From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following events occurred in January 1961:
- 1 January 1, 1961 (Sunday)
- 2 January 2, 1961 (Monday)
- 3 January 3, 1961 (Tuesday)
- 4 January 4, 1961 (Wednesday)
- 5 January 5, 1961 (Thursday)
- 6 January 6, 1961 (Friday)
- 7 January 7, 1961 (Saturday)
- 8 January 8, 1961 (Sunday)
- 9 January 9, 1961 (Monday)
- 10 January 10, 1961 (Tuesday)
- 11 January 11, 1961 (Wednesday)
- 12 January 12, 1961 (Thursday)
- 13 January 13, 1961 (Friday)
- 14 January 14, 1961 (Saturday)
- 15 January 15, 1961 (Sunday)
- 16 January 16, 1961 (Monday)
- 17 January 17, 1961 (Tuesday)
- 18 January 18, 1961 (Wednesday)
- 19 January 19, 1961 (Thursday)
- 20 January 20, 1961 (Friday)
- 21 January 21, 1961 (Saturday)
- 22 January 22, 1961 (Sunday)
- 23 January 23, 1961 (Monday)
- 24 January 24, 1961 (Tuesday)
- 25 January 25, 1961 (Wednesday)
- 26 January 26, 1961 (Thursday)
- 27 January 27, 1961 (Friday)
- 28 January 28, 1961 (Saturday)
- 29 January 29, 1961 (Sunday)
- 30 January 30, 1961 (Monday)
- 31 January 31, 1961 (Tuesday)
- 32 References
January 1, 1961 (Sunday)
- The British farthing coin, used since the 13th century, and worth 1/4 of a penny, ceased to be legal tender.
- Australia became the second nation to permit the sale of the birth control pill, and the first to allow the Scherer oral contraceptive, with brand name of Anovlar. The G.D. Searle pill Enovid had been permitted in the United States in May 1960.
January 2, 1961 (Monday)
- Cuba's Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, demanded that the United States Embassy in Havana reduce its staff from 87 to no more than 11 no later than Wednesday. U.S. President Eisenhower ended diplomatic relations with Cuba the next day.
- In the Rose Bowl, the #1 ranked University of Minnesota Gophers were upset by the #6 ranked University of Washington Huskies, 17-7, before a crowd of 97,314 fans in Pasadena. The loss, however, did not affect Minnesota's recognition as the unofficial champion of the 1960 college football season, since the final AP and UPI polls were taken prior to the postseason bowl games.
January 3, 1961 (Tuesday)
- At the United States National Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the atomic reactor SL-1 exploded, killing three military technicians.
- U.S. Marines, guarding the United States Embassy in Cuba, lowered the American flag for the last time for what would be more than half a century, as the Embassy closed and the United States and Cuba severed diplomatic relations. On August 14, 2015, the three Marines who had lowered the flag—Larry Morris, James Tracey, and Francis "Mike" East—would be present at the Embassy and would hand the same flag to three new U.S. Marine guards to be raised again.
- Koivulahti air disaster: A DC-3 flying to Kronoby crashed shortly after takeoff from Vaasa, in the woods at nearby Koivulahti, killing the 22 passengers and 3 crewmembers aboard. A subsequent investigation concluded that both the pilot and co-pilot had been drinking as recently as five hours before takeoff. This remains the worst accident in Finnish aviation history.
- The 87th United States Congress began.
January 4, 1961 (Wednesday)
- East Germany's Chancellor and Communist party chief, Walter Ulbricht, held a secret emergency meeting of the Politburo of his Socialist Unity Party of Germany, the SED, and told his fellow party leaders that East Germany's own economic failures accounted for 60% of the departure of East Germans to West Germany. He warned the SED that the nation needed to take action to fix housing shortages, low wages, inadequate pensions, and the six-day workweek before the end of the year. Ulbricht also criticized East German schools, pointing out that 75% of the people who left were younger than 25. Most importantly, he created a task force to stop the loss of refugees; the solution would come in the form of the Berlin Wall and the heavily-guarded border in August.
- Michael Goleniewski, an officer of Poland's Army counter-espionage unit GZI WP (Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego or "Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army"), who also spied on Poland as a double agent for the Soviet Union's KGB, defected to American CIA office in West Berlin, becoming, in effect, a triple agent.
- Died: Erwin Schrödinger, 73, Austrian physicist and pioneer in quantum mechanics, 1933 Nobel laureate for his discovery of the Schrödinger equation. In 1935, he would propose a popular analogy that is referred to now as Schrödinger's cat.
January 5, 1961 (Thursday)
- Italian sculptor Alfredo Fioravanti went to the U.S. Consulate in Rome and signed a confession, stating that he had been part of a team that forged the Etruscan terracotta warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
January 6, 1961 (Friday)
- John F. Kennedy was formally elected as the 35th President of the United States, as a joint session of the U.S. Congress witnessed the counting of the electoral vote. U.S. Vice-President Richard Nixon, who had opposed Kennedy in the 1960 election, formally announced the result, saying, "I now declare John F. Kennedy elected president." The results were 303 votes for Kennedy, 219 for Nixon, and 15 for U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Jr..
- Blamed on a person smoking in bed, a fire at a San Francisco hotel for the elderly killed 20 of the 135 residents. Police charged the smoker, who escaped unhurt, with manslaughter. He was released for lack of evidence, and would die of cirrhosis four months later.
- Born: Georges Jobé, Belgian motocross rider, and five-time world champion between 1980 and 1992.
January 7, 1961 (Saturday)
- In the first round of the Los Angeles Open golf tournament, golfing legend Arnold Palmer took 12 strokes to complete the 18th hole. The defending Masters and U.S. Open champion hit his first four shots at the green out of bounds, for four penalties; it took two more strokes to reach the green, and, once there, two more to sink the ball.
- After leading Duke 36-33 at halftime, North Carolina State's basketball team lost 81-67. Months later, it was revealed that two N.C. State players had been paid $1,250 each by gamblers for point shaving. The two were paid $2,500 each in the Wolfpack's 62-56 loss, on February 15, to North Carolina.
- The NFL's first "Playoff Bowl", between the second-place finishers in the league's Eastern and Western Conferences, took place in Miami. Officially, the game was called the "Bert Bell Benefit Bowl" and raised money for the NFL players' pension fund. Playing a week after Philadelphia beat Green Bay in the NFL championship, the Detroit Lions won third place in a 17-16 victory over the Cleveland Browns.
- Following a four-day conference in Casablanca, five African chiefs of state announced plans for a NATO-type African organization to ensure common defense. From the Charter of Casablanca emerged the Casablanca Group, consisting of Morocco, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Guinea, and Mali.
January 8, 1961 (Sunday)
- In France, a referendum supported Charles de Gaulle's policies on independence for Algeria with a majority of 75% (17,447,669 to 5,817,775) in favor.
January 9, 1961 (Monday)
- British authorities announced that they had discovered a large Soviet spy ring in London. Arrested were Harry Houghton, Ethel Gee and Gordon Lonsdale.
- In the former Belgian Congo, aides of jailed premier Patrice Lumumba formed the "Republic of Lualaba", in the valley of the Lualaba River.
January 10, 1961 (Tuesday)
- The University of Georgia was forced to admit its first African-American students, after U.S. District Judge William Bootle ordered the U.Ga. to admit Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton E. Holmes.
- Ali Amini, the Prime Minister of Iran, announced a program for land reforms, but was unable to implement the ideas because of disagreement with the Shah of Iran.
- A committee chaired by Dr. Jerome Wiesner, professor of electrical engineering at MIT and John F. Kennedy's choice for science adviser, issued Report to the President-Elect of the Ad Hoc Committee on Space.
January 11, 1961 (Wednesday)
- The University of Georgia admitted African-American students for the first time, five days after a federal judge ordered integration. Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter were the first to begin classes in Athens.
- The Pisces, a yacht carrying Moroccan Jews to Israel, capsized off the coast of Algericas, Spain, drowning the 40 passengers and all but 3 of the crew. The ship's captain survived.
- Ukrainian SSR Communist Party Chief Nikolai Podgorny was berated by Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev after corn production fell short of goals set for 1960. In a session of the party's Central Committee in Moscow, Khrushchev accused Podgorny of lying to conceal theft and warned, "You will pay for this lack of leadership." Podgorny, along with Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin, would be part of the troika that would overthrow Khrushchev in 1964.
- The name Grampian Television was selected for independent television's new service covering the north of Scotland, replacing the name North of Scotland Television. The Grampian Mountains are one of three mountain ranges in Scotland.
- The Naval Auxiliary Landing Field San Clemente Island was renamed "Frederick Sherman Field" in honor of Vice Admiral Frederick C. Sherman, a US naval commander of World War I and World War II.
- Karl von Habsburg, former member of European Parliament for Austria, and eldest son of the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, celebrated by monarchists since 2011 as the would-be Emperor Karl II; in Starnberg, West Germany
- Jasper Fforde, English novelist, in London; and Lars-Erik Torph, Swedish rally driver (died 1989)
January 12, 1961 (Thursday)
- Norwegian Olympic sailing champion Johan Ferner married Princess Astrid of Norway at Asker church near Oslo.
- Born: Simon Russell Beale, English actor, in Penang state, Malaya.
January 13, 1961 (Friday)
- General Cemal Gürsel, the President of Turkey since a May 27 coup, announced that the ban on political activity had been lifted and that parliamentary elections would be scheduled for October 15.
- The former British Navy aircraft carrier HMS Vengeance was recommissioned into the Brazilian Navy as the Minas Gerais.
- The United States and Brazil concluded a treaty of extradition at Rio de Janeiro, signed by Francisco Clementino de San Tiango Dantas (the Brazilian Minister of State for External Relations), and U.S. Ambassador to Brazil Lincoln Gordon.
- Born: Julia Louis-Dreyfus, American actress and comedienne known for Saturday Night Live, Seinfeld, The New Adventures of Old Christine and Veep; in New York City as the daughter of billionaire Gérard Louis-Dreyfus
- Henry Morton Robinson, 62, American novelist, died of second-degree burns he had sustained on December 23 while taking a bath.
- František Drtikol, 77, Czechoslovakian portrait photographer
- Lem Winchester, 32, American jazz musician, was accidentally killed "while demonstrating a gun trick that backfired".
January 14, 1961 (Saturday)
- The Professional Footballers' Association, trade union for the soccer football players in the professional leagues of England and Wales, called off plans for a strike in the middle of the 1960–61 Football League season. PFA director Jimmy Hill had threatened the strike after The Football League refused to lift a salary cap that limited even the best players to no more than £20 per game (twenty pounds sterling, comparable to £424 in 2017).  The English League relented, as "the threat of a strike effectively finished the era of the maximum wage". 
- In the final week of his administration, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued an Executive Order that closed a loophole that allowed American people and companies to own gold outside of the United States. Since 1933, persons and companies under American jurisdiction were barred from buying, selling or owning gold within the U.S., but were not prohibited from hoarding it outside of the country. The new order directed that all Americans who held gold coins, gold bars, and foreign gold securities and gold certificates, would have to dispose of their holdings no later than June 1. The move came after the U.S. trade deficit had grown by ten billion dollars over the previous three years.  
- India's third nuclear reactor, ZERLINA, the Zero Energy Reactor for Lattice Investigations and New Assemblies, went into operation.  The reactor had a maximum power of nor more than 100 watts and was limited to research on "the properties of various types of nuclear fuels" and would be dismantled in 1983. 
- Born: Vissarion, Russian mystic who claims to be a reincarnation of Jesus Christ, as Sergei Anatolyevich Torop, in Krasnodar, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
- Died: Barry Fitzgerald, 72, Irish actor
January 15, 1961 (Sunday)
- The collapse of an offshore radar tower off the coast of New Jersey killed all 28 men on board. Rescuers heard tapping from within the wreckage in the first day after the disaster, but were unable to reach the survivors. At 7:33 pm, the 185-foot (56 m) tall tower, nicknamed "Old Shaky", vanished from radar screens at Otis Air Force Base. Only two bodies were found. Three U.S. Air Force officers were later charged with neglect of duty in connection with the accident.
- Motown Records signed The Supremes to their first recording contract.
January 16, 1961 (Monday)
- The United States banned travel by its citizens to Cuba, except in cases where a special endorsement was included on a passport.
- In Sheldon, Iowa, bank teller Burnice Geiger was arrested after federal bank examiners discovered that she had embezzled money from the Sheldon National Bank. Initially, audits showed more than $120,000 missing over a three-year period. Mrs. Geiger admitted to stealing a total of $2,126,859.10 — an American record to that time, equivalent to $14 million fifty years later. Sentenced to 15 years in prison, she served five, and lived until 1981.
- The Festival de Télévision de Monte-Carlo was launched by Rainier III, Prince of Monaco.
January 17, 1961 (Tuesday)
- President Dwight Eisenhower gave his farewell address on nationwide television, with the warning, "We must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex"..We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes."
- The keel was laid for the American submarine USS Lafayette, at the shipyard of the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton, Connecticut
- Died: Patrice Lumumba, 35, former leader of Republic of Congo, was secretly executed by a firing squad.
January 18, 1961 (Wednesday)
- In what the Guinness Book of World Records listed under "Closest election", the general election in Zanzibar, the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) won 10 seats, and the Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP) won 9. Specifically, the seat for the constituency of Chake-Chake was won by the margin of one vote, with 1,538 for the ASP and 1,537 for the ZNP.
- The Chaplain's Medal for Heroism, created especially for George D. Fox, Alexander D. Goode, Clark V. Poling, and John P. Washington, was awarded to them posthumously and presented to their next of kin by Wilber M. Brucker, U.S. Secretary of the Army, at a ceremony at Fort Myer. On February 3, 1943, the "Four Chaplains" had given up their own lifejackets to save the lives of four soldiers on the troop transport Dorchester, and then went down with the ship.
- Born: Mark Messier, Canadian NHL player, in Edmonton
- Died: Thomas Anthony Dooley III, 34, American physician and humanitarian, from cancer
January 19, 1961 (Thursday)
- In New Zealand, the filling of Lake Ohakuri began. Within two weeks, a reservoir of nearly five square miles was created and a supply of hydroelectric power was created. At the same time, two of the world's largest geysers—the 295-foot-high Minquini and the 180-foot-high Orakeikorako—were covered over and made extinct.
- An Aeronaves de México DC-8B airline flight, bound for Mexico City, crashed shortly after taking off in a blizzard from New York's Idlewild Airport. Although the plane fell from an altitude of 50 feet and burst into flames, 102 of the 106 people on board, including all of the passengers, survived.
January 20, 1961 (Friday)
- John F. Kennedy took the oath of office as the 35th President of the United States. For the first time, the event was shown on color television, pioneered by the NBC network.
January 21, 1961 (Saturday)
- Loaded with 16 nuclear tipped Polaris A-1 missiles, the submarine USS George Washington completed its first "deterrent patrol", after having remained submerged for a record 66 consecutive days.
- Hours after a speedy confirmation in a special session of the United States Senate, all ten members of President John F. Kennedy's cabinet were sworn into office in a ceremony at the White House, including the President's younger brother, Robert F. Kennedy, who became the new Attorney General.
- The first Cosquín Festival, Argentina's major folk music festival, began.
January 22, 1961 (Sunday)
- The American Ballet Center Company dance troupe, formed on October 1, 1956, began a 47 city tour with its new name, the Robert Joffrey Ballet, now known as the Joffrey Ballet.
- The international Masonic organization CLIPSAS (Centre of Liaison and Information of Masonic Powers, Signatories of Appeal of Strasbourg) was formed in Strasbourg.
- The first Coronda River Aquatic Marathon, a 57-kilometer (35 mi) swimming endurance race, took place in Argentina. Santa Fe-Coronda history
- Born: Luba Orgonasova, Slovak operatic soprano, in Bratislava
January 23, 1961 (Monday)
- A group of 29 men, led by Portuguese rebel Henrique Malta Galvao, hijacked the cruise ship Santa Maria which was carrying 580 passengers and a crew of 360. The group had boarded with tickets at La Guaira, Venezuela and then executed the attack at 1:30 am. One member of the crew was killed and several wounded. After putting the wounded ashore, the ship sailed with other ships trying to locate it. Galvao threatened to scuttle the ship if it was attacked. The crisis ended on February 2, as Galvao surrendered the ship at Recife, Brazil.
- In Lebanon, the Political Bureau dissolved the militants' organization; William Hawi created the Regulatory Forces
January 24, 1961 (Tuesday)
- A B-52 Stratofortress, with two Mark 39 hydrogen bombs, crashed on a farm at the community of Faro, 12 miles (19 km) north of near Goldsboro, North Carolina. Three USAF officers were killed. One of the bombs went partially through its arming sequence, as five of its six safety switches failed. The one remaining switch prevented a 24 megaton nuclear explosion.
- Mel Blanc, the voice of Bugs Bunny and many other cartoon characters, was seriously injured in a head-on collision while driving in Los Angeles. Blanc was in a coma for three weeks and was reported as killed in at least one newspaper (possibly the Hilo Tribune-Herald), but his versatile voice was unaffected, and he continued working until his death in 1989.
- Marilyn Monroe was granted a divorce from playwright Arthur Miller, after filing an action in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.
January 25, 1961 (Wednesday)
- In Washington, D.C. John F. Kennedy began a tradition by holding the first live presidential press conference. Broadcast on all 3 TV networks at 6:00 pm EST, the event was attended by 418 reporters and watched by an estimated 60,000,000 viewers. Kennedy announced that the Soviet Union had freed the two surviving crewmen of a USAF RB-47 reconnaissance plane shot down over the Barents Sea on July 1, 1960.
- One Hundred and One Dalmatians, the 17th full-length animated film by Walt Disney, had its world premiere, at 8:00 pm the Florida Theatre in St. Petersburg, Florida.
- Acting to halt 'leftist excesses,' a six-member junta, headed by Colonel Julio Adalberto Rivera composed of 2 army officers and four civilians took over El Salvador, ousting another military junta that had ruled for three months.
January 26, 1961 (Thursday)
- John F. Kennedy appointed Janet G. Travell as his physician, the first woman to hold this appointment.
- Born: Wayne Gretzky, Canadian NHL star, in Brantford, Ontario
- Died: Blaise Cendrars, 73, French poet
January 27, 1961 (Friday)
- The Soviet submarine S-80, with a crew of 68, vanished in the Barents Sea. The wreckage of the S-80 was not discovered until more than seven years later.
- Leontyne Price became the first African-American woman to perform at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. Her performance as Leonora in Il trovatore was given a 42-minute ovation.
January 28, 1961 (Saturday)
- In Atlanta, Malcolm X and Jeremiah Shabazz of the black supremacist Nation of Islam met secretly with representatives of the white supremacist Ku Klux Klan to discuss common interests, including preventing integration of the races. NOI leader Elijah Muhammad and KKK leader J.B. Stoner had arranged the meeting, with the Klan agreeing to help the "Black Muslims" acquire land for resettlement.
- In Gitarama, in the Belgian colony of Rwanda, a group of Hutu politicians declared an end to the Tutsi monarchy and the creation of a republic, with Dominique Mbonyumutwa as its first President. Mbonyumutwa was replaced by Grégoire Kayibanda before Rwanda was granted independence in 1962.
- The Smothers Brothers, comedians Tom and Dick Smothers, first appeared on national television, as guests on the Tonight show, hosted by Jack Paar.
- Bobo Brazil became the first African American to win a National Wrestling Alliance title, pinning Dick the Bruiser in the heavyweight pro wrestling match at Detroit.
- An indoor high school basketball game in Pennsylvania, US, was "rained out". Cold air from an open window combined with heat in a gymnasium to create puddles of condensation on the floor. The game was called with West Hazleton High leading McAdoo High, 31-29.
January 29, 1961 (Sunday)
- Five days after arriving in New York after hitchhiking from Madison, Wisconsin, 21-year-old musician Bob Dylan met his idol Woody Guthrie. After hearing Dylan sing, Guthrie is said to have remarked "He's a talented boy. Gonna go far." Dylan settled in Greenwich Village and found fame in the protest folk music.
- The Irvine Company deeded 1,000 acres of land in Orange County to the regents of the University of California, creating the campus upon which University of California, Irvine would be built, and around which the city of Irvine, California would be formed.
- Radio Hanoi announced in an English-language broadcast that the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, popularly known as the Viet Cong, had been formed to overthrow the government there and to establish a regime similar to that in Communist North Vietnam.
- In the finals of the 1961 European Figure Skating Championships, Sjoukje Dijkstra won gold for the second year in succession. Dijkstra went on to win World Championship and Olympic gold, becoming one of the best-known female figure skaters of all time.
- Died: Sir Geoffrey Jefferson, 84, British neurosurgeon
January 30, 1961 (Monday)
- President John F. Kennedy delivered his first State of the Union Address, a pessimistic outlook of the challenges posed in the Cold War.
- President Kennedy approved a $41 million counterinsurgency plan, drawn up for President Eisenhower by General Edward Lansdale, to help the government of South Vietnam resist communist aggression. Designed to add 52,000 men to that nation's army and civil guards, the plan included provisions for American soldiers and military advisers to assist in the effort.
- Disenchanted with life in the Soviet Union, American defector Lee Harvey Oswald wrote to President Kennedy's newly appointed U.S. Secretary of the Navy, John Connally, to ask for a reversal of Oswald's dishonorable discharge from the United States Marines. The letter was never acted upon, and on November 22, 1963, Oswald would shoot both Kennedy and Connally.
- Born: Dexter Scott King, African-American activist, in Atlanta
January 31, 1961 (Tuesday)
- Ham the Chimp, a 37-pound (17 kg) male, was rocketed into space aboard Mercury-Redstone 2, in a test of the Project Mercury capsule. His successful 16 1⁄2-minute flight demonstrated to American NASA officials that the capsule could safely carry human astronauts into space.
- The American State of Georgia, with the support of most its residents, repealed its longstanding laws requiring segregation by race in its public schools. Governor S. Ernest Vandiver, in signing the "open schools package" of legislation, declared "These are the four most important bills to be signed in this century in Georgia".
- James Meredith, an African-American, applied for admission to the all-white University of Mississippi, beginning a legal action that would result in the desegregation of the university.
- Hermann Höfle, an Austrian born member of the Nazi Party who had overseen the deportation of Poland's Jews to extermination camps, was arrested in Salzburg shortly after being identified as a war criminal by Adolf Eichmann during Eichmann's war crimes trial. For nine years, Höfle had been working at his pre-war trade as an auto mechanic and was working at the Salzburg water department at the time of his arrest. His crime confirmed in a the 1943 "Höfle Telegram", in which he bragged of exterminating a total of 1,274,166 Jews in four camps during Operation Reinhard, Höfle would hang himself in a Vienna prison on August 21, 1962 before he could be put on trial.
- "Great Britain: Fading Farthing", TIME Magazine, January 13, 1961
- "Carl Djerassi- 'Father of pills'", Pharmainfo.net
- "Cuba Orders U.S. to Slash Envoy Staff", Milwaukee Journal, January 3, 1961, p1; "U.S. Breaks Relations With Cuba; Can Endure No More, Ike Says", Milwaukee Journal, January 4, 1961, p1
- "Huskies' 1st Half Blitz Too Much for Gophers", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 3, 1961, p8
- "3 Die in Reactor Blast", Spokane Daily Chronicle, January 4, 1961, p1; William McKeown, Idaho Falls: The Untold Story of America's First Nuclear Accident (ECW Press, 2003)
- "AMERICANS BEGIN CUBAN EXODUS", Arizona Daily Sun (Flagstaff, AZ), January 4, 1961, p1
- "Marines who lowered the flag in Cuba in 1961 return and raise it today", USMC Life, August 14, 2015
- "25 Die In Airliner Explosion", Ottawa Citizen, January 3, 1961, p1; "Report Pilot Drank Before Fatal Flight", Milwaukee Journal, January 10, 1961, p2; Aviation Safety Network
- Frederick Kempe, Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth (Penguin, 2011)
- Christopher Andrew, Defend the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5 (Knopf Doubleday, Nov 3, 2009) p487
- "Dr. Schroedinger, Physicist, 73, Dies; Austrian Scientist Shared 1933 Nobel Prize--Author Taught in Many Lands", New York Times, January 6, 1961
- "The History of Fraud - Art", guardian.co.uk; Thomas Hoving, False Impressions: the Hunt for Big-time Art Fakes (Simon and Schuster, 1997) p100; "Roman Admits Forging Etruscan Sculptures; 78-Year-Old Artisan Worked in Pottery Repair Shop Story Uncovered by a Friend of Metropolitan Director", New York Times, February 22, 1961
- "It's All Over! Kennedy Won, Nixon Declares", Milwaukee Journal, January 7, 1961, p3
- "19 Aged Die in 'Torch-Trap'", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 7, 1961, p1
- "The News Around the U.S.", Miami News, May 29, 1961, p2A
- "Palmer Fires Big 12 on 18th", Spokane Daily Chronicle, January 7, 1961, p8
- William A. Link, William Friday: Power, Purpose, and American Higher Education (UNC Press Books, 1997) p104
- "Browns Flub Point Try, Lions Win Bowl, 17-16", Miami News, January 8, 1961, p1C
- Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p253
- Election-Politique.com; "Self-Rule Voted for Algerians", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 9, 1961, p1
- "1961: Five Britons accused of spying for Moscow", On This day, BBC.co.uk
- "Lumumba Aides Form New State", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), January 9, 1961, pA3
- Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Life Upon These Shores: Looking at African American History, 1513-2008 (Alfred A. Knopf, 2013) p337
- "January 11", in African American History Day by Day: A Reference Guide to Events: A Reference Guide to Events, by Karen Juanita Carrillo (ABC-CLIO, 2012) p17
- Mahmood T. Davari, The Political Thought of Ayatollah Murtaza Mutahhari: An Iranian Theoretician of the Islamic State (Routledge, 2004) p36
- "For All Mankind: Societal Impact of Application Satellites", in Societal Impact of Spaceflight (Government Printing Office, 2007) p302
- Bert Chapman, Space Warfare and Defense: A Historical Encyclopedia and Research Guide (ABC-CLIO, 2008) p14
- "Break Georgia U. Color Bar", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 11, 1961, p1
- "Yacht Tips, 40 Are Dead", Milwaukee Journal, January 11, 1961, p1
- "Flop of Crop Burns Nikita", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 13, 1961, p3.
- William Stewart, Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present (McFarland, 2009) p258
- "Princess Astrid Of Norway Becomes Bride Of Commoner", Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, January 13, 1961, p10
- Meliha Benli Altunisik and Özlem Tür, Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change (Routledge, 2004) p33
- David Hobbs, British Aircraft Carriers: Design, Development & Service Histories (Seaforth Publishing, 2014) p197
- United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (U.S. Department of State, 1964) p2112
- "Henry M. Robinson, Author, Dies of Burns", Milwaukee Journal, January 13, 1961, p1
- "Jazzman Lem Winchester Dies As Gun Tricks Backfires", Pittsburgh Courier, January 28, 1961, p23
- Historical UK inflation rates and calculator
- Jim Morris, Gordon Banks: A Biography (Amberley Publishing Limited, 2013)
- "IKE ORDERS NEW GOLD CURB— Sell Foreign Hoards, U.S. Citizens Told", Chicago Sunday Tribune, January 15, 1961, p1
- Brendan Brown, The Flight of International Capital: A Contemporary History (Routledge, 2013) p250
- Asoke Nath Mitra, India in the World of Physics: Then and Now (Pearson Education India, 2009) p307
- Bhumitra Chakma, Strategic Dynamics and Nuclear Weapons Proliferation in South Asia: A Historical Analysis (Peter Lang, 2004) p50
- "No Further Signs of Life Reported From Sea Tower", Milwaukee Journal, January 17, 1961, p1
- "Milwaukee Sentinel", March 21, 1961, p1
- Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits (Random House, Inc., 2003) p207
- "US Bans Traveling by Citizens in Cuba", Milwaukee Journal, January 16, 1961, p1
- "Woman Jailed in Bank Theft", Spokane Daily Chronicle, January 17, 1961, p1; "She Gets 15 Years In $2-Million Theft", Miami News, February 17, 1961, p1.
- "Embezzlement put Sheldon on the map", The Daily Reporter (Spencer, Iowa), January 8, 1986, p8A
- "Ike Sounds Red Peril Alert", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 18, 1961, p4
- e.g. Mark Young, ed., The Guinness Book of World Records 1998 (Bantam Books, 1998) p228
- "Afro-Shirazi Party Wins in Zanzibar", Africa Special Report (African-American Institute, 1961) p1951
- Ron Owens, Medal of Honor: Historical Facts & Figures (Turner Publishing Company, 2004) p138; http://www.foxfall.com/fmc-fcm.htm
- "Tall Geysers"; "THE FINAL BLOW FOR A GEYSER" Evening Times (Glasgow), February 17, 1961, p17
- Aviation Safety Network; "102 Survive Jet Crash!", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 20, 1961, p1
- "Kennedy Is Sworn In as President", Milwaukee Journal, January 20, 1961, p1
- Mark Roberts, Sub: an oral history of U.S. Navy submarines (Berkley Books, 2007) p150; "Submarine Sets Record: Nuclear Craft Ends Underwater Trip of 67 Days", Reading (PA) Eagle, January 22, 1961, p1
- "'Kennedy's Men' Take Oath of Office at White House", Reading (PA) Eagle, January 22, 1961, p1
- Sasha Anawalt, The Joffrey Ballet: Robert Joffrey and the Making of an American Dance Company (University of Chicago Press, 1998) p135
- "Ships Hunt Hijacked Liner Through Old Spanish Main", The Ottawa Citizen, January 24, 1961, p1; "PORTUGAL: Revolt on the High Seas", TIME Magazine, February 3, 1961
- "Santa Maria's Passengers Finally Ferried To Freedom", Montreal Gazette, February 3, 1961, p1; "Portugal: 29 Men & a Boat", TIME Magazine, February 10, 1961
- Political Bureau Resolution no. 1633, meeting transcript dated 23 January 1961
- "Jet Carrying Nuclear Devices Crashes Near Goldsboro Killing Three Members of Crew", The Dispatch (Lexington, North Carolina), January 24, 1961, p1
- Michael Krepon, Better safe than sorry: the ironies of living with the bomb (Stanford University Press, 2009) p35
- "Mel Blanc is Hurt in Coast Car Crash", New York Times, January 26, 1961
- excerpt from Mel Blanc, That's Not All, Folks!
- BBC "1961: End of the road for Monroe and Miller", "On This Day", BBC.co.uk
- Michael D. Murray, Encyclopedia of television news (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999) p192
- "Freed Fliers Head Home; Kennedy Hails Russ Move", Milwaukee Journal, January 26, 1961, p1
- "Honor Guests To Put On Dog With Full-Length Furs At Dalmatian Show", St. Petersburg Times, January 25, 1961, p10-B; imdb.com
- Roy Boland, Culture and Customs of El Salvador (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) p29
- Peter A. Huchthausen, October Fury (John Wiley and Sons, 2002)
- Darryl Glenn Nettles, African American concert singers before 1950 (McFarland, 2003) p133
- Louis A. DeCaro, Jr., On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X (NYU Press, 1997) pp180-181
- Aimable Twagilimana, Hutu and Tutsi (Rosen Publishing Group, 1997) p43
- David Bianculli, Dangerously funny: the uncensored story of The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour (Simon and Schuster, 2009) p34
- Ross Davies, Bobo Brazil (Rosen Publishing Group, 2001) p52
- Andrew Postman and Larry Stone, The Ultimate Book of Sports Lists (Black Dog Publishing, 2003) p259
- Oliver Trager, Keys to the rain: the definitive Bob Dylan encyclopedia (Billboard Books, 2004) p226
- Albert G. Pickerell and May Dornin, The University of California: a pictorial history (University of California Press, 1968) p311
- John Clark Pratt, Vietnam Voices: Perspectives on the War Years, 1941–1975 (University of Georgia Press, 2008) p95
- Ivo H. Daalder and I. M. Destler, In the shadow of the Oval Office: profiles of the national security advisers and the presidents they served : from JFK to George W. Bush (Simon and Schuster, 2009) p18
- Douglas J. Macdonald, Adventures in chaos: American intervention for reform in the Third World (Harvard University Press, 1992) p191
- Gary W. O'Brien, Oswald's Politics (Trafford Publishing, 2010) p54
- Marianne J. Dyson, Space and astronomy: decade by decade (Infobase Publishing, 2007) p141
- Alton Hornsby, Southerners, too?: essays on the Black South, 1733–1990 (University Press of America, 2004) p169
- "Meredith, James Howard", in American social leaders and activists Neil A. Hamilton, ed. (Infobase Publishing, 2002) pp262–263
- Stan Nadel, Salzburg and the Jews: A Historical Walking Guide (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2009) p108
- "Held for Killing Jews, Hangs Self in Prison", Chicago Daily Tribune, August 22, 1962, p21