Hui-bin Jang

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Royal Noble Consort Hui
희빈 장씨
Queen Consort of Joseon
Tenure 1688 – 1694
Predecessor Queen Inhyeon
Successor Queen Inhyeon
Royal Noble Consort of Joseon
Tenure December 1686 – April 1688
1694 – November 1701
Born 3 November 1659
Eunpyeong, Kingdom of Joseon
Died 9 November 1701 (1701-11-10) (aged 42)
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
Burial Daebinmyo, Seooreung, Goyang, Gyeonggi
Spouse King Sukjong of Joseon
Issue King Gyeongjong of Joseon
Prince Seongsu
Posthumous name
옥산부대빈
玉山府大嬪
House Indong Jang
Father Jang Hyung
Mother Lady Yoon of the Papyeong Yoon clan

Royal Noble Consort Hui of the Indong Jang clan (3 November 1659 – 9 November 1701), also known as Jang Ok-jeong, is one of the best known royal concubines of Joseon. She was mother of King Gyeongjong of Joseon.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Her personal name was Jang Ok-jeong (張玉貞; 장옥정). She was the daughter of Jang Hyeong (張炯) and his second wife Lady Yoon of the Papyeong Yun clan (坡平尹氏). She is widely thought to be one of the most beautiful women in Joseon, and her charm was mentioned in the Annals. She belonged to the chungin class or middle class and came from a long line of interpreters. Ok-jeong became a lady-in-waiting to Grand Queen Dowager Jaui (King Injo's second queen) at the recommendation of Prince Dongpyeong (King Sukjong's first cousin once removed).

As royal concubine[edit]

After a visit with his step-great-grandmother (Grand Dowager Queen Jaui), King Sukjong saw her and gave her the rank of favored sang-gung, which meant she had been favored for the king but since she and her family belonged to the contrary faction, Soron, the Queen Mother Hyeonryeol (mother of King Sukjong), who belonged to Noron, afraid of the influence she could have on the king, expelled her from the palace. She stayed out of the palace until 1683 when the Queen Mother died and Queen Inhyeon (Sukjong lawful wife) allowed her to come back.

In 1686, she became Sukjong's concubine with the title of Suk-won (숙원, 淑媛).[1] In 1688, she was elevated to So-eui (소의, 昭儀) after giving birth to a son (the future King Gyeongjong), the same year Queen Inhyeon was exiled. After this, in 1688, she was elevated again to the rank of Bin (빈, 嬪), with the prefix "Hui", meaning "beautiful". She was then elevated to the position of queen consort. It created a bloody dispute and upheaval known as the Gisa Hwanguk.[2]

Sukjong had been relieved to have an heir to his throne; hence, Sukjong wanted to give Gyeongjong, his eldest and Jang Hui-bin's son, the title of Crown Prince. However, this was impossible since Gyeongjong was born from a concubine. Sukjong therefore asked Queen Inhyeon to adopt Jang Hui-bin's child, a common procedure at the time. Because Queen Inhyeon was still young at 21 years old at the time of Gyeongjong's birth, this action was opposed by the court as being an inappropriate promotion.

Queen Inhyeon refused to adopt Gyeongjong as her own son and was demoted from her position due to the political machinations of the time. This dispute led to not only the queen's removal, but also a purge, by banishment and poisoning, of government officials of the Seoin, the killing of the Noron leader, and the banishment and later death of the Queen's father. This upheaval became known as the Gisa Sahwa. Consort Jang Hui-bin was promoted to the position of queen consort as a result of these changes and as the Soron faction came to power in the court.[3]

As queen consort[edit]

Later, in 1694, Jang Hui-bin lost the favor of the King.[4] The King, disgusted by the Namin faction and the power the Jang family was gaining, tried to drive Jang Hui-bin out. He had also started favoring Lady Choi (later Choi Suk-bin), mother of Prince Yeoning (future king Yeongjo of Joseon) and an open supporter of Inhyeon. He began to take steps to depose Jang. First, he banished the brother of the queen consort and leaders of her party. Then, to save face, he brought Queen Inhyeon back. Queen Inhyeon was first moved to a small palace in Andong and then to the Mulberry Palace before finally returning to the main palace itself.

Later years[edit]

Jang Ok-jeong, formerly the queen consort, was demoted back to the rank of Hui-bin. One of her servants stole a name tag used for identification purposes during the Joseon from the Noron leader's slave and buried it next to Jang Hui-bin's father's grave to suggest that witchcraft, by use of a fetish, had been involved in the Noron's rise to prominence. After some investigating, the King discovered the ruse and had several court advisers killed or banished.[5]

In 1701, Queen Inhyeon died of an unknown disease. The registers show that Sukjong found Jang Hui-bin in her room with a shaman priestess cursing the Queen and making merry over having caused her death with black magic.[6] In spite of her being the mother of the Crown Prince and the many pleas of her faction for forgiveness, the King sentenced her and all of her companions to death, including her brother and mother. In his rage, the King investigated and killed her relatives and supporters. Her party petitioned the King to forgive her, but the King killed the leaders of Soron (her political faction) in response; 1700 people died as result of the incident.[5]

The courtiers who were against Jang Hui-bin's sentence of death by poison for the sake of the Crown Prince were exiled.[7] Subsequently, on the seventh day of the tenth month in the twenty-seventh year of his reign (7 November 1701), Sukjong passed a decree prohibiting concubines from being allowed to become Queens Consort in the future. Jang Hui-bin died by poison on 9 November (the 10th day of the 10th lunar Month), 1701 at Chwi Seon Dang, her royal residence inside Changdeok Palace. She was 42 years old.

Jang Hui-bin was known for her greed for power, wanting the queen consort title. Some would argue that she was the victim of political struggle present during this time. As a member of the losing party her story might be tampered with. One such story revolves around her son. In the story it was said that she severely wounded her son (the Crown Prince (future King Gyeongjong)), making it impossible for him to produce an heir.[8]

She was buried in Daebinmyo tomb in Seooreung[9][10] (Address: 334-92, Seooreung-ro, Deogyang-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do). Originally entombed in Munhyeong-ri Opo-myeon Gwangju-gun Gyeonggi-do, she was moved to Daebinmyo in June 1969.[11] Her memorial tablet was enshrined in Daebingung at Chilgung or "Palace of 7 Royal Concubine".

Nevertheless, as the mother of the Crown Prince, she was given the posthumous title "Lady Oksan, Great Concubine of the Palace; Prefectural Great Concubine of the Indong Jang clan" (대빈궁옥산부대빈장씨 大嬪宮玉山府大嬪張氏).

Jang's Tomb: Daebinmyo[edit]

Daebinmyo is a myo type tomb. She was originally entombed in Munhyeong-ri Opo-myeon Gwangju-gun Gyeonggi-do but was moved to its current location in June 1969, because the government was trying to expand the city and her tomb was in the way. Jang Hui-bin's tomb, Daebinmyo, was relocated at Seooreung tombs where Myeongreung is (명릉; reung refers to Kings and Queens tombs) and contains the tombs of King Sukjong, Queen Inhyeon, and Queen Inwon. Behind the tomb is a large rock and a pine tree has broken through the rock to grow. There is speculation that this reveals that Jang Hui-bin's ki (energy) was, and still is, very strong. Some Korean websites report that because Jang Hui-bin was such a strong woman there is a belief that if young single women who want a boyfriend visit Jang Hui-bin's tomb and pay a tribute, they will soon find love.[12]

Ancestry[edit]

Family[edit]

  • Father: Jang Hyeong (25 February 1623 – 12 January 1669) (장형)
    • Grandfather: Jang Eung-in (장응인)
    • Grandmother: Lady Bak of the Nampo Bak clan (남포 박씨)
  • Mother: Lady Yun of the Papyeong Yun clan (1626 - 1698) (파평 윤씨)
    • Grandfather: Yun Seong-rip (윤성립)
  • Brother: Jang Hui-jae (1651 - 29 October 1701) (장희재)
  • Husband: King Sukjong of Joseon (7 October 1661 – 12 July 1720) (조선 숙종)

Titles[edit]

  • 1659 - 1686: Jang Ok-jeong (장옥정).
  • 1686 - 1688: Lady Jang Suk-won, concubine of 4th rank (장 숙원).
  • 1688: Lady Jang So-ui, concubine of 2nd rank (장 소의).
  • 1688: Lady Jang Hui-bin, the Royal Noble Consort Hui of Indong Jang clan (장 희빈).
  • May 1688 - 1694: Queen Bu-ok, Queen consort of Joseon, deposed.
  • 1694 - 1701: demoted to Lady Jang Hui-bin (장 희빈).

Her full posthumous name[edit]

  • Lady Oksan, Great Concubine of the Palace; Prefectural Great Concubine of the Indong Jang clan
  • 대빈궁옥산부대빈장씨
  • 大嬪宮玉山府大嬪張氏

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Suk-won is the 8th ranking title for a King's concubine.
  2. ^ "네이버 학술정보". Academic.naver.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  3. ^ Hulbert, Homer B. (Homer Bezaleel) (26 October 2017). "The history of Korea". Seoul, Methodist Pub. House. Retrieved 26 October 2017 – via Internet Archive. 
  4. ^ (Book East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, 3rd pag. 255
  5. ^ a b Hulbert, Homer B. (Homer Bezaleel) (26 October 2017). "The history of Korea". Seoul, Methodist Pub. House. Retrieved 26 October 2017 – via Internet Archive. 
  6. ^ The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyeong Page 246
  7. ^ Lee, Bae-young (20 October 2008). Wome in Korean History. Ewha Womans University Press. pp. 109–111. ISBN 978-8973007721. 
  8. ^ "KOREA6". Royalark.net. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  9. ^ "Daebinmyo Tomb at Seooreung Tombs - Exploring Korea". Exploringkorea.com. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  11. ^ "Daebinmyo Tomb at Seooreung Tombs - Exploring Korea". Exploringkorea.com. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  12. ^ "King Sukjong and Jang Hee Bin's Tombs". Dramasrok.com. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  13. ^ "Lady Jang (Janghuibin) (1961)". Korean Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  14. ^ "Femme Fatale, Jang Hee-bin (Yohwa, Jang Hee-bin) (1968)". Korean Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  15. ^ a b c d e '죽지 않는' 장희빈 벌써 9명, 김태희가 뒤 이을까 . OhmyNews (in Korean). 22 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  16. ^ "TV Dramas - Actresses Line up for Award Ceremony Takeover". The Chosun Ilbo. 29 December 2003. Retrieved 2013-04-02. 
  17. ^ Lee, Ga-on (7 May 2010). "Han Hyo-joo says she "hold fast" to her role in Dong Yi". 10Asia. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  18. ^ Ho, Stewart (8 October 2012). "Kim Tae Hee Cast in Her First Historic Drama, Jang Ok Jung as Joseon Dynasty's Infamous Lady Jang Hee Bin". EnewsWorld.mnet.com. CJ E&M. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  19. ^ Hong, Grace Danbi (24 August 2012). "Shinhwa Transforms into Royal Concubines for Shinhwa Broadcast". EnewsWorld.mnet.com. CJ E&M. Retrieved 2012-12-16.