Jump to navigation Jump to search
The following events occurred in January 1916:
- 1 January 1, 1916 (Saturday)
- 2 January 2, 1916 (Sunday)
- 3 January 3, 1916 (Monday)
- 4 January 4, 1916 (Tuesday)
- 5 January 5, 1916 (Wednesday)
- 6 January 6, 1916 (Thursday)
- 7 January 7, 1916 (Friday)
- 8 January 8, 1916 (Saturday)
- 9 January 9, 1916 (Sunday)
- 10 January 10, 1916 (Monday)
- 11 January 11, 1916 (Tuesday)
- 12 January 12, 1916 (Wednesday)
- 13 January 13, 1916 (Thursday)
- 14 January 14, 1916 (Friday)
- 15 January 15, 1916 (Saturday)
- 16 January 16, 1916 (Sunday)
- 17 January 17, 1916 (Monday)
- 18 January 18, 1916 (Tuesday)
- 19 January 19, 1916 (Wednesday)
- 20 January 20, 1916 (Thursday)
- 21 January 21, 1916 (Friday)
- 22 January 22, 1916 (Saturday)
- 23 January 23, 1916 (Sunday)
- 24 January 24, 1916 (Monday)
- 25 January 25, 1916 (Tuesday)
- 26 January 26, 1916 (Wednesday)
- 27 January 27, 1916 (Thursday)
- 28 January 28, 1916 (Friday)
- 29 January 29, 1916 (Saturday)
- 30 January 30, 1916 (Sunday)
- 31 January 31, 1916 (Monday)
- 32 References
- Second Battle of Jaunde – Allied forces occupied the capital of Jaunde in German African colony of Kamerun (now Cameroon).
- Senussi Campaign – Aerial reconnaissance spotted a Senussi camp of 80 tents 35 mi (56 km) southeast of British garrison at Matruh in North Africa. A desert column mobilized to capture the camp but 10 days of torrential rain delayed the assault.
- British troop ship Geelong sank while returning soldiers from the Gallipoli Campaign in the Mediterranean Sea after colliding with another ship. All soldiers and crew on board were rescued.
- The British Royal Army Medical Corps carried out the first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled.
- Ross Sea Party – Marooned onshore in the Antarctic after the British polar exploration ship Aurora lost anchor and drifted in May 1915, the 10-man party of the second arm of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition split up. Four scientists manned a post at Cape Evans while the other six sledged to lay down a depot at Mount Hope near the Beardmore Glacier where the first arm of the expedition was expected to reach (unknown to them, the first arm of the expedition was also marooned).
- The State College of Washington football team defeated Brown University 14-0 in front of an estimated 10,000 spectators in the second annual Rose Bowl, after a 15-year hiatus.
- The association football club Estrela do Norte Futebol Clube was established in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Brazil.
- Born: Gustav Aarestrup, Norwegian business executive, CEO and chair of Storebrand, in Steinkjer, Norway (d. 2005); Rehavam Amir, Lithuanian-Israeli diplomat, diplomat to the United Kingdom from 1953 to 1958, in Vilnius, Lithuania (d. 2013)
- Born: Joel Barr, American-Soviet spy, member of the Soviet Atomic Spy Ring, in New York City (d. 1998); Manuel Manahan, Filipino politician, co-founder of the Progressive Party of the Philippines, member of the Senate of the Philippines from 1961 to 1967 (d. 1994)
- Died: Joseph Rucker Lamar, American judge, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1910 to 1916 (b. 1857); Félix Sardà y Salvany, Spanish clergy and writer, editor of the Catholic newspaper La Revista Popular, author of Liberalism is a Sin (b. 1844)
- Born: Maxene Andrews, American singer, one of The Andrews Sisters, best-selling group sold over 75 million records, in Mound, Minnesota (d. 1995); Bernard Greenhouse, American musician, cellist for the Beaux Arts Trio, in Newark, New Jersey (d. 2011); Betty Furness, American actress and consumer activist, lead actress for the 1950 TV series Westinghouse Studio One, special assistant to the President of Consumer Affairs for the Federal Trade Commission, in New York City (d. 1994)
- Died: Grenville M. Dodge, railroad executive, chief engineer of the First Transcontinental Railroad (b. 1831)
- Siege of Kut – A British relief force of over 13,000 men was dispatched to Kut, Mesopotamia (now Iraq) to resupply the defending British Indian Army.
- British noble John Hamilton-Gordon became the first to be awarded the title of Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
- Born: Lionel Newman, American film composer, Oscar winner for the soundtrack for the musical Hello, Dolly!, in New Haven, Connecticut (d. 1989); Slim Gaillard, American jazz musician, known for comedic vocal style in hits such as "Flat Foot Floogie (with a Floy Floy)", in Santa Clara, Cuba (d. 1991); Princess Niloufer, Ottoman noble, one of the last princesses of the Ottoman Empire, in Istanbul (d. 1989)
- Died: Bruce Sloss, Australian association football player, played for the Essendon Football Club, Sydney Swans, and Brighton Football Club, killed in battle at Armentières, France (b. 1889)
- Montenegrin Campaign – The Montenegrin Army was ordered to defend the retreating Serbian army as Austria-Hungary launched an offensive against Montenegro.
- Royal Navy destroyer HMS Turbulent was launched at the Hawthorn Leslie and Company shipyard in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. It would be sunk at the Battle of Jutland six months later.
- Baron Bean, a comic strip by George Herriman, debuted through the King Features Syndicate owned by William Randolph Hearst.
- Born: Maup Caransa, Dutch business executive, leading real estate developer in post-World War Two Amsterdam, famously kidnapped for ransom in 1977, in Amsterdam (d. 2009)
- Died: Ulpiano Checa, Spanish artist, known for such works as including painting for Le Train Bleu in 1900, recipient of the Legion of Honour (b. 1860); Harry Hems, British sculptor, leading artist of Gothic Revival architecture with noted restoration works such as the St Albans Cathedral in England (b. 1842)
- Died: Sam Lucas, American actor, first African-American to portray Uncle Tom in both stage and screen adaptations of Uncle Tom's Cabin (b. 1848); E. J. Woods, Australian architect, designer of St. Peter's Cathedral and State Parliament House in Adelaide, Australia (b. 1839)
- Battle of Mojkovac – An Austro-Hungarian force of 20,000 men attacked dug-in Montenegrin positions near Mojkovac, Montenegro. Despite out being vastly outnumbered, the Montenegrin Army of 6,000 repulsed the attack and inflicted 2,000 casualties.
- Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad – The British relief force of 13,000 under command of Major-General George Younghusband ran into a force with the Ottoman Sixth Army while on a relief mission to Kut in the Mesopotamia, and suffered 600 casualties the first day.
- Royal Navy battleship HMS King Edward VII struck a mine laid down by German cruiser SMS Möwe off the coast of Scotland and sank while being towed to shore by British destroyer HMS Fortune.
- British submarine HMS E17 was wrecked offshore of the Netherlands, with all crew rescued by Dutch cruiser HNLMS Noordbrabant.
- Following its evacuation from the Gallipoli Peninsula, the French Expeditionary Force of the Orient was absorbed into the larger Army of the Orient based in the Greek port of Salonika.
- Born: Adrian Beers, Scottish classical musician, double bass player for the Philharmonia Orchestra and founding member of the Melos Ensemble, in Glasgow (d. 2004); Ashley Bramall, British politician, Member of Parliament for Bexley from 1946 to 1950, noted president of the Inner London Education Authority, in Hampshire, England (d. 1999)
- Born: Herbert Choy, American judge, first Asian-American to serve as a federal judge, senior judge for United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit from 1971 to 1984, in Kaumakani, Hawaii (d. 2004); Al Hostak, American boxer, held the world middleweight title from 1938 to 1940, in Minneapolis (d. 2006); Phil Masi, American baseball player, catcher for the Boston Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates and Chicago White Sox from 1939 to 1952, in Chicago (d. 1990)
- Died: Joseph Maurice Pambet, French army officer, commander of the French 22nd Infantry Division that was involved in most of the first major battles of World War One on the Western Front including the First Battle of the Marne (killed in a car accident) (b. 1854)
- Battle of Mojkovac – The Austro-Hungarians retreated after a second failed attack on Mojkovac, with heavy casualties on both sides. The Montenegrin force held the line for another 11 days before retreating.
- Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad – With extra cavalry and artillery units sent by Lieutenant-General Fenton Aylmer, British forces under Major-General George Younghusband renewed attacks on Ottoman Sixth Army positions. A combination of heavy fog and little cover from enemy slowed the advance but allowed the British to force Ottoman forces to pull back.
- Royal Air Force No. 34 Squadron was established from elements of No. 19.
- The University of Oregon fight song "Mighty Oregon" was first performed by the Eugene Municipal Band in Eugene, Oregon. The song has a similar tune to the popular hit "It's a Long Way to Tipperary".
- Born: Elena Ceaușescu, Romanian politician, Deputy Prime Minister and First Lady of Romania, wife of Romanian president Nicolae Ceaușescu, in Petrești, Dâmbovița, Romania (d. 1989, executed); Paul Keres, Estonian chess player, considered the best chess player never to win a world champions, four-time runner-up at the Candidates Tournament, in Narva, Estonia (then part of the Russian Empire) (d. 1975); Togo Tanaka, American journalist, reported on camp conditions while part of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War Two, in Portland, Oregon (d. 2009)
- Born: Ray Forrest, German-American media broadcaster, best known for creating the TV variety show Children's Theater for NBC (d. 1999); Teresio Olivelli, Italian soldier and resistance fighter, member of the Italian resistance movement, in Como, Italy (d. 1944, killed in prison)
- Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad – The British successfully captured Sheikh Sa'ad in the Mesopotamia at a cost of 4,400 casualties (with reports of a similar amount for the Ottoman Empire).
- Russian battleship Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya exchanged fire with the Ottoman battleship Yavuz Sultan Selim in the Black Sea. While the action was minor, it proved the Russian navy now had control of the Black Sea and forced the Ottoman Navy to focus on defending the Dardanelles.
- St. Louis gangster William "Skippy" Rohan of the Egan's Rats was gunned down just after midnight in a saloon by gang member Harry "Cherries" Dunn following a heated exchange in which one accused the other of "snitching" to the St. Louis police department. Dunn's shooting of Rohan severed all ties with the Egan's Rats and marked him for death, leading to Dunn's murder nine months later.
- Royal Navy battle cruiser HMS Repulse was launched by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Scotland. It would see action at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1917.
- The Coliseum Theater opened in Seattle as the city's first movie theatre, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
- Born: John Davies, British business executive and politician, first Director of the Confederation of British Industry, first Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, in Blackheath, London, England (d. 1979); George G. Macfarlane, British engineer, leader in radar research, including director of the Royal Radar Establishment in the 1950s and 1960s, in Airdrie, North Lanarkshire, England (d. 2007); Joe Mallett, English association football player and coach, played wing half for various clubs, most notably Southampton F.C., from 1935 to 1955, in Gateshead, England (d. 2004)
- Died: Eugene W. Hilgard, German-American agriculturalist, credited as the father of modern soil sciences (b. 1833); Ada Rehan, Irish-American stage actress, one of the "Big Four" stage leads for Daly's Fifth Avenue Theatre on Broadway (b. 1857); Samuel Way, Australian judge, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Australia from 1876 to 1916 (b. 1836)
- Gallipoli Campaign – The last British troops evacuated from Gallipoli, as the Ottoman Empire prevailed over a joint British and French operation to capture Constantinople.
- The association football club Cachoeiro Futebol Clube was established in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Brazil.
- Born: Peter Twinn, English mathematician and code-breaker, one of the intelligence team to crack the Enigma machine code during World War Two, in Streatham, London, England (d. 2004); Vic Mizzy, American TV theme composer, best known for his themes for Green Acres and The Addams Family, in New York City (d. 2009); Ernie Schroeder, American comic book artist, best known for his work on Airboy and Spirit of '76, in New York City (d. 2006)
January 10, 1916 (Monday)
- Erzurum Offensive – The Russian Empire launched a major assault on the Erzurum Province in eastern Turkey within the Ottoman Empire.
- Montenegrin Campaign – Austro-Hungarian forces captured the city of Berane, Montenegro.
- The operetta Szibill, starring Julia Sanderson, Donald Brian and Joseph Cawthorn, made its American premiere at the Liberty Theatre in New York City and ran for 168 performances.
- Born: Sune Bergström, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research into prostaglandins, in Stockholm (d. 2004); William Buchan, British poet, author of Personal Poems, Kumari, and The Rags Of Time (d. 2008)
- Died: Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz, Polish painter, known for realist paintings including events from the January Uprising in 1863, member of the 1st Brigade, Polish Legions, killed in action at Kraków (b. 1852); Guido Baccelli, Italian physician, co-founder of Policlinico Umberto I, the second-largest hospital in Italy (b. 1830)
January 11, 1916 (Tuesday)
- Montenegrin Campaign – Austria-Hungary took the city of Mount Lovcen, Montenegro.
- The minority government under Prime Minister Hubert Loutsch for Luxembourg dissolved after succumbing to a vote of no confidence.
- Mexican militia reportedly with Pancho Villa forced sixteen American employees of the American Smelting and Refining Company from a train near Santa Isabel, Chihuahua, and summarily stripped and executed them.
- Born: Jimmy Quillen, American politician, U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1963 to 1997, in Scott County, Virginia (d. 2003)
- Died: Takashima Tomonosuke, Japanese military officer, one of the first generals of the Imperial Japanese Army (b. 1844)
January 12, 1916 (Wednesday)
- Montenegrin Campaign – With the loss of Cetinje, the capital of Montenegro imminent, as well as the cities of Mount Lovcen, Peć and Berane, Nicholas I of Montenegro was persuaded to begin surrender negotiations with Austria-Hungary.
- German flying aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke, each with eight kills, were the first pilots awarded the Pour le Mérite ("Blue Max").
- Royal Air Force No. 32 and No. 33 Squadrons were established.
- Born: Pieter Willem Botha, South African state leader, last Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and first State President of South Africa from 1984 to 1989, in Paul Roux, South Africa (d. 2006); Ruth R. Benerito, American chemist, patented many fabrics for the textile industry including the permanent press, in New Orleans (d. 2013); Mary Wilson, English poet, known for Selected Poems and New Poems anthologies, widow to British Prime Minister Harold Wilson, in Diss, Norfolk, England (d. 2018)
- Born: Cécile Cerf, French resistance fighter, member of the FTP-MOI, the armed group of the French Resistance during World War Two, in Vilna, France (d. 1973); Bella Lewitzky, American dance choreographer, founding chair of the Idyllwild Arts Academy, in Los Angeles (d. 2004); William Pleeth, British classical musician, renowned cellist and instructor for the Guildhall School of Music and Drama from 1948 to 1978, instructor to Jacqueline du Pré, in London (d. 1999)
- Died: Georgios Theotokis, Greek state leader, held the position of Prime Minister of Greece four times (b. 1844)
January 13, 1916 (Thursday)
- Battle of Wadi – A British force of 19,000 men under command of Lieutenant-General Fenton Aylmer attacked an Ottoman defensive force of 22,500 along the Wadi River in what is now modern-day Iraq, but a cost of 1,600 men compared to the 527 lost on the Ottoman side. The battle only further weakened British attempts to relieve beleaguered forces under command of General Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend in Kut.
- Montenegrin Campaign – An Austrian force entered the Montenegrin capital of Cetinje.
- Battle of Koprukoy – A Russian force of 75,000 men under command of Nikolai Yudenich clashed with members of the Ottoman Third Army under command of Abdul Kerim Pasha during the Erzurum Offensive.
- Senussi Campaign – An Allied desert column arrived at Senussi camp spotted by air southeast of Matruh in North Africa, only to find the camp deserted. Despite the lack of findings, a needed telegraph line was repaired before the column returned to base.
- The field artillery XX Brigade was established for service in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign.
- The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, Curtiss Motor Company, and two other aircraft manufactures merged to form the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.
- Born: Tony Brennan, Irish athlete, played fullback for the Tipperary GAA from 1939 to 1953, in Clonoulty, Ireland (d. 1965)
- Died: Victoriano Huerta, Mexican army officer and state leader, 35th President of Mexico (b. 1854); Richard Eckermann, German naval officer, Chief of Staff for the High Seas Fleet during World War One (b. 1862)
January 14, 1916 (Friday)
- Storm flooding caused dikes to burst at Zuiderzee, Netherlands, killing 19 people. Ships caught out at sea also resulted in a further 32 casualties.
- Battle of Koprukoy – Russian forces began to repel counterattacks made by the Ottoman Third Army.
- Irish revolutionary leader Michael Collins resigned his job in London and returned to Ireland.
- In response to high losses German Fokker Eindecker fighters were inflicting on Allied reconnaissance aircraft flying over the Western Front, Royal Flying Corps Headquarters ordered that reconnaissance planes have an escort of at least three fighters flying in close formation with them, and that a reconnaissance aircraft must abort its flight if even one of the three fighters becomes detached from the formation for any reason.
- Born: Leonard Siffleet, Australian commando, member of the Services Reconnaissance Department during World War Two and he and recon team members were captured and executed during a mission in Papua New Guinea, in Gunnedah, Australia (d. 1943)
January 15, 1916 (Saturday)
- Battle of Koprukoy – Russia broke through the Ottoman defense line.
- A massive fire destroyed much of downtown Bergen, Norway over a 10-hour period. Altogether, 380 buildings were burned down and 2,700 people were left homeless.
- An explosion on U.S. Navy submarine USS E-2 in the New York Navy Yard killed four servicemen.
- The 77th Street, 86th Street and Bay Ridge Avenue subway stations opened in New York City.
- The American anarchist publication The Blast released its first issue and would run for just over one year.
- The Austrian operetta Das Dreimäderlhaus (House of the Three Girls) by Franz Schubert premiered at the Raimund Theater in Vienna and would run for 650 performances. Following the end of the World War One, the operetta was adapted in French and English.
- Norwegian sports club Tiller IL was established in Trondheim, Norway and offered association football, team handball, ice hockey, Nordic skiing and biathlon.
- Born: Maurice Bavaud, Swiss theologian, attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1938 (d. 1941, executed); Hugh Gibb, English musician, patriarch of the Gibb family of musicians including Barry, Robin, Maurice and Andy Gibb, in Chorlton, Manchester, England (d. 1992);
- Born: Ron Guthrey, New Zealand politician, 40th Mayor of Christchurch, in Rawene, New Zealand (d. 2008); Alexandru Robot, Romanian poet, leading promoter of modernism and avant-garde poetry in Eastern Europe, in Bucharest (disappeared in 1941)
January 16, 1916 (Sunday)
- Battle of Koprukoy – Ottoman forces begin their retreat to their fortress near Erzurum, Turkey.
- German auxiliary cruiser SMS Möwe, disguised as a merchant ship, attacked and captured a British steamer south of the island of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean, killing 18 sailors, wounded five more, and took the ship's command and survivors prisoner before scuttling the ship.
- American actress Billie Burke made her screen debut in the film comedy Peggy, directed by Thomas H. Ince.
- Born: Philip Lucock, British-Australian politician, Member of Parliament of Australia for Lyne from 1952 to 1980, in Eltham, Kent, England (d. 1996)
- Died: Arnold Aletrino, Dutch physician, pioneer researcher into homosexuality and the theory it was a natural-occurring sexual orientation (b. 1858); Juana María Condesa Lluch, Spanish nun, established the Handmaids of Mary Immaculate order in Valencia, Spain, beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2003 (b. 1862)
January 17, 1916 (Monday)
- Manuel Estrada Cabrera was re-elected for a third term as President of Guatemala after running unopposed in the presidential election.
- Born: Peter Frelinghuysen, Jr., American politician, U.S. Representative from New Jersey from 1953 to 1975, in New York City (d. 2011); Charles F. Hockett, American linguist, leading researcher in language structuralism, in Columbus, Ohio (d. 2000); Edmund Morgan, American historian, leading expert on American colonial history, in Minneapolis (d. 2013)
- Died: Arthur V. Johnson, American actor and director, known for such films as The Sealed Room, The Unchanging Sea, The Adventures of Dollie, The Voice of the Violin (b. 1876); Marie Bracquemond, French artist, referred to as "les trois grandes dames" or "the three great women" of Impressionism (b. 1841)
January 18, 1916 (Tuesday)
- Montenegrin Campaign – The Montenegrin army pulled back from the line between Berane and Mojkovac allowing Austria-Hungary to resume advancing south towards Albania.
- The world's first practical all-metal aircraft, the Junkers J.1, flew for the first time.
- Scottish polar vessel Scotia (originally the Norwegian whaler ship Hekla), best known for being used for exploration by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, caught fire and sank off the coast of Wales, with all crew rescued.
- Born: Silviu Brucan, Romanian author and politician, one of the authors of the Letter of the Six that led to the overthrow of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime, in Bucharest (d. 2006); James F. Crow, American geneticist, leading researcher on the paternal age effect on DNA, in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania (d. 2012);
- Born: Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere, French philosopher, founder of the Universal Great Brotherhood, in Paris (d. 1962); Foil A. Miller, American chemist, leading researcher into infrared and Raman spectroscopy for the University Pittsburgh, in Aurora, Illinois (d. 2016)
- Died: Lorenzo Latorre, Uruguayan state leader, dictator and President of Uruguay from 1876 to 1880 (b. 1844)
January 19, 1916 (Wednesday)
- Battle of Koprukoy – Ottoman forces regrouped at the Erzurum fortress Turkey, losing 20,000 out of the 65,000 men they started with while the Russian force lost 12,000 out of 75,000 men.
- Montenegrin Campaign – Nicholas I of Montenegro fled to Italy.
- Senussi Campaign – The main Senussi camp that eluded Allied scouts was finally located by air reconnaissance 22 mi (35 km) southwest of Matruh in North Africa.
- Born: Harry Huskey, American computer engineer, designer of the SWAC and Bendix G-15 computers, in the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina (d. 2017); Brion Gysin, English artist, best known for his collaborations with writer William S. Burroughs, inventor of the Dreamachine, in Taplow, England (d. 1986)
- Died: Isaac S. Catlin, American army officer, recipient of the Medal of Honor for action at the Battle of the Crater during the American Civil War (b. 1835)
January 20, 1916 (Thursday)
- Born: Alex Nicol, American actor, best known for his Western roles including The Man from Laramie and the 1964 TV Western Daniel Boone, in Ossining, New York (d. 2001)
- Died: Ephraim Francis Baldwin, American architect, best known for designing the train stations for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and for many Catholic churches including Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Savannah, Georgia and St. Leo's Church in Baltimore (b. 1837); Nedeljko Čabrinović, Serbian revolutionary, one of the conspirators involved in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, died in prison (b. 1895)
January 21, 1916 (Friday)
- Battle of Hanna – A British force of around 10,000 men under command of Lieutenant-General Fenton Aylmer attacked the Ottoman line defended by an estimated 30,000 soldiers along the Tigris River, and lost 2,741 men compared to the 503 casualties on the Ottoman side. The defeat left British forces defending Kut completely vulnerable.
- The German air squadron Jagdstaffel 5 was established as the first dedicated fighting squadron for the Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Force) although it would not be mobilized until August 21.
- The British Army cavalry units I and II Brigades were dissolved with the 2nd Mounted Division following their completion of service at the Gallipoli Campaign.
- Born: J. W. Alexander, American R&B musician, best known for his collaborations with Sam Cooke, in Hamilton, Mississippi (d. 1996); Houston Bright, American composer, best known for his symphonic choral works including The Vision of Isaiah, in Midland, Texas (d. 1970)
- Born: James Anthony, British psychologist, leading researcher in child mental health and co-founder of group psychotherapy, in Calcutta (d. 2015); Denise Bloch, French spy, member of the Special Operations Executive during World War Two, posthumous recipient of the Legion of Honour, in Paris (d. 1945, executed at the Ravensbrück concentration camp); John Nardi, American gangster, high-ranking member of the Cleveland crime family, in Cleveland (d. 1977, murdered)
- Died: George Musgrove, British-Australian theater and opera producer, produced major operatic works with the Theatre Royals in Melbourne and Sydney (b. 1854); Louis H. Carpenter, American army officer, commander during the Battle of Gettysburg and the American Indian Wars, recipient of the Medal of Honor (b. 1839)
January 22, 1916 (Saturday)
- Senussi Campaign – A desert column with the Allied Western Frontier Force prepared to assault the main Senussi in North Africa.
- Born: Bill Durnan, Canadian hockey player, goaltender for the Montreal Canadiens two-time winner of the Stanley Cup, Toronto (d. 1972); Riza Lushta, Albanian association football player, played centre forward for various clubs from 1934 to 1953 including SK Tirana and Juventus F.C., in Mitrovica, Kingdom of Serbia (now part of Kosovo) (d. 1997)
- Born: Henri Dutilleux, French composer, known for his compositions Tout un monde lointain and L'arbre des songes, in Angers, France (d. 2013); Stephen C. O'Connell, American lawyer and academic, 6th President for the University of Florida, in West Palm Beach, Florida (d. 2001; Walter Borchers, German fighter pilot, member of the Luftwaffe and wing commander of the Nachtjagdgeschwader 5 during World War Two, recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, in Bad Zwischenahn, Germany (d. 1945, killed in action)
January 23, 1916 (Sunday)
- Senussi Campaign – Troops with the Western Frontier Force attacked the Senussi but were soon outflanked, forcing defensive maneuvers that allowed the main body of Senussi to escape. British casualties were 21 killed and 291 wounded while captured Senussi estimated 200 killed and 500 wounded on their side.
- Born: David Douglas Duncan, American war photojournalist, covered the Battle of Okinawa and Japanese surrender of the USS Missouri, in Kansas City, Missouri (d. 2018); Daphne Lorraine Gum, Australian healthcare worker, pioneer in treatment and care of children with cerebral palsy, in Pinnaroo, South Australia (d. 2017)
- Born: Paul B. Johnson Jr., American politician, 54th Governor of Mississippi, son of Paul B. Johnson Sr., in Hattiesburg, Mississippi (d. 1985); Airey Neave, British politician, Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland from 1974 to 1979, in Knightsbridge, London, England (d. 1979, assassinated); Siegfried Barth, German bomber pilot, commander of Jagdbombergeschwader 32 for the Luftwaffe during World War Two, recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, in Augsburg, Germany (d. 1997)
- Died: Isa Boletini, Albanian partisan, one of the leaders of the Albanian Revolt of 1910, killed by Montenegrin forces (b. 1864)
January 24, 1916 (Monday)
- Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer was appointed commander of Germany's High Seas Fleet after Hugo von Pohl proved too ill to continue command.
- Senussi Campaign – Air reconnaissance located the new Senussi camp but Allied forces stood down for rest and waited for the wet weather to improve before moving.
- In Browning, Montana, the temperature dropped from +6.7 °C to -48.8 °C (44 °F to -56 °F) in one day, the greatest change ever on record for a 24-hour period.
- The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the national income tax in the decision concerning Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad.
- The Persian-language magazine Kaveh, named after the Iranian mythical hero Kaveh, began publication out of the Federal Foreign Office in Berlin.
- Born: Rafael Caldera, Venezuelan state leader, 56th and 63rd President of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and 1994 to 1999 respectively, in San Felipe, Yaracuy, Venezuela (d. 2009); Jack Brickhouse, American sportscaster, best known for his play-by-play coverage of Chicago Cubs games on WGN-TV from 1948 to 1981, in Peoria, Illinois (d. 1998); Walter A. Haas Jr., American business executive, chairman and CEO of Levi Strauss & Co. from 1958 to 1981, in San Francisco (d. 1995)
- Born: Jose Barraquer, Spanish ophthalmologist, credited as the "father of modern refractive surgery", in Barcelona (d. 1998); Alexander Bogen, Estonian-Polish-Israeli artist and partisan fighter, member of the United Partisan Organization during World War Two in Tartu, Estonia (then part of the Russian Empire) (d. 2010)
- Born: Gene Mako, Hungarian-American tennis player, five-time Grand Slam doubles champion in the 1930s, in Budapest (d. 2013); Sam Maloof, American designer, known for his acclaimed furniture designers including the Maloof rocking, in Chino, California (d. 2009); Sudirman, Indonesian army officer, first commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, in Purbalingga Regency, Dutch Indies (d. 1950)
January 25, 1916 (Tuesday)
- Montenegrin Campaign – Montenegro formally surrendered to Austria-Hungary.
- Born: Pop Ivy, American football coach, only coach to serve in both professional leagues, including the St. Louis Cardinals, Houston Oilers, and New York Giants, in Skiatook, Oklahoma (d. 2003)
January 26, 1916 (Wednesday)
- Ross Sea Party – The sledging party of the second arm of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition reached Mount Hope near the Beardmore Glacier to lay down a depot for the first arm of the expedition that was expected to reach the location in the coming weeks, even though the actual party was marooned on drifting ice in the Weddell Sea. One of the sledging party, Arnold Spencer-Smith, had taken ill during the trek and was left in a tent along the route while the party completed their mission.
- Born: Asoka Karunaratne, Sri Lankan politician, cabinet minister for the J. R. Jayewardene administration, in Kegalle, Ceylon (d. 1988); Eli Waldron, American writer,best known for short fiction and non-fiction including "The Beekeeper" and "The Death of Hank Williams", in Oconto Falls, Wisconsin (d. 1980, killed in a car accident)
January 27, 1916 (Thursday)
- The British government passed legislation that introduced conscription in Great Britain.
- Born: Stjepan Filipović, Yugoslav partisan, commander of the partisan army in Valjevo, Serbia during German occupation, in Opuzen, Croatia (d.1942, executed); Marshall Green, American diplomat, ambassador to Indonesia and Australia in the 1960s and 1970s, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (b. 1998); Helmut Hirsch, German resistance fighter, member of the Black Front formed to resist the Nazi government, in Stuttgart, Germany (d. 1937, executed)
- Died: Francis Ley, British industrialist and sports executive, founder of Vulcan Iron Works in Derby and the Derby County Baseball Club (b. 1846)
January 28, 1916 (Friday)
- Women were given the right to vote in Manitoba, the first Canadian province to do so in the Dominion.
- The opera Goyescas by Enrique Granados premiered at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, the first Spanish opera ever to be performed there.
- Born: Dottie Hunter, Canadian baseball player, played first base for the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, in Winnipeg (d. 2005); Dale Alford, American politician, U.S. Representative from Arkansas from 1959 to 1963, in New Hope, Pike County, Arkansas (d. 2000)
January 29, 1916 (Saturday)
- Erzurum Offensive – Ottoman General Mahmud Kâmil Pasha, command of the Ottoman Third Army, arrived from Istanbul after learning the Russians had successfully broken through the Ottoman defense line in the Erzurum Province and began making new defense plans against the offensive.
- Ross Sea Party – The sledging party of the second arm of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition picked up ailing Arnold Spencer-Smith on their return from Mount Hope, who was now too weak to walk and had to be carried in a sledge. Expedition leader Aeneas Mackintosh also became too weak to pull and later had to be carried by sledge.
- Born: Bill Lawrence, American journalist, White House correspondent of The New York Times during the 1950s and political affairs editor for ABC News during the 1960s, recipient of the 1965 Peabody Award and 1972 Emmy Award in Lincoln, Nebraska (d. 1972); Harry Peulevé, British-French special agent, member of the Special Operations Executive during World War Two and escapee from the Buchenwald concentration camp, in Hastings, England (d. 1963)
January 30, 1916 (Sunday)
- A German zeppelin bombed Paris, killing six civilians and wounding another 30 people.
- The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence ended between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and British diplomat Henry McMahon concerning the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
- The Italian air squadron 71a Squadriglia was established in Torino as Italy's first fighter squadron.
- Arthur Warren Waite, a dentist from Grand Rapids, Michigan, poisoned his mother-in-law Hannah M. Carpenter using arsenic while she stayed at his home in New York City. It was the first of two murders, the second being Waite's father-in-law Jon E. Peck who arrived two months later following his wife's death.
- Born: Ethel du Pont, American heiress and socialite, granddaughter to Eugene du Pont and wife to Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., in Wilmington, Delaware (d. 1965, suicide)
- Died: Joseph Jacobs, Australian folklorist, collected and popularized many popular English fairy tales in English Fairy Tales and More English Fairy Tales (b. 1854); Clements Markham, English geographer, chief organizer of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic (b. 1830)
January 31, 1916 (Monday)
- German airships resumed bombing raids against Great Britain, as nine Imperial German Navy zeppelins led by the chief of the German Naval Airship Division Peter Strasser attempted to attack Liverpool. Most of their bombing targets were scattered widely around the English Midlands and did not reach the city.
- German cruise SMS Karlsruhe was launched at the Kaiserliche Werft Kiel in Kiel, Germany and would play a role in Operation Albion the following year.
- Born: Sangoulé Lamizana, Voltiac state leader, 2nd President of the Republic of Upper Volta in West Africa (now Burkina Faso) (d. 2005); Frank Parker, American tennis player, winner of for Grand Slam singles titles and three doubles titles, in Milwaukee (d. 1997)
- O'Neill, Herbert C. (1918). The War in Africa and the Far East. London: London Longmans Green. p. 62.
- Macmunn, G; Falls, C. (1996) [1928 HMSO]. Military Operations: Egypt and Palestine, From the Outbreak of War with Germany to June 1917. I. Nashville, TN: Battery Press. pp. 118–120. ISBN 0-89839-241-1.
- "S.S. GEELONG LOST." The Albury Banner and Wodonga Express. New South Wales, Australia. 7 January 1916. p. 23. Retrieved 22 July 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- Kim Pelis (2001). "Taking Credit: The Canadian Army Medical Corps and the British Conversion to Blood Transfusion in WWI". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 56: 238–277. doi:10.1093/jhmas/56.3.238. PMID 11552401.
- Tyler-Lewis, Kelly (2007). The Lost Men. London: Bloomsbury Publications. pp. 163–64, 171. ISBN 978-0-7475-7972-4.
- Washington State Cougars in the 1916 Rose Bowl Archived 2006-11-07 at the Wayback Machine. - Washington State athletic department
- Rodolfo Rodrigues (2009). Escudos dos Times do Mundo Inteiro. Panda Books. p. 47.
- David F. Burg and L. Edward Purcell, Almanac of World War I, part 522 (Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2004), p. 94.
- "No. 29427". The London Gazette. 4 January 1916. p. 179.
- Vucinich, Louis Andrew (1974) God and the Villagers: A story of Montenegro Buffalo State College Foundation, Buffalo, New York, pages 313-314, OCLC 1194937
- Roberts, Elizabeth (2005) Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro Cornell University Press, Ithica, New York, page 311, ISBN 978-0-8014-4601-6
- Colledge, J.J.; Warlow, Ben (1969). Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (2006 ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. p. 647. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8.
- Ron Goulart.The Funnies:100 years of American comic strips. Holbrook, Mass. : Adams Pub., 1995. ISBN 1558505393 p. 110
- Djilas, Milovan (1958) Land Without Justice Harcourt, Brace, New York, page 161, OCLC 2004937
- Vucinich 1974, 313-314
- Candler, Edmund (1919). The Long Road To Baghdad. Cassell and Company. p. 45.
- Burt, R. A. (1988). British Battleships 1889–1904. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 247–250. ISBN 0-87021-061-0.
- Akerman, P. (1989). Encyclopaedia of British submarines 1901–1955. p.150. Maritime Books. ISBN 1-904381-05-7
- Moore, Antoni; Drecki, Igor (2013). Geospatial Visualisation. New York: Springer. p. 34. ISBN 9783642122897.
- Djilas 1958, p. 161
- Vucinich 1974, 313-314
- Candler 1919, pp. 46-49
- Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE,BA,RAF (Retd). (2001). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- "'Mighty Oregon' sings of the past". Daily Emerald. November 12, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- Sir John Nixon, Dispatch to War Office 16 January 1916, Gazette, Issue number: 29576, p.4660
- Tucker, Spencer C. (28 October 2014). World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection [5 volumes]: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection. I (illustrated, revised ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 264–265. ISBN 9781851099658.
- Skippy Rohan Killed
- Waugh, Daniel (2007). Egan's Rats: The Untold Story of the Gang that ruled Prohibition-era St. Louis. Nashville, Tennessee: Cumberland House.
- Burt, R. A. (1986). British Battleships of World War One. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 302. ISBN 0-87021-863-8.
- Flom, Eric L. (July 12, 2000). "Coliseum opens in Seattle on January 8, 1916". HistoryLink. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
- National Park Service (March 13, 2009). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Broadbent, Harvey (2005). Gallipoli: The Fatal Shore. Camberwell, Victoria: Viking/Penguin. p. 266. ISBN 0-670-04085-1.
- Rodrigues 2009, p. 46
- Walton, Robert (1984). The Fall of Erzerum. Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I, vol iv. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 1984. ISBN 0-86307-181-3.
- Roberts 2005, p. 312
- Kurt Gänzl; Andrew Lamb (1989). Gänzl's book of the musical theatre. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 1036. ISBN 0-02-871941-7.
- Roberts 2005, p. 312
- Thewes, Guy (July 2003). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 (PDF) (in French) (Édition limitée ed.). Luxembourg City: Service Information et Presse. p. 66. ISBN 2-87999-118-8. Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- Katz, Friedrich (1978). "Pancho Villa and the Attack on Columbus, New Mexico". American Historical Review. 83 (1): 101–130. doi:10.2307/1865904.
- Pavlovic, Srdja (2008) Balkan Anschluss: the annexation of Montenegro and the creation of the common South Slavic state Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, page 77, ISBN 978-1-55753-465-1
- Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W.; Guest, Russell (1993). Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. Grub Street. pp. 134–35. ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1.
- van Wyngarden, G. (2006). Early German Aces of World War I. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 1-84176-997-5.
- Rawlings, J.D.R. (September 1970). "History of No. 32 Squadron". Air Pictorial. 33 (11): 424.
- Rawlings, J.D.R. (November 1971). "History of No. 33 Squadron". Air Pictorial. 32 (9): 327.
- "Battles: The Battle of the Wadi, 1916". 27 February 2002. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
- Pavlovic 2008, p. 77
- W.E.D. Allen and Paul Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields, A History of Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828-1921, 337. ISBN 0-89839-296-9
- Vetluga Memoir: Turkish Prisoner of War in Russia, 1916-18 MA Olcen
- Macmunn & Falls 1996, pp. 118–120.
- Becke, Major A.F. (1936). Order of Battle of Divisions Part 2A. The Territorial Force Mounted Divisions and the 1st-Line Territorial Force Divisions (42–56). London: His Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 113. ISBN 1-871167-12-4.
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 108
- "High Tide Menaces All North Holland" (PDF). New York Times (January 15, 1916). January 14, 1916. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Waters Higher In Holland" (PDF). New York Times (January 17, 1916). January 16, 1916. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Allen & Muratoff, p. 342
- Mackay, James (1998). Michael Collins, A Life (1998 Reprint of 1997 ed.). Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-85158-949-X. p. 44.
- Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, p. 20.
- Allen & Muratoff, p. 341
- Dahl, Willy. 2000. Fortellingen om Bergen. Bergen: Eide, p. 253.
- "E-2". Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Subway Running To Eighty-Sixth Street Starts Building Boom In Bay Ridge". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 15, 1916. Retrieved 29 June 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Alexander Berkman (ed.), The Blast: Complete Collection of the Incendiary San Francisco Bi-Monthly Anarchist Newspaper. Edinburgh, Scotland and Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2005; pp. 9-16.
- Clive, Peter. Schubert and His World: A Biographical Dictionary, p. 14
- "Lov for TILLER IDRETTSLAG" (in Norwegian). Tiller IL. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- Allen & Muratoff, pp. 341-342
- "SeaGull Officer's Story of The Famous Sea Raider". Count Dohna and His SeaGull. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- Peggy at silentera.com
- Calvert, Peter (1985) Guatemala : a nation in turmoil Boulder: Westview Pres p69
- Information Annual, 1916: A Continuous Cyclopedia and Digest of Current Events. 1917, p297
- Mitrović, Andrej (2007) Serbia's great war, 1914-1918 Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, page 155, ISBN 978-1-55753-476-7
- Grosz, Peter; Terry, Gerard (1984). "The Way to the World's First All-Metal Fighter". Air Enthusiast. Pilot Press (25): 60–63. ISSN 0143-5450.
- "1900 Seil/DS HEKLA (048190001)" (in Norwegian). Lardex. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- Allen & Muratoff, pp. 341-342
- Pavlovic 2008, p. 78
- Macmunn & Falls 1996, pp. 120–122.
- Tucker, Spencer and Roberts, Priscilla Mary. World War I: encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2005. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2. p. 1048
- "Jasta 5". The Aerodrome. 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- James, Brigadier E.A. (1978). British Regiments 1914–18. London: Samson Books Limited. p. 449. ISBN 0-906304-03-2.
- Becke, Major A.F. (1936). Order of Battle of Divisions Part 2A. The Territorial Force Mounted Divisions and the 1st-Line Territorial Force Divisions (42–56). London: His Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 16. ISBN 1-871167-12-4.
- Macmunn & Falls 1996, pp. 123–123.
- Sweetman, Jack (1997). The Great Admirals: Command at Sea, 1587-1945. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-87021-229-1.
- "Top Ten Montana Weather Events of the 20th Century". National Weather Service Unveils Montana's Top Ten Weather/Water/Climate Events of the 20th Century. National Weather Service. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
- Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co., 240 U.S. 1, at 24 (1916)
- cf. Epkenhans, Tim (2000): Die iranische Moderne im Exil. Bibliographie der Zeitschrift Kāve, Klaus Schwarz Verlag:Berlin
- Pavlovic 2008, pp. 79-80
- Tyler-Lewis 2007, p. 171
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Susan Jackel. "Women's Suffrage". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
- Enrique Granados. "Enrique Granados." Biographies. Answers Corporation, 2006.
- Allen & Muratoff, pp. 351
- Tyler-Lewis 2007, p. 178
- "Zeppelin Kills 6 Parisians, Wounds 30" (PDF). New York Times (January 30, 1916). January 30, 1916. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "International Boundary Study: Jordan-Syria Boundary" (PDF). The Geographer. Washington D.C.: Officer of the Geographer. Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Department of State. United States Government. 94: 8. December 30, 1969. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- Franks et al 1997, p. 121
- "Arsenic In Body Of John E. Peck, Autopsy Shows. Grand Rapids Millionaire Died in the Riverside Drive Home of His Son-in-Law" (PDF). New York Times. March 23, 1916. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- Tobin T. Buhk (2014). Poisoning The Pecks of Grand Rapids: The Scandalous 1916 Murder Plot. ISBN 978-1626196971.
- Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, p. 131–133
- Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-87021-790-9.