenor. The front also included outside support from the right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party and the left-wing Left Front, led by the Communist Party of India and Communist Party of India (Marxist). They defeated Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) in the 1989 parliamentary elections.[4][5] His government fell after Lalu Prasad Yadav got Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra, which was going to Ayodhya on the site of the Babri Masjid on October 23, 1990, and the Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew support. V. P. Singh lost a parliamentary vote of confidence on November 7, 1990.[6]In the 1991 Indian general election the Janata Dal lost power but emerged as the third largest party in Lok Sabha.[7] The Janata Dal-led United Front formed the government after the 1996 Indian general election with the outside support of the Indian National Congress. However, after this the Janata Dal gradually disintegrated into various smaller factions, which largely became regional parties such as Biju Janata Dal, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Secular) and Janata Dal (United).[8]

Ascent to power[edit]

V. P. Singh

It first came to power in 1989, after cases of corruption, known as the Bofors scandal, caused Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) to lose the elections. The National Front coalition that was formed consisted of the Janata Dal and a few smaller parties in the government, and had outside support from the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party. V. P. Singh was the prime minister. In November 1990, this coalition collapsed, and a new government headed by Chandra Shekhar under Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) which had the support of the congress came to power for a short while. Two days before the vote, Chandra Shekhar, an ambitious Janata Dal rival who had been kept out of the National Front government, joined with Devi Lal, a former deputy prime minister under V. P. Singh, to form the Samajwadi Janata Party, with a total of just sixty Lok Sabha members. The day after the collapse of the National Front government, Chandra Shekhar informed the president that by gaining the backing of the Congress (I) and its electoral allies he enjoyed the support of 280 members of the Lok Sabha, and he demanded the right to constitute a new government. Even though his rump party accounted for only one-ninth of the members of the Lok Sabha, Chandra Shekhar succeeded in forming a new minority Government and becoming Prime Minister (with Devi Lal as deputy prime minister). However, Chandra Shekhar's government fell less than four months later, after the Congress (I) withdrew its support.

I. K. Gujral

Its second spell of power began in 1996, when the Janata Dal-led United Front coalition came to power, with outside support from the congress under Sitaram Kesri, choosing H. D. Deve Gowda as their prime minister. The Congress withdrew their support in less than a year, after the H. D. Deve Gowda Government restarted probing the corruption cases against a lot of Congress leaders, hoping to gain power with the support of various United Front constituent groups, and I. K. Gujral became the next prime minister. His government too fell in a few months, and in February 1998, the Janata Dal-led coalition lost power to the Bharatiya Janata Party in General Elections.

List of prime ministers[edit]

No. Prime ministers Year Duration Constituency Image
1 Vishwanath Pratap Singh 1989 – 1990 343 days Fatehpur
2 H. D. Deve Gowda 1996 – 1997 324 days — (Rajya Sabha MP) from Karnataka
3 Inder Kumar Gujral 1997 – 1998 332 days — (Rajya Sabha MP) from Bihar

Electoral records[edit]

Electoral Performance
Year Seats won Votes
1989 Indian general election 143 Increase 143 53,518,521 Increase 53,518,521
1991 Indian general election 59 Decrease 84 32,628,400 Decrease 2,08,90,121
1996 Indian general election 46 Decrease 13 27,070,340 Decrease 55,58,060
1998 Indian general election 6 Decrease 40 11,930,209 Decrease 1,51,40,131
Party Disintegrated

Vice President of India[edit]

Krishan Kant

Party Presidents[edit]

V P Singh (1989-1997)[9]

Sharad Yadav (1997-1999)[10][11]

National Units[edit]

Thakur Ji Pathak

Thakur Ji Pathak (1989 – 1994)- National General Secretary [12]

State Units[edit]

Uttar pradesh[edit]

Anantram Jaiswal (1983)



B. Rachaiah (1989)[9]

Siddaramaiah (Feb 1999)[13]

C. Byre Gowda (July 1999)[10]

General Secretary[edit]

Jeevaraj Alva (1989-1990)[14][9]

C. Narayanaswamy (1999)[10]

Tamil Nadu[edit]


Sivaji Ganesan

Janata Dal factions[edit]

Pro-NDA parties[edit]

Pro-I.N.D.I.A parties[edit]

Non-NDA/I.N.D.I.A parties[edit]

Defunct parties[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Samata Party, archived from the original on 2022-02-15, retrieved 2022-02-15
  2. ^ N. Jose Chander (1 January 2004). Coalition Politics: The Indian Experience. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-81-8069-092-1. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  3. ^ India Since Independence: Making Sense of Indian Politics. Pearson Education India. 2010. pp. 334–. ISBN 978-81-317-2567-2. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  4. ^ "V. P. Singh, a Leader of India Who Defended Poor, Dies at 77". New York Times. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  5. ^ Indian Parliamentary Democracy. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 2003. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-81-269-0193-7. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  6. ^ "India's Cabinet Falls as Premier Loses Confidence Vote, by 142-346, and Quits". New York Times. 8 November 1990. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  7. ^ "India Parliamentary Chamber: Lok Sabha Elections Held in 1991". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Lalu green signal for Janata Parivar unity". Madan Kumar. The Times of India. 5 April 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Rajghatta, Chidanand; March 31, 1989. "Karnataka unit Janata Dal gets a president". India Today. Retrieved 2021-08-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c Menon, Parvathi. "The fallout in Karnataka". Frontline. Retrieved 2021-12-13.
  11. ^ "Sharad Yadav: Socialist leader whose political journey saw splits and alliances". Hindustan Times. 2023-01-13. Retrieved 2023-08-27.
  12. ^ "india-today". indiatoday.com.
  13. ^ "Rediff On The NeT: Spectre of split returns to haunt JD". inwww.rediff.com. Retrieved 2021-12-13.
  14. ^ Raj Chengappa (September 15, 1988). "Karnataka's new CM S.R. Bommai inherits a troubled legacy". India Today. Retrieved 2021-08-17.
  15. ^ "Samras Samaj Party merges into RLSP". News.webindia123.com. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  16. ^ "Nitish Kumar hails SJD's merger with JD-U in Kerala : South, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2014-12-29. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  17. ^ "SJD Merges with Sharad Yadav's Janata Dal (United)". The New Indian Express. 2014-12-29. Archived from the original on December 31, 2014. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  18. ^ "From Lucknow to Delhi, parties that died with their founders". The Indian Express. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  19. ^ "Samata Party – Official Website". Archived from the original on 2022-02-15. Retrieved 2022-04-25.