Janko group J4

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In the area of modern algebra known as group theory, the Janko group J4 is a sporadic simple group of order

   221 · 33 ··· 113 · 23 · 29 · 31 · 37 · 43
= 86775571046077562880
≈ 9×1019.

History[edit]

J4 is one of the 26 Sporadic groups. Zvonimir Janko found J4 in 1975 by studying groups with an involution centralizer of the form 21 + 12.3.(M22:2). Its existence and uniqueness was shown using computer calculations by Simon P. Norton and others in 1980. It has a modular representation of dimension 112 over the finite field with 2 elements and is the stabilizer of a certain 4995 dimensional subspace of the exterior square, a fact which Norton used to construct it, and which is the easiest way to deal with it computationally. Aschbacher & Segev (1991) and Ivanov (1992) gave computer-free proofs of uniqueness. Ivanov & Meierfrankenfeld (1999) and Ivanov (2004) gave a computer-free proof of existence by constructing it as an amalgams of groups 210:SL5(2) and (210:24:A8):2 over a group 210:24:A8.

The Schur multiplier and the outer automorphism group are both trivial.

Since 37 and 43 are not supersingular primes, J4 cannot be a subquotient of the monster group. Thus it is one of the 6 sporadic groups called the pariahs.

Representations[edit]

The smallest faithful complex representation has dimension 1333; there are two complex conjugate representations of this dimension. The smallest faithful representation over any field is a 112 dimensional representation over the field of 2 elements.

The smallest permutation representation is on 173067389 points, with point stabilizer of the form 211M24. These points can be identified with certain "special vectors" in the 112 dimensional representation.

Presentation[edit]

It has a presentation in terms of three generators a, b, and c as

Maximal subgroups[edit]

Kleidman & Wilson (1988) found the 13 conjugacy classes of maximal subgroups of J4 as follows:

  • 211:M24 - containing Sylow 2-subgroups and Sylow 3-subgroups; also containing 211:(M22:2), centralizer of involution of class 2B
  • 21+12.3.(M22:2) - centralizer of involution of class 2A - containing Sylow 2-subgroups and Sylow 3-subgroups
  • 210:PSL(5,2)
  • 23+12.(S5 × PSL(3,2)) - containing Sylow 2-subgroups
  • U3(11):2
  • M22:2
  • 111+2:(5 × GL(2,3)) - normalizer of Sylow 11-subgroup
  • PSL(2,32):5
  • PGL(2,23)
  • U3(3) - containing Sylow 3-subgroups
  • 29:28 Frobenius group
  • 43:14 Frobenius group
  • 37:12 Frobenius group

A Sylow 3-subgroup is a Heisenberg group: order 27, non-abelian, all non-trivial elements of order 3.

References[edit]

  • Aschbacher, Michael; Segev, Yoav (1991), "The uniqueness of groups of type J₄", Inventiones Mathematicae, 105 (3): 589–607, doi:10.1007/BF01232280, ISSN 0020-9910, MR 1117152
  • D.J. Benson The simple group J4, PhD Thesis, Cambridge 1981, https://web.archive.org/web/20110610013308/http://www.maths.abdn.ac.uk/~bensondj/papers/b/benson/the-simple-group-J4.pdf
  • Ivanov, A. A. (1992), "A presentation for J₄", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Third Series, 64 (2): 369–396, doi:10.1112/plms/s3-64.2.369, ISSN 0024-6115, MR 1143229
  • Ivanov, A. A.; Meierfrankenfeld, Ulrich (1999), "A computer-free construction of J₄", Journal of Algebra, 219 (1): 113–172, doi:10.1006/jabr.1999.7851, ISSN 0021-8693, MR 1707666
  • Ivanov, A. A. The fourth Janko group. Oxford Mathematical Monographs. The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004. xvi+233 pp. ISBN 0-19-852759-4 MR2124803
  • Z. Janko, A new finite simple group of order 86,775,570,046,077,562,880 which possesses M24 and the full covering group of M22 as subgroups, J. Algebra 42 (1976) 564-596. doi:10.1016/0021-8693(76)90115-0 (The title of this paper is incorrect, as the full covering group of M22 was later discovered to be larger: center of order 12, not 6.)
  • Kleidman, Peter B.; Wilson, Robert A. (1988), "The maximal subgroups of J4", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Third Series, 56 (3): 484–510, doi:10.1112/plms/s3-56.3.484, ISSN 0024-6115, MR 0931511
  • S. P. Norton The construction of J4 in The Santa Cruz conference on finite groups (Ed. Cooperstein, Mason) Amer. Math. Soc 1980.

External links[edit]