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January 1933

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January 30, 1933: Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
January 17, 1933: "Ma" Ferguson becomes Governor of Texas
January 5, 1933: Former U.S. President Coolidge dies at the end of the term he declined to run for
January 19, 1933: Rare U.S. "Double Eagle" issued and hastily recalled

The following events occurred in January 1933:

January 1, 1933 (Sunday)

  • The Soviet Union began its second Five-Year Plan with the goal of more than doubling the gross national product, from 43 billion rubles to 93 billion, by December 31, 1937.[1]
  • Capital punishment was abolished in Denmark by amendment of the 1866 Criminal Code. After the passage of the Code, 70 convicted criminals received death sentences, but only four were actually executed.[2]
  • Juan Bautista Sacasa was sworn in as President of Nicaragua, bringing an end to the American occupation there. General Mathews, the U.S. commander of the Nicaraguan National Guard, turned over his authority to Nicaraguan General Anastasio Somoza García, and President Sacasa began immediate negotiations to end the war with the Sandinista rebels.[3]
  • Archaeologists and fortune hunters Jerry van Graan and Ernst van Graan began excavations of the ancestral graveyard of the Kings of Mapungubwe in South Africa, undisturbed since the 13th Century, after being tipped off by a local resident.[4]

January 2, 1933 (Monday)


January 3, 1933 (Tuesday)


January 4, 1933 (Wednesday)

  • After a ban against African-American enlistments that had begun on August 4, 1919, the United States Navy allowed Negroes to join, though only in the steward's department, in food service and as servants for officers. At the time, 0.5% of the enlisted men were black. The reversal was not prompted by racial enlightenment, but by concerns that the number of available Filipino domestic help would be dwindling.[14]
  • Political enemies, Nazi Party Chairman Adolf Hitler and former German Chancellor Franz von Papen, united only by their enmity with Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher, met in Cologne at the home of banker Kurt von Schröder, with the goal of forcing Schleicher from office. As a result of the negotiations, Papen would support Hitler to be named as the new Chancellor of Germany by the end of the month.[15]
  • The French Line luxury ocean liner L'Atlantique caught fire while traveling, without passengers, to Le Havre for routine maintenance. Nineteen of the crew of 225 died, and the ship was destroyed. Had the fire broken out when the ship was carrying a full load of passengers, hundreds would have died.[16]
  • Dr. V. Gregory Burtan (aka Valentine G. Burtan, aka William Gregory Burtan), a respected New York cardiologist and member of the Communist Party of the United States of America, was arrested as operator of a counterfeiting operation that had lasted more than five years. Starting in 1927, in an operation approved by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, tens of millions of dollars worth of realistic-looking but bogus U.S. currency had been printed and put into circulation in the United States, Europe, and China. Burtan was sentenced to 15 years in prison but would be paroled after ten years.[17][18][19]
  • The 531 members of the electoral college, who had been selected by American voters in the presidential election on November 8, 1932, met in their respective state capitals to formally cast their ballots for Franklin Roosevelt or Herbert Hoover. The results, in favor of Roosevelt 472–59, would be made official on February 8.[20]
  • Born:
  • Died: Charles H. Jones, 77, American industrialist, best known as founder of the Commonwealth Shoe and Leather Company, and creator of the popular "Bostonian" shoe; in Weston, Massachusetts.

January 5, 1933 (Thursday)


January 6, 1933 (Friday)

  • Notorious American gangster Clyde Barrow killed Malcolm Davis, a Deputy Sheriff for Tarrant County, Texas, in West Dallas, after which Bonnie and Clyde attracted the attention of the American press, which would follow their crimes until they were both killed on May 23, 1934.[26]
  • The South Bend News-Times, local paper for the University of Notre Dame, published a copyrighted story that the March 31, 1931, airplane crash, that killed Notre Dame Coach Knute Rockne, had been caused by a time-bomb placed in the plane. According to the story, the intent was to kill the Reverend John Reynolds, to keep him from testifying in the Jake Lingle murder trial. Father Reynolds had given up his seat on the airplane in favor of Rockne, but had already testified at the trial of Leo Brothers four days earlier.[27] The investigation of the crash, however, concluded that it was an accident caused by either turbulence or the buildup of ice on the wings. [28]
  • The drama film The Bitter Tea of General Yen, directed by Frank Capra and starring Barbara Stanwyck, became the first film to play at Radio City Music Hall in New York City.
  • Born:
  • Died: Vladimir de Pachmann, 84, renowned Russian pianist.[29]

January 7, 1933 (Saturday)

  • Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin addressed the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party on the results of his first Five-Year Plan, reporting that Soviet industrial output had tripled (219% increase) while production in other countries dropped, as proof that the Soviet system was superior to capitalism.[30]
  • The radio show WWVA Jamboree, the second-oldest country music radio show in the United States (after Grand Ole Opry) made its initial broadcast from the WWVA radio station in Wheeling, West Virginia.[31]
Tibbett without makeup

January 8, 1933 (Sunday)


January 9, 1933 (Monday)

Eric Blair/George Orwell
  • Using for the first time his pen name George Orwell, British author Eric Blair published his book, Down and Out in Paris and London. Blair's three other choices for pen names had been P.S. Burton, Kenneth Miles and H. Lewis Allways.[36]
  • U.S. President-Elect Roosevelt hosted Henry L. Stimson, President Hoover's Secretary of State, at Hyde Park, and found that the two agreed on foreign policy. Stimson became Roosevelt's Secretary of War in 1940.[37]
  • Born:
  • Died: Kate Gleason, 67, American engineer, inventor and entrepreneur.

January 10, 1933 (Tuesday)


January 11, 1933 (Wednesday)


January 12, 1933 (Thursday)

  • After anarchists had taken control of the town of Casas Viejas the day before, the Spanish Army retaliated with the massacre of 22 civilians. When the extent of the carnage became public knowledge during the summer, Prime Minister Manuel Azaña Díaz was forced from office. Spanish Army General Francisco Franco later used the incident in gaining support for his rebels during the Spanish Civil War.[35][41]
  • The CPSU Central Committee passed a resolution for a massive purge of the Soviet Communist Party, with 800,000 expelled during the year, and 340,000 more in 1934.[42]
  • The last will and testament of former President Coolidge, true to his laconic reputation, was revealed to contain only 24 words: "Not unmindful of my son, John, I give all my estate, both real and personal, to my wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, in fee simple."[43]
  • Romanian Prime Minister Iuliu Maniu and his entire cabinet resigned after a disagreement with King Carol II.[44]
  • Greek Prime Minister Panagis Tsaldaris and his cabinet resigned after word was received that the opposition parties had withdrawn their confidence.[45] A vote of no-confidence followed the next day, and Eleutherios Venizelos formed a new cabinet on January 16.[46]

January 13, 1933 (Friday)

  • The Ilyushin Design Bureau, the Russian aircraft manufacturing company, was established in the Soviet Union by order of P.I. Baranov, at the time the People's Commissar of the Heavy Industry, and Director of the Soviet Department of the Aviation Industry and would be named for aircraft designer Sergey Ilyushin. [47] After the demise of the Soviet Union, the company was acquired by the privately-owned United Aircraft Corporation of Russia.
  • The U.S. House of Representatives voted 274-94 to override President Hoover's veto of the Philippine independence bill, two hours after the veto message was received.[48][49]
  • Born: Princess Marie-Louise of Bulgaria, first child and daughter of King Boris III and Queen Giovanna, in Sofia.

January 14, 1933 (Saturday)


January 15, 1933 (Sunday)

Pope Pius XI

January 16, 1933 (Monday)

  • In his campaign to disperse the kulaks, independent farmers who were resisting the Soviet campaign for collective farming, Joseph Stalin ordered the eviction of hundreds of kulak families from the countryside around Odessa and Chernigov. This was followed by orders to deport the kulaks from Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, Bashkiria, Lower Volga, and 30,000 from the Northern Caucasus. Eventually, more than one million resisters were resettled in Siberia.[53]
  • The Buy American Act passed the U.S. House of Representatives as an amendment to the 1934 Treasury and Post Office appropriations bill. It would pass the Senate on February 4 and be signed into law by President Herbert Hoover on his last full day in office.[54]
  • On the third day of the third test at Adelaide (15 January being a rest day) Harold Larwood of England, using his controversial "bodyline" bowling, struck Bert Oldfield on the head when the ball glanced off Oldfield's bat.
  • Born: Susan Sontag, American author, as Susan Rosenblatt in New York City (d. 2004).
  • Died: Lee Cruce, 70, the second Governor of Oklahoma (1911–1915).

January 17, 1933 (Tuesday)

  • Following the example of the U.S. House of Representatives on January 13, the United States Senate voted 66-26 to override President Hoover's veto of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, passing it into law by a margin of 5 votes. The new law provided for the Philippines to become a self-governing Commonwealth, with full independence in ten years.[49][55]
  • Outgoing U.S. President Herbert Hoover asked Congress to pass a national sales tax upon all items except food and "cheap clothing", in order to balance the budget and offset a projected deficit of $700 million.[56]
  • Imre Nagy, the future Prime Minister of Hungary who would attempt to free his nation from Soviet domination, was first recruited by the Soviet NKVD as an informer, under the code name "Volodya".[57]
  • Miriam "Ma" Ferguson, who received her nickname from her initials as Miriam Amanda Ferguson, took office as the first woman Governor of Texas. The next day, she fired all 44 of the Texas Rangers.[58]
  • Born:
  • Died:

January 18, 1933 (Wednesday)

  • Angelo Herndon, a 19-year-old African-American and Communist Party member, was convicted of an attempt to incite an insurrection, and sentenced by a state court in Atlanta to 18 years imprisonment.[60] In 1937, the United States Supreme Court declared the Georgia law, which made membership of the Communist Party and solicitation for membership illegal, to be an unconstitutional infringement of the right to free speech, and reversed Herndon's conviction. Herndon's case attracted black membership of the CPUSA.[61]
  • Murray Garsson, at that time a special investigator for the U.S. Department of Labor, announced that he would seek the deportation of foreign film stars who had been staying in the United States illegally, beginning on January 23. Among the most prominent foreign stars at the time were Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Maurice Chevalier, and Maureen O'Sullivan.[62] Fifteen actors who failed to produce their papers were asked to leave the country until they could obtain entrance under the immigration quotas.[63]
  • The Australian Board of Control protested to the Marylebone Cricket Club, captained by Douglas Jardine and representing England, against the "bodyline bowling "used by the England team. The practice, serious enough to hurt relations between Australia and the United Kingdom, was banned by English clubs on November 23.[64]
  • Born: John Boorman, English film director (Deliverance, Excalibur and Hope and Glory); in Shepperton.

January 19, 1933 (Thursday)

  • The first 100 of 312,500 1933 Double Eagle $20 gold pieces were delivered by the United States Mint to the U.S. Treasurer. Because the coins were never put into circulation, and nearly all would be melted into gold bricks, they became the most rare and valuable of American coins. A single one would sell at a 2002 auction for $7,590,020.[65]
  • U.S. Senator Cordell Hull of Tennessee was first offered the position of Secretary of State by President-Elect Franklin Roosevelt. Hull considered the offer for several weeks and then accepted.[66]
  • Sixty inches of snow fell on the Giant Forest in California, an American record for greatest snowfall in one calendar day. The record for 24 hours was 75.8 inches at Silver Lake in Boulder County, Colorado, during April 14–15, 1921.[67]
  • England defeated Australia by 338 runs at Adelaide before a crowd of 50,962 in the third cricket test match in the series.
  • Mary, Lady Bailey, British aviator who had disappeared while attempting a solo flight from England to South Africa, was located and rescued after four days in the Sahara Desert. She had been forced to land 15 miles southwest of Tahoua, Niger, French West Africa, and was dehydrated and exhausted, but uninjured.[68]

January 20, 1933 (Friday)

  • In the largest battle up to that time in the Chaco War, 4,000 troops from Bolivia stormed the trenches of 10,000 Paraguayan soldiers at Nanawa.[69]
  • After the failure of the American Trust Company Bank of Davenport, the newly inaugurated Governor of Iowa declared a bank holiday, temporarily closing all of the banks in that state to prevent further withdrawals. Nevada had declared the first bank holiday on October 31, 1932, and consumer confidence had stabilized after the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President. The Iowa action was followed by more bank failures across the United States, and more temporary closures, with Louisiana following suit on February 3 and Michigan on February 14. By March 3, half of the 48 states had declared bank holidays, and President Roosevelt made a nationwide closure on March 6, two days after taking office. A record total of 242 American banks failed in January 1933.[70]
  • Soviet premier V. M. Molotov and Party First Secretary Joseph Stalin issued a decree replacing the prior practice of requiring peasant farmers to deliver a percentage of their grain harvest to the state, replacing it with a flat rate. Under the former rule, "the more they produced, the more the government took".[71]
  • Died: Lt. Irvin A. Woodring, last of the U.S. Army's "Three Musketeers of Aviation" for their performances at air shows, in an airplane crash. His comrades, Lt. J.J. Williams and Lt. W. L. Cornelius had both been killed in 1928.[72]

January 21, 1933 (Saturday)

  • The development of what would become the Tennessee Valley Authority was endorsed by President-elect Roosevelt after he visited Muscle Shoals, Alabama, and told an audience in Montgomery, "My friends, I am determined on two things as a result of what I have seen today. The first is to put Muscle Shoals to work. The second is to make Muscle Shoals a part of an even greater development that will take in all of that magnificent Tennessee River from the mountains of Virginia down to the Ohio and the Gulf..." The result was that electricity was brought to rural areas in seven of the southeastern United States, in Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Virginia.[73][74]

January 22, 1933 (Sunday)

  • In response to the exodus of starving peasants from the famine in the Ukrainian SSR, Stalin and Molotov issued orders directing the national police and local authorities to "stop, by all means necessary, the large-scale departure of peasants from Ukraine and the Northern Caucasus" in that "this massive exodus of the peasants has been organized by enemies of the Soviet regime". The sale of railway tickets was halted the next day, and barricades were erected to keep peasants from leaving their district of residence.[75]
  • At a meeting at the home of Joachim von Ribbentrop, Nazi leaders conferred with three of President Hindenburg's advisers, Franz von Papen, Otto Meissner and the President's son, Oskar von Hindenburg to persuade the President to appoint Adolf Hitler as Chancellor.[76]
  • Died: Elisabeth Marbury, 77, American literary agent for Oscar Wilde and George Bernard Shaw.

January 23, 1933 (Monday)

  • The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified after the legislature of Missouri became the 36th state to vote in favor of it. The vote in the Missouri House of Representatives came at 10:00 in the morning, when the speaker moved the opening session ahead four hours in order to vote on the amendment ahead of Massachusetts.[77] Authored by U.S. Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska, and submitted to the states in 1932 after overwhelming approval by the Senate (63-7) and the House (336-56), the amendment changed the Presidential inauguration from March 4 to January 20. It also changed the date of inauguration Congress members, from March 4 to January 3, and changed the opening day of Congress from "the first Monday in December" to January 3 as well. Prior to the change, members who had been defeated in November elections were able to continue meeting for 13 months.[78] Senator Norris had first proposed an amendment that the U.S. Senate had approved, 63 to 6, on February 13, 1923, that would have set the beginning of the new presidential and vice-presidential terms on "the third Monday in January following their election", and for Congress to be the first Monday in January [79] but the legislation had not been voted on in the House.
  • The boundary dispute between Guatemala and Honduras was settled after nearly 95 years, when the Special Boundary Tribunal issued an arbitration award. Prior attempts to settle the dispute had failed in 1845, 1895 and 1914, until the two nations agreed to submit the dispute on July 16, 1930.[80]
  • Born: Chita Rivera, American stage actress and dancer, 2-time Tony Award winner, winner of Presidential Medal of Freedom; (as Dolores Conchita Figueroa del Rivero), in Washington, D.C.

January 24, 1933 (Tuesday)

  • The Central Committee of the CPSU began a purge of the Ukrainian Communist Party by Russia—the first secretaries in three of the seven oblasts were replaced by the Soviet party, with the main change being to replace Roman Terekhov as the Kharkov party boss by Pavel Postyshev. Throughout the year, 5,000 Ukrainian Party workers were replaced by outsiders.[81]
  • In parliamentary elections in the Irish Free State, Éamon de Valera's Fianna Fáil party won 77 of the 153 total seats in the Dáil Éireann, with the remainder going to Cumann na nGaedheal (48), the National Centre Party (11), independent candidates (9), and Labour (8). "With a fuller parliamentary majority" an author later wrote, "de Valera was able to abolish the Oath of Allegiance (1933), the Senate (June 1936), university representation in the Dáil (1934-36), all references to the monarch in the Constitution (December 1936, in the aftermath of the abdication of Edward VIII), and the Governor General (1937). A new Constitution was then put to referendum."[82]

January 25, 1933 (Wednesday)


January 26, 1933 (Thursday)

  • The League of Nations Council cabled an order to the government of Peru to refrain from a planned invasion of Colombia in a dispute over the municipality of Leticia, citing Peru's duty as a League member.[84]

January 27, 1933 (Friday)

  • After a walkout of 6,000 Briggs Manufacturing Company workers, who manufactured automobile bodies, the Ford Motor Company closed its American factories indefinitely, putting 100,000 people out of work, as well as 50,000 in supplying factories.[85]

January 28, 1933 (Saturday)

  • Choudhary Rahmat Ali published the pamphlet "Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish For Ever?", proposing to separate the 30,000,000 Muslim residents of British India from the Hindus and coined the name for the future nation—Pakistan—albeit as "Pakstan" from "the five Northern units of India" (Punjab, Afghan Province, Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan)".[86] "Pak" and "stan" were also the Persian language words for "pure" and "land".
  • Kurt von Schleicher resigned as Chancellor of Germany,[87] after President Hindenburg refused to grant him dictatorial powers to manage the nation's economic crisis and after being unable to form a coalition government.[88] Hindenburg attempted to persuade Franz von Papen to succeed Schleicher, but Papen declined, leaving Adolf Hitler as Hindenburg's choice.
  • In a vote of no confidence, the French Chamber of Deputies voted 390–193 against the government of Premier Joseph Paul-Boncour, who then resigned.[89]

January 29, 1933 (Sunday)

  • Édouard Daladier was asked by President LeBrun of France to become the new Prime Minister and to form a new government. Daladier, who had been the French Minister of War, accepted and formed a new cabinet of ministers.[90]
  • Died:

January 30, 1933 (Monday)

  • Adolf Hitler was sworn in by German President Paul von Hindenburg as Chancellor of Germany.[91]
  • The Lone Ranger made a debut, originally as a radio program on station WXYZ in Detroit. Writer Fran Striker and station owner George Trendle created the adventure of the masked man who brought justice to the American West. The program, heard on a clear channel station, would be picked up nationwide by the Mutual Broadcasting System and was notable for its use of the William Tell Overture as its theme music, and its catch phrases "Hi-yo, Silver!" and "Who was that masked man?"[92]

January 31, 1933 (Tuesday)

  • The day after Adolf Hitler and his coalition partners formed the new ministry, the Reichstag was dissolved and new elections were called for March 5.[93]
  • Died: John Galsworthy, 65, English novelist and playwright, famous for The Forsyte Saga; a month after receiving the 1932 Nobel Prize in Literature.


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  2. ^ Lars Bo Langsted, et al., Criminal Law in Denmark (Kluwer Law International, 2010), p. 24
  3. ^ Manzar Foroohar, The Catholic Church and Social Change in Nicaragua (SUNY Press, 1989), p. 23
  4. ^ David Fleminger, Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (30° South Publishers, 2008), pp. 84–5
  5. ^ Benjamin R. Beede, The War of 1898, and U.S. interventions, 1898-1934: an encyclopedia (Taylor & Francis, 1994), p. 379
  6. ^ "Lehman Takes Office Today as Governor", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 2, 1933, p. 2
  7. ^ "TROJANS EASILY DEFEAT PANTHERS BY 35 TO 0", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 1
  8. ^ "Actor Plunges to His Death", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 2, 1933, p. 1
  9. ^ Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997), p. 156; "Japanese Take Town in China", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 1
  10. ^ Dermot Keogh, Ireland and the Vatican: The Politics and Diplomacy of Church-State Relations, 1922-1960 (Cork University Press, 1995), p. 101; "Irish Political Conflict Begins", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 2
  11. ^ Robert Frank Futrell, Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force (Volume 1) (Air University Press, 1989), p. 66
  12. ^ Gary S. Dunbar, Geography: Discipline, Profession, and Subject since 1870: An International Survey (Springer, 2001), p. 100
  13. ^ "Cuno Falls Dead on Steps of Home", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 3
  14. ^ Robert J. Schneller, Jr., Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy's First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality (NYU Press, 2005), p. 55
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  16. ^ Kit Bonner and Carolyn Bonner, Great Ship Disasters (Zenith Imprint, 2003) pp87-91: "More Than 30 Feared Dead as Ship Burns in Channel", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 5, 1933, p. 1
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  22. ^ "'Leisure Class' to Be Driven Out of Soviet Cities Soon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 16, 1933, p. 3
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  28. ^ George Bibel, Beyond the Black Box: The Forensics of Airplane Crashes (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010)
  29. ^ "Famed Pianist Buried With Simplest Rites", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1933, p. 2
  30. ^ Iván T. Berend, Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II (University of California Press, 2001), p. 278
  31. ^ Bill C. Malone, Country Music, U.S.A. (University of Texas Press, 2002), p. 98
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  33. ^ Ed Wright, Lost Explorers: Adventurers Who Disappeared Off the Face of the Earth (Pier 9, 2008), p. 298
  34. ^ "Kendall Kills Self, Grieving Death of Wife", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1933, p. 1
  35. ^ a b Stanley G. Payne, Spain's First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931-1936 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), pp. 129–32
  36. ^ Peter Stansky and William Miller Abrahams, The Unknown Orwell: Orwell, the Transformation (Stanford University Press, 1994), p. 307
  37. ^ Jean Edward Smith, FDR (Random House Digital, Inc., 2007), p. 291; Conrad Black, Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom (PublicAffairs, 2005), p. 256
  38. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (January 11, 1933). "Many Wounded as German Nazis Clash with Reds". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 6.
  39. ^ "Japanese Troops Start March Into Jehol Area", Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, January 11, 1933, p. 1
  40. ^ "Kingsford-Smith Ends New Zealand Flight", Ottawa Citizen, January 11, 1933, p. 1
  41. ^ Jerome R. Mintz, The Anarchists of Casas Viejas (Indiana University Press, 2004), p. 1
  42. ^ Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford University Press US, 2007), p. 26
  43. ^ "Coolidge Will But 24 Words- Document, in Own Writing, in Customary Brief Type of Speech", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 1
  44. ^ "Ministry in Dispute With Carol Resigns", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 3
  45. ^ "Ministry in Greece Tenders Resignation", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 3
  46. ^ "Venizelos Forms New Government", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 17, 1933, p. 2
  47. ^ Ilyushin: Background
  48. ^ "House Blocks Veto; Filipino Bill In Senate- Hoover Objections Are Quickly Set Aside In Lower Branch", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 14, 1933, p. 1
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  50. ^ "Pope Ordains Year of Peace", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 16, 1933, p. 1
  51. ^ Wolfgang Benz and Thomas Dunlap, A Concise History of the Third Reich (University of California Press, 2006), p. 17
  52. ^ Lisa J. Schwebel, Apparitions, Healings, and Weeping Madonnas: Christianity and the Paranormal (Paulist Press, 2004)
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  54. ^ Dana Frank, Buy American: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism (Beacon Press, 2000), p. 65
  55. ^ "Filipino Bill Enacted Over Hoover Veto", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
  56. ^ "Tax on Sales to Balance Budget Urged by Hoover", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
  57. ^ Charles Gati, Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest, and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt (Stanford University Press, 2006), p. 34
  58. ^ Mike Cox, Time of the Rangers: Texas Rangers: From 1900 to the Present (Macmillan, 2010), p. 154
  59. ^ "Auto Kills Noted Astronomer", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
  60. ^ "Colored Communist Gets 18 Years", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1933, p.1
  61. ^ "Communism and African Americans", Encyclopedia of African American history, 1896 to the Present (Paul Finkelman, ed.) (Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 469
  62. ^ "U.S. Acts to Deport Movie Stars Here Illegally", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1933, p.2
  63. ^ "Foreign Stars' Exodus Begun", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 28, 1933, p. 1
  64. ^ Steven Lynch, Wisden on the Ashes: The Authoritative Story of Cricket's Greatest Rivalry (A&C Black, 2009) p224
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  66. ^ Michael A. Butler, Cautious Visionary: Cordell Hull and Trade Reform, 1933-1937 (Kent State University Press, 1998), p. 1
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  68. ^ "Find Aviatrix Lost in Desert", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 20, 1933, p. 1
  69. ^ "Biggest Battle in Gran Chaco", Milwaukee Journal, January 22, 1933, p. 2
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  71. ^ "Soviets Will 'Tax' Peasants in Grain", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 21, 1933, p. 2
  72. ^ "Last of Airplane 'Musketeers' Dies", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 21, 1933, p. 1
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