January 1972

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1972
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January 4, 1972: HP-35 pocket calculator introduced
January 27, 1972: Home video game system introduced by Magnavox

The following events occurred in January 1972:

January 1, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

January 2, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Mobutu Sese Seko, the President of Zaire, announced his new campaign, "Authenticité", to remove all traces of the former Belgian Congo's colonial past in favor of "Africanized" names, customs and dress. Having changed his own name from Joseph-Desire Mobutu, the President required citizens with European-sounding names to change them to something more authentic.[3]
  • U.S. First Lady Pat Nixon arrived in Liberia for the beginning of an 8-day tour of Africa, which also included Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.[4]
  • A group of six men stole $4,000,000 worth of jewelry in the Pierre Hotel Robbery, from safe deposit boxes at the New York luxury hotel. After being tipped off by an informant, the FBI captured the robbers, but recovered only one million of the loot.[5]
  • Juliane Koepcke, the sole survivor of the Christmas Eve crash of LANSA Flight 508, was found alive by three hunters deep inside the Amazon jungle in Peru. The only survivor of 93 persons on the plane, she had followed a stream for nine days until finding help.[6]
  • Died: Lillian Gilbreth, 93, efficiency expert and heroine of Cheaper by the Dozen

January 3, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • Mariner 9 began the first mapping of the planet Mars, after dust storms on the red planet had ceased.[7]

January 4, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The first scientific electronic pocket calculator, the HP-35 was introduced by Hewlett-Packard and priced at $395. Although hand-held electronic machines, that could multiply and divide (such as the Canon Pocketronic) had been made since 1971, the HP-35 could handle higher functions including logarithms and trigonometry.[8]

January 5, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • From San Clemente, President Richard Nixon announced that the United States would develop the space shuttle as the next phase of the American space program, with 5.5 billion dollars allocated to the first reusable spacecraft. "It would transform the space frontier of the 1970s into familiar territory," said Nixon, "easily accessible for human endeavor of the 1980s and 1990s." [9]

January 6, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

January 7, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

January 8, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

January 9, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

January 10, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the "Bangabandhu" and "Father of Bangladesh", returned to Dhaka at 1:30 pm to a hero's welcome.[22]
  • In Baton Rouge, Louisiana, a confrontation between members of the Black Liberation Army left two sheriff's deputies dead and 14 other policemen injured. Two BLA members were killed and 17 civilians were hurt. Thirteen police officers were killed by the BLA between 1970 and 1976.[27]
  • In Britain, Birmingham's Sunday Mercury broke the story of toxic waste dumping in the Midlands, and the government's indifference to complaints. The public outcry that followed led to the passage of environmental legislation on March 30.
  • Born: Thomas Alsgaard, Norwegian Olympic cross-country gold medalist, in Enebakk
  • Died: Aksel Larsen, 74, Danish politician

January 11, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Bill France, Jr. succeeded his father as President of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing NASCAR. Over the next 28 years, France oversaw the growth of stock car racing to a multibillion-dollar industry and one of the most popular sports in the United States.[28]
  • The Night Stalker, starring Darren McGavin, was broadcast as the ABC Movie of the Week. Watched by 75 million viewers, it was the highest rated made-for-television movie to that date.[29]

January 12, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The first regulations limiting exposure to asbestos were announced by the United States Department of Labor. Widely used in construction because of its fireproof nature, asbestos had been proven to be carcinogenic in the long term.[30]
  • The Detroit Tigers signed a 40-year lease for a $126 million dollar domed stadium, to be built downtown. Detroit voters balked at funding a bond issue to pay for the dome, and it was never built. The team continued to play at Tiger Stadium until moving to the outdoor Comerica Park in 1998.[31]
  • Born: Espen Knutsen, Norwegian hockey star, in Oslo

January 13, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Richard Nixon announced that 70,000 American troops would be pulled out of Vietnam by May 1, cutting the existing force of 139,000 by half.[32]
  • Alabama Governor George C. Wallace announced his candidacy for the Democratic Party nomination.[33] The day before, the Internal Revenue Service had dropped its investigation of Wallace's brother Gerald. Historian Stephen E. Ambrose suggested in his 1989 book Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962–1972, that President Nixon had brokered a deal in order to ensure his re-election in 1972.[34] With Nixon and Hubert Humphrey having announced their candidacies earlier in the week, all three major contenders in the 1968 election were in the 1972 race.
  • While he was out of the country for treatment of an eye ailment, Kofi Abrefa Busia, the Prime Minister of Ghana, lost his job when the government was overthrown in a bloodless coup, led by Lt. Col. Ignatius Kutu Acheampong, leader of the "National Redemption Council".[35] Dr. Busia lived the rest of his life in London. Acheampong was overthrown in 1978, and was executed the following year.
  • A plane, taking West Germany's Chancellor Willy Brandt home after his visit to the United States, came within 500 feet of colliding with Eastern Airlines Flight 870, as both planes were flying at 33,000 feet 85 miles northeast of Jacksonville, Florida. A spokesman for the Professional Air Traffic Controllers' Association said on January 15 that the incident had been reported to him by controllers at the Jacksonville airport.[36]
  • Born:

January 14, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

January 15, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

January 16, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

January 17, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • Police in Chicago arrested two college students, Allan C. Schwandner and Stephen Pera, who had planned to poison the city's water supply with typhoid and other bacteria. Schwandner had founded a terrorist group, "R.I.S.E.", while Pera collected and grew cultures from the hospital where he worked. The two men fled to Cuba after being released on bail. Schwandner was fatally beaten by a Cuban prison director in 1974. [42] Pera returned to the U.S. in 1975 and was put on probation.[43]
  • "Huge Monday" took place on the North Shore of Oahu; 20 foot waves made it "the greatest single day in surfing history" [44]
  • Born:
  • Died:

January 18, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

January 19, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

January 20, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In Geneva, the member nations of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agreed to raise their price for crude oil by 8.49 percent, to $2.49 per barrel, the first of many sharp increases that would follow.[51]
  • The scheduled release of The Autobiography of Howard Hughes, written by Clifford Irving, was postponed by LIFE Magazine (which had planned to serialize it beginning with its February 11 issue) and McGraw-Hill, which had a March 10 release date.[52] Proven later as a hoax, the would-be bestseller was never sold.
  • Hughes Airwest Flight 8800 was hijacked as it taxied for a takeoff from McCarran International Airport. Imitating D. B. Cooper, passenger "D. Shane" demanded $50,000 in cash and two parachutes after threatening to explode a bomb, and after releasing the passengers and stewardesses, ordered the DC-9 to fly eastward. Shane—later identified as Richard Charles LaPoint—bailed out over the Rockies and landed 21 miles northwest of Akron, Colorado, where he was captured by state police, along with the ransom.[53] LaPoint, 23, received a 40-year federal prison sentence.[54]
  • Karen Wise became the first woman to play NCAA college basketball (limited at that time to men), when she took the court for Windham College against Castleton State College. Playing for two minutes, she gathered one rebound but did not score in her team's 84–38 loss.[55]

January 21, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

  • India added three new States, bringing the total to 20, with statehood granted to Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya. On the same day, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were granted union territory status (both granted statehood in 1987). As of 2009, there are 28 states and seven territories in India.[56]
  • Hundreds of guests at a wedding in New Delhi drank bootleg liquor and were poisoned by what turned out to be a mixture of rubbing alcohol and paint varnish, By Sunday, more than 100 had died.[57]

January 22, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

January 23, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

  • U.S. Air Force bombing of Viet Cong guerrilla strongholds in South Vietnam halted after more than nine years. A historian would later note that "some 4 million tons of bombs fell" on South Vietnam "making it the most-bombed country in the history of aerial warfare." [59]
  • Formula One champion Jackie Stewart began the defense of his title by winning the 1972 Argentine Grand Prix in Buenos Aires. On completion of the race, he learned that his father, Robert Paul Stewart, had died earlier in the day.[60]

January 24, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • After hiding for more than 27 years, Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi was discovered on Guam by two hunters, Manuel de Garcia and Jesus Duenas. One of 19,000 Japanese soldiers occupying the island during World War II, Sgt. Yokoi had disappeared into the jungle near the Talofofo River after American forces recaptured Guam in 1944.[61]
  • Meeting with scientists at Multan, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto secretly launched Pakistan's program to build a nuclear weapon.[62]
  • The Iowa Caucus, which would later mark the opening of delegate selection in U.S. presidential election campaigns, was conducted for the first time. The initial event, marked by gatherings in 2,600 at homes and meeting rooms in election precincts statewide, was limited to registered Democrats, and would displace the New Hampshire primary as the first test for political party nominees. [63] When the results were finally tabulated the next day, U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine won 18 of Iowa's 46 Democratic delegates, while U.S. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota won 10, while the remaining 18 were uncommitted. [64]
  • A month after bringing the Emirate of Sharjah into the United Arab Emirates, the emir, Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi was assassinated in a coup attempt by the previous ruler, Saqr bin Sultan al-Qasimi, whom Khalid had overthrown in 1965. Saqr failed to regain the throne, and Sharjah has been ruled since then by Khalid's brother, Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi.[65]
  • Died:

January 25, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In a nationally televised address, President Nixon revealed that Henry Kissinger had been secretly negotiating with North Vietnamese leaders, and announced "a plan for peace that can end the war in Vietnam".[66] North Vietnam rejected the proposal the next day.
  • Shirley Chisholm, the first black woman to be elected to Congress (representing New York's 12th Congressional District) announced that she would seek the Democratic nomination for President.[67]
  • Two Ohio State players—Luke Witte and Mark Wagar—were sent to the hospital when a fight broke out in their college basketball game at Minnesota. With 0:36 left, and Ohio State leading 50–44, Corky Taylor and Ron Behagen of Minnesota attacked Witte. A brawl between both teams lasted for more than a minute before the game was called. Taylor and Behagen were suspended for the rest of the season. Witte declined to file charges.[68]
  • Died:
    • Carl Hayden, 94; American legislator and former President Pro Tempore of the Senate (1957–1969), who had represented Arizona in Congress for 57 years. Hayden had been the first at-large U.S. Representative when Arizona was admitted to the union in 1912, then continued as a U.S. Senator starting in 1927 until finishing his seventh term in 1969.
    • Erhard Milch, 79, developer of Germany's Luftwaffe

January 26, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • JAT Yugoslav Flight 364 broke apart over Czechoslovakia at an altitude of 33,000 feet, killing 27 of the 28 people on board. Stewardess Vesna Vulović, who had been in the tail section of the DC-9, survived despite falling more than six miles, landing near Srbská Kamenice. She was released after a hospitalation of 16 months.[69]
  • On the lawn in front of the Australian Parliament in Canberra, four young Aborigine men (Michael Anderson, Billy Craigie, Gary Williams and Tony Coorey) erected a tent that they called the Aboriginal Embassy, a symbol of the feeling that the indigenous Australians were treated as foreigners in their own homeland. Soon, the four were joined by others, until nearly 2,000 supporters encamped in front of the Parliament. The "embassy" was torn down six months later.[70]
  • The first Eclipse Awards, recognizing horse racing achievements, were made, in a ceremony at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel.[71]
  • Born: Christopher Boykin, "Big Black" on MTV show Rob & Big, in Wiggins, Mississippi

January 27, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The first home video game system, Odyssey, was introduced by Magnavox. Designed by Ralph Baer, the console could be hooked up to a television set for two players to play a tennis-like game, similar to Nolan Bushnell's game Pong.[72]
  • In a meeting at the office of U.S. Attorney General John N. Mitchell, G. Gordon Liddy presented the "Gemstone Plan" to Mitchell, John Dean, and Jeb Magruder. Mitchell was also the Director of the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CRP), and Liddy was CRP's chief lawyer. Liddy suggested budgeting $1,000,000 for mugging and even kidnapping "leaders of anti-Nixon demonstrations"; hiring prostitutes to solicit during the Democratic National Convention; and break-ins and installation of electronic surveillance as necessary. Mitchell rejected the plan, but retained Liddy to suggest new ideas.[73]
  • After hijacking Mohawk Airlines Flight 452 and landing in Poughkeepsie, New York, Heinrick Von George, a debt-ridden father of seven, was given, as demanded, a duffel bag with $200,000 in cash and a getaway car. As he prepared to drive away with his money and his hostage, Von George was killed by a shotgun blast fired by an FBI agent.[74]
  • Born:
  • Died:

January 28, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

  • More than 60 years after it had been written, Scott Joplin's opera Treemonisha was performed for the first time. The score had been rediscovered in 1970, and was brought to life at the Atlanta Memorial Arts Center. Joplin, an African-American composer who had died in 1917, was posthumously awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1976, and honored with a U.S. postage stamp in 1983. Joplin's ragtime composition "The Entertainer", featured in the film The Sting, reached No. 3 on the Billboard charts in 1974.[75]

January 29, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

January 30, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

January 31, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

King Mahendra
  • The Federal Aviation Administration issued new regulations, requiring all United States airlines to screen passengers (and their carry on baggage) for weapons before boarding, with a deadline of May 8, 1972, for compliance. There were no hijackings in the United States in 1973.[78]
  • Karl Schranz of Austria, the 1970 alpine skiing champion in the giant slalom, was barred three days before the 1972 Winter Olympics were to begin, by a 28–14 vote by the International Olympic Committee. Schranz was among 40 skiers accused of violating amateur rules by accepting endorsement money from ski equipment companies, and the only skier to be banned.[79]
  • Died: King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal, who had worked to end the isolation of his Himalayan kingdom, died in Kathmandu at 51. He was succeeded by his son, Birendra.[80]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Miguel Marín Bosch, Votes in the UN General Assembly (Kluwer Law International, 1998), p76
  2. ^ Stanley Meisler, United Nations: The First Fifty Years (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1995), pp185–186
  3. ^ "Mobutu to Wipe Out Relics of Colonial 'Congo'", The Star-News (Pasadena), January 3, 1972, p2
  4. ^ "Liberian Leader to Host Mrs. Nixon", Sydney Morning Herald, January 4, 1972, p5
  5. ^ "Inside the Criminal-Informant Business", by Robert Daley, New York Magazine (March 24, 1975), pp32–33
  6. ^ "Crash Survivor's Ordeal in Jungle", Oakland Tribune, January 5, 1972, p1
  7. ^ Space Science Board, United States Space Science Program: Report to COSPAR (June 1973), p28
  8. ^ "Mini-Calculator Big on Answers", Oakland Tribune, January 5, 1972, p9
  9. ^ Richard S. Lewis, The Voyages of Columbia: The First True Spaceship (Columbia University Press, 1984), p30; "NIXON AUTHORIZES SPACE SHUTTLE", El Paso Herald-Post, January 5, 1972, p1
  10. ^ New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law (Paulist Press, 2000), pp947–948
  11. ^ Kourosh Ahmadi, Islands and International Politics in the Persian Gulf (Routledge, 2008), p79
  12. ^ Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the ACLU (Southern Illinois University Press, 1999), p309
  13. ^ "Its Official: Nixon Seeks Re-Election", Oakland Tribune, January 7, 1972, p1
  14. ^ "Jetliner Rams Peak; 104 Killed", Oakland Tribune, January 7, 1972, p1 airdisaster.com
  15. ^ Richard Hack, Hughes: The Private Diaries, Memos and Letters (Phoenix Books, 2007), p349
  16. ^ Henry J. Abraham, Justices, Presidents, and Senators: A History of the U.S. Supreme Court Appointments from Washington to Bush II (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008), p253
  17. ^ "Lakers Zip To No. 33", Oakland Tribune, January 8, 1972, p11-E
  18. ^ "Time Bombs Found In S.F., Eastern Banks", Oakland Tribune, January 7, 1972, p1; "Bombing the Banks", TIME Magazine, January 17, 1972
  19. ^ "Berryman, John", Dictionary of Midwestern Literature by Philip A. Greasley, (Indiana University Press, 2001) p62
  20. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America (Taylor and Francis, 1992), p289
  21. ^ Michael Steinberg, The Symphony: A Listener's Guide (Oxford University Press, 1995), p569
  22. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Of Bangladesh (Anmol Publications, 2003), p110
  23. ^ "Britain's Coal Miners Strike; First Since '26", Bridgeport Sunday Post, January 9, 1972, p1
  24. ^ Arthur Marwick, A History of the Modern British Isles, 1914–1999: Circumstances, Events, and Outcomes (Blackwell Publishers, 2000), pp236–237
  25. ^ Ronald W. Warwick, QE2 (W.W. Norton & Co, 1999), p49; "End of the Queen Elizabeth", TIME Magazine, January 24, 1972
  26. ^ Wayne Embry and Mary Schmitt Boyer, The Inside Game: Race, Power, and Politics in the NBA (University of Akron Press, 2004), p190
  27. ^ "Battle in Baton Rouge", TIME Magazine, January 24, 1972; Christopher Hewitt, Political Violence and Terrorism in Modern America: A Chronology (Praeger Security International, 2005), p87
  28. ^ Edward Marc Rose, The Un-Official NASCAR Fan Guide, p29
  29. ^ Stacey Abbott, Angel (Wayne State University Press, 2009), p107
  30. ^ Peter Bartrip, Beyond the Factory Gates: Asbestos and Health in Twentieth Century America (Continuum, 2006), pp123–124
  31. ^ Mark Pattison and David Raglin, Detroit Tigers Lists and More: Runs, Hits, and Eras (Wayne State University Press, 2002), p324
  32. ^ "Nixon Pulls 70,000 More GIs Out of War", Oakland Tribune, January 13, 1972, p1
  33. ^ "Wallace To Run as Democrat", Oakland Tribune, January 13, 1972, p1
  34. ^ Harry S. Ashmore, Civil Rights and Wrongs: A Memoir of Race and Politics, 1944–1996 (University of South Carolina Press, 1997), pp247–248
  35. ^ Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History (CRC Press, 2005), pp577–78; "Paying For Unpopularity", TIME Jan. 24, 1972
  36. ^ "Brandt Plane Averts Collision in Mid-Air", Oakland Tribune, January 15, 1972, p1
  37. ^ James S. Olson, ed., Historical Dictionary of the 1970s, p307
  38. ^ John Levy, with Devra Hall, Men, Women, and Girl Singers: My Life as a Musician Turned Talent Manager (Beckham, 2000), p204
  39. ^ "King Frederik IX Of Denmark Dies", Oakland Tribune, January 14, 1972
  40. ^ "Danish Queen Proclaimed In Emotional Ceremonies", Oakland Tribune, January 16, 1972, p1
  41. ^ "A Cowboy Stampede", by Tex Maule, Sports Illustrated, January 24, 1972, pp10–15
  42. ^ Chicago Sun-Times, March 29, 1978. page 5
  43. ^ W. Seth Carus, "R.I.S.E.", in Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons (MIT Press, 2000), p55, p69
  44. ^ Matt Warshaw, The Encyclopedia of Surfing (Harcourt, 2005), pp 277–78
  45. ^ Baruch S. Blumberg, Hepatitis B: The Hunt For a Killer Virus (Princeton University Press, 2002)
  46. ^ "U.S. Seizes Two Russian Ships", Oakland Tribune, January 18, 1972, p1
  47. ^ "CG Takes Russ Back To Ships", Pacific Stars and Stripes, February 22, 1972, p4
  48. ^ Lawrence C. Reardon, The Reluctant Dragon: Crisis Cycles in Chinese Foreign Economic Policy (University of Washington Press 2002), p153
  49. ^ Esteban Buch, Beethoven's Ninth: A Political History (University of Chicago Press, 2003), p239
  50. ^ David Raič, Statehood and the Law of Self-determination (Kluwer Law International, 2002), p59
  51. ^ Bernard Taverne, Petroleum, Industry, and Governments: A Study of the Involvement of Industry and Governments in the Production and Use of Petroleum (Kluwer Law International, 2008), pp293–294
  52. ^ "Surprise Delay On Hughes Book", Oakland Tribune, January 20, 1972, p12
  53. ^ "Airwest Jet Pirated in Vegas; Suspect Sprains Ankle in Fall", Nevada State Journal (Reno), January 21, 1972, p1
  54. ^ "Hijacker Is Sentenced To 40 Years in Prison", The Stars and Stripes (European), May 14, 1972, p6
  55. ^ "Women's Lib No Help To Poor Windham", Syracuse Herald-Journal, January 21, 1972, p17
  56. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (Concept Publishing, 1995), pp89–93
  57. ^ "Bootleg toll rises", The Independent (Long Beach, CA), January 24, 1972, p29
  58. ^ Lee Miles, The European Union and the Nordic Countries (CRC Press, 1996), p39
  59. ^ "United States Air Force", by Earl H. Tilford Jr., in The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p1184
  60. ^ "Jackie Stewart Is Winner In Argentine Grand Prix", Bridgeport Telegram, January 24, 1972, p6
  61. ^ Robert F. Rogers, Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam (University of Hawaii Press, 1995), pp 245–246
  62. ^ Attar Chand, Nuclear Policy and National Security (Mittal Publications, 1993), p59
  63. ^ "Iowa Caucus To Clue Dems", The State Journal (Lansing MI), January 16, 1972, pA-6
  64. ^ "Caucus Wins for Muskie, Uncommitted", Des Moines Register, January 26, 1972, p1
  65. ^ Kourosh Ahmadi, Islands and International Politics in the Persian Gulf (Routledge, 2008), p108
  66. ^ "Address to the Nation on Plan for Peace in Vietnam", millercenter.org
  67. ^ "Chisholm In Race for Presidency", Oakland Tribune, January 25, 1972
  68. ^ "An Ugly Affair In Minneapolis" by William F. Reed, Sports Illustrated, February 7, 1972, pp18–21
  69. ^ "She Falls 6 Miles and Lives", Oakland Tribune, January 28, 1972, p1; "Highest Fall Survived", Guinness World Records 2008 (Bantam Books, 2008), p133
  70. ^ Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians: Black Responses To White Dominance, 1788–2001 (Allen and Unwin 2001), pp188–190
  71. ^ Dick Pollard, Horses For Courses: Adventures in Thoroughbred Racehorse Ownership (Vantage Press, 2007), p167
  72. ^ The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind (St. Martin's Press, 2007), p172
  73. ^ United States Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, The Senate Watergate Report: The Final Report (1974), pp74–76
  74. ^ "Luckless Hijacker's Death Ends Dream", Post-Standard (Syracuse), January 28, 1972, p1; "A Tale of Two Losers" TIME February 7, 1972
  75. ^ Edward A. Berlin, King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp251–52
  76. ^ Heinrich August Winkler, Germany: The Long Road West: Volume 2: 1933–1990 (Oxford University Press, 2007), p277
  77. ^ Peter Pringle and Philip Jacobson, Those Are Real Bullets: Bloody Sunday, Derry, 1972 (Grove Press, 2002); "The Bitter Road From Bloody Sunday", TIME Magazine, February 14, 1972
  78. ^ Alexander T. Wells and Clarence C. Rodrigues, Commercial Aviation Safety (McGraw-Hill, 2003), p301
  79. ^ John Fry, The Story of Modern Skiing (University Press of New England, ©2006), pp153–154
  80. ^ "Nepal's king dies", Syracuse Herald Journal, January 31, 1972, p1