Janjua

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Janjua
JātiRajput[1][2]
Religions Islam
LanguagesPunjabi
Country Pakistan,  India
RegionPunjab
EthnicityPunjabi
Family namesyes

The Janjua (also spelt Janjuah or Janjhua) is a Punjabi Rajput[3][4] clan found predominantly in the Pothohar Plateau of Pakistani Punjab.[5]

History[edit]

The Janjuas had engaged in a long-running struggle for sovereignty over the Salt Range.[6]

The history of this region (the Salt Range) from the thirteenth century onward had been a sickening record of wars between Janjua and Gakhars for political ascendancy.[7][8]

In the 16th century, the Mughal Emperor Humayun was usurped by the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri, who constructed the Rohtas Fort in Punjab to check Humayun's entry into Hindustan, and also to keep a check on the local tribes including Gakhars as well as Janjuas.[9][10][need quotation to verify]

The expansion of the Sikh Empire, spearheaded by Ranjit Singh, was met with a rebellion by the Janjua Sultan of Watli, Sultan Fateh Muhammad Khan. A six-month siege of Kusuk Fort in Watli followed[11] and this was ended when the inhabitants ran short of water.[12] The Kala Khan branch of Rawalpindi Janjuas fortunes were also eclipsed by the rise of the Sikh Empire.[13]

British period[edit]

By the time the British Raj took an interest in conquering the Sikhs in 1848–49, they were joined by opportunistic tribes such as the Janjua, Gakhars who had lost control of their centuries-old ancestral kingdoms to the imperial Sikh Empire and sought revenge. Tai Yong Tan says that "Besides being impressed with their track record, the British saw in them, with their traditional and historical enmity against the Sikhs, an effective counterpoise against the latter."[14]

The Janjua rebellion against the Sikh Empire was a political rebellion, as the Janjua were initially keen allies to the Sukerchakia Misl.[15]

During the nineteenth century, they were listed as a martial race.[16] During this period, due to their high aristocratic status, the Janjuas refused to serve in any regiment that was not commanded by either a Janjua or another commander of equal social standing.[16] This preference was honoured by the British when selecting regiments for them.[16]

Notable People[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmed, Raja Qaiser (2020). "Conceptualizing Democracy in Pakistan: A Rural Perspective". Pakistan Journal of History and Culture. XLI (1): 1–16 – via ResearchGate.
  2. ^ Khan, Hussain (1991). "Janjuas, their Early Life". Ancient Pakistan. 7: 178–185.
  3. ^ Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmed, Raja Qaiser (2020). "Conceptualizing Democracy in Pakistan: A Rural Perspective". Pakistan Journal of History and Culture. XLI (1): 1–16 – via ResearchGate.
  4. ^ Khan, Hussain (1991). "Janjuas, their Early Life". Ancient Pakistan. 7: 178–185.
  5. ^ Jones, Philip Edward; Jones, Philip (2003). The Pakistan People's Party: Rise to Power. Oxford University Press. pp. 377, 378, 379. ISBN 978-0-19-579966-8.
  6. ^ Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, Volume 54, Issues 1-2. Pakistan Historical Society. 2006.
  7. ^ Bakshi, S. R. (1995). Advanced History of Medieval India. Anmol Publ. p. 142. ISBN 9788174880284.
  8. ^ Rajput Gotain
  9. ^ The Life and Times of Humāyūn by Ishwari Prasad, Published by Orient Longmans, 1956, p. 36
  10. ^ Temples of Koh-e-Jud & Thar: Proceedings of the Seminar on Shahiya Temples of the Salt Range, Held in Lahore, Pakistan by Kamil Khan Mumtaz, Siddiq-a-Akbar, Publ Anjuman Mimaran, 1989, p. 8
  11. ^ Stein, Marc Aurel (1936). Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Iran. London. p. 46.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ The Land of the Five Rivers and Sindh: Sketches, Historical and Descriptive David Ross, Publ.Languages Dept., Punjab, 1970, p. 153
  13. ^ Talbot, Ian (1996). Khizr Tiwana, the Punjab Unionist Party and the Partition of India. Psychology Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-7007-0427-9.
  14. ^ Tan, Tai Yong (2005). The Garrison State: The Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab 1849–1947. Sage. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-7619-3336-6.
  15. ^ Singh, Wazir (1990). Sikhism and Punjab's Heritage. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. p. 160.
  16. ^ a b c Tan, Tai Yong (2005). The Garrison State: The Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab 1849–1947. Sage. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7619-3336-6.