Janet Collins (March 7, 1917 in New Orleans, Louisiana – May 28, 2003 in Fort Worth, Texas) was a ballet dancer, choreographer, and teacher. She performed on Broadway, in films, and appeared frequently on television. She was among the pioneers of black ballet dancing, one of the few classically trained Black dancers of her generation.
Janet Collins was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and at the age of four moved with her family to Los Angeles, California, where Collins received her first dance training at a Catholic community center. She studied primarily with Carmelita Maracci, Lester Horton, and Adolph Bolm, who were among the few ballet teachers who accepted black students.
In 1932, aged 15, Collins auditioned with success for the prestigious Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, but as she was required to paint her face and skin white in order to be able to perform, she did not join the company. In 1948, she moved to New York and got the chance to dance her own choreography on a shared program at the 92nd Street YMHA.
In 1951 she won the Donaldson Award for best dancer on Broadway for her work in Cole Porter's Out of This World. She also performed in Aida, Carmen, and was the first Black ballerina at the Metropolitan Opera. She could not tour in parts of the Deep South, owing to her race. In later life Collins taught modern dance at Balanchine's School of American Ballet in New York City, and at Manhattanville College in Purchase, New York.
Janet Collins struggled repeatedly against racism, which did not spare the world of professional ballet dancing. Not many African-American dancers and performers achieved the successful career she was able to attain, and she paved the way for others to follow. In 1951, she became the first African American to be hired full-time by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. Marian Anderson, the first to sing there, did not perform until 1955. In the year Collins retired, Arthur Mitchell, joined the New York City Ballet.
Janet Collins' dance reputation today resides primarily in her role in breaking the colour barrier; the constraints on Black classical dancers were too strong for her to have a vibrant performing career. However, her original choreography, which she performed in solo tours, was clearly of note, although few records survive. In her late forties she retired, turning to religion and finding comfort as an oblate in the Benedictine order. She was also an accomplished painter.
Janet Collins died in 2003 at the age of 86, in Fort Worth, Texas.
- Dunning, Jennifer. "Janet Collins, 86: Ballerina Was First Black Artist at Met Opera", The New York Times, May 31, 2003.
- David Vaughan, Janet Collins obituary, The Guardian, June 11, 2003.
- Janet Collins. Pocantico Hills School.
- "Janet Collins, American dancer" at Encyclopædia Britannica′s Guide to Black History.
- Yael Tamar Lewin, Night's Dancer, The Life of Janet Collins, Wesleyan University Press, 2011
- "The Carmen De Lavallade Awards for Dance: Janet Collins Fellowship", New York Institute of Dance & Education.
- "Janet Collins, American dancer" at Encyclopædia Britannica′s Guide to Black History