January 2019 lunar eclipse
|Total lunar eclipse|
January 21, 2019
The eclipse seen from Oria, Italy, at 5:43 UTC, January 21, at the end of totality
|Ecliptic north up|
The moon passed west to east (right to left) through the Earth's shadow.
|Saros (and member)||134 (27 of 73)|
A total lunar eclipse occurred on January 21, 2019 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For observers in the Americas, the eclipse took place between the evening of Sunday, January 20 and the early morning hours of Monday, January 21. For observers in Europe and Africa, the eclipse occurred during the morning of January 21. The Moon was near its perigee on January 21 and as such can be described as a "supermoon".
As this supermoon was also a wolf moon (the first full moon in a calendar year), it was referred to as a "super blood wolf moon"; blood refers to the typical red color of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse. This was the last total lunar eclipse until May 2021. This was a Super Full Moon because occurred less than a day before perigee and the Moon was less than exactly 360,000 km (223,694 mi).
The Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles, California captured video showing a meteor between the size of an acorn and tennis ball impacting the moon during the eclipse. The impact was observed during totality, at 4:41 UTC, on left side of the moon. It is the only documented case of a lunar impact during a total lunar eclipse.
The eclipse was visible in its entirety from North and South America, as well as portions of western Europe and northwest Africa. From locations in North America, the eclipse began during the evening hours of January 20. Observers at locations in Europe and much of Africa were able to view part of the eclipse before the Moon set in the early morning (pre-dawn) hours of January 21.
Simulated view of Earth from Moon during greatest eclipse, with infrared clouds
The timing of total lunar eclipses are determined by its contacts:
- P1 (First contact): Beginning of the penumbral eclipse. Earth's penumbra touches the Moon's outer limb.
- U1 (Second contact): Beginning of the partial eclipse. Earth's umbra touches the Moon's outer limb.
- U2 (Third contact): Beginning of the total eclipse. The Moon's surface is entirely within Earth's umbra.
- Greatest eclipse: The peak stage of the total eclipse. The Moon is at its closest to the center of Earth's umbra.
- U3 (Fourth contact): End of the total eclipse. The Moon's outer limb exits Earth's umbra.
- U4 (Fifth contact): End of the partial eclipse. Earth's umbra leaves the Moon's surface.
- P4 (Sixth contact): End of the penumbral eclipse. Earth's penumbra no longer makes contact with the Moon.
The penumbral phases of the eclipse changes the appearance of the Moon only slightly and is generally not noticeable.
|Event||Evening January 20||Morning January 21|
|P1||Penumbral begins*||6:37 pm||7:37 pm||8:37 pm||9:37 pm||10:37 pm||11:37 pm||12:37 am||1:37 am||2:37 am||3:37 am||4:37 am||5:37 am|
|U1||Partial begins||7:34 pm||8:34 pm||9:34 pm||10:34 pm||11:34 pm||12:34 am||1:34 am||2:34 am||3:34 am||4:34 am||5:34 am||6:34 am|
|U2||Total begins||8:41 pm||9:41 pm||10:41 pm||11:41 pm||12:41 am||1:41 am||2:41 am||3:41 am||4:41 am||5:41 am||6:41 am||7:41 am|
|Mid-eclipse||9:12 pm||10:12 pm||11:12 pm||12:12 am||1:12 am||2:12 am||3:12 am||4:12 am||5:12 am||6:12 am||7:12 am||8:12 am|
|U3||Total ends||9:43 pm||10:43 pm||11:43 pm||12:43 am||1:43 am||2:43 am||3:43 am||4:43 am||5:43 am||6:43 am||7:43 am||8:43 am|
|U4||Partial ends||10:51 pm||11:51 pm||12:51 am||1:51 am||2:51 am||3:51 am||4:51 am||5:51 am||6:51 am||7:51 am||8:51 am||9:51 am|
|P4||Penumbral ends*||11:48 pm||12:48 am||1:48 am||2:48 am||3:48 am||4:48 am||5:48 am||6:48 am||7:48 am||8:48 am||9:48 am||10:48 am|
Austin, Texas, 3:57 UTC
Seattle, Washington, 4:27 UTC
Lindsborg, Kansas, 4:40 UTC
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4:40 UTC
San Diego, California, 4:41 UTC
Tres Piedras, New Mexico, 4:42 UTC
Chihuahua City, Mexico, 4:44 UTC
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 5:02 UTC
Denver, Colorado, 5:03 UTC
Totality in Coralville, Iowa, 5:07 UTC (23:07 Local Time)
Macon, Georgia, 5:18 UTC
Whitpain Township, Pennsylvania, 5:26 UTC
New York City, New York, 5:37 UTC
Animation from São Paulo, Brazil
When totality was just beginning at 4:41 UT, the tiny speck of light blinked south of a nearly 55-mile-wide crater in the western part of the moon.
The location of the impact may be somewhere in the lunar highlands, south of Byrgius crater, according to Justin Cowart, a graduate student in geosciences at Stony Brook University in New York who first saw the flash of light.
“A [meteoroid] about this size hits the moon about once a week or so,” said Cowart.
This may be the first time that a collision, during a total lunar eclipse, was captured on video.
Working overtime, co-director of the Moon Impacts Detection and Analysis System, MIDAS, an astrophysicist at the University of Huelva in Spain, Jose Maria Madiedo, set up eight telescopes to watch for any impacts during the eclipse.
“Something inside of me told me that this time would be the time,” said Madiedo.
A paper estimates a mass between 20 and 100 kilograms and diameter of 30 to 50 cm and could cause a 7–15 meters crater. Other astronomers estimated a 10-15 meter crater from a 45 kg asteroid moving 61,000 km/h.
Eclipses of 2019
- A partial solar eclipse on January 6.
- A total lunar eclipse on January 21.
- A total solar eclipse on July 2.
- A partial lunar eclipse on July 16.
- An annular solar eclipse on December 26.
Lunar year series
|Lunar eclipse series sets from 2016–2020|
|Descending node||Ascending node|
|109||2016 Aug 18
||2017 Feb 11
||2017 Aug 07
||2018 Jan 31
||2018 Jul 27
||2019 Jan 21
||2019 Jul 16
||2020 Jan 10
|149||2020 Jul 05
|Last set||2016 Sep 16||Last set||2016 Mar 23|
|Next set||2020 Jun 05||Next set||2020 Nov 30|
It is part of Saros cycle 134.
|January 15, 2010||January 26, 2028|
- Rogers, James (20 January 2019). "'Super blood Moon' eclipse stuns in remarkable pictures". Fox News.
- "Super blood wolf moon: stargazers battle cold and clouds to view lunar eclipse". The Guardian. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Meghan Bartels (22 January 2019). "Watch a Meteor Smack the Blood Moon in This Lunar Eclipse Video". Space.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "A meteor hit the moon during the lunar eclipse. Here's what we know". Science & Innovation. 22 January 2019.
- Andrews, Robin George (23 January 2019). "During the Lunar Eclipse, Something Slammed Into the Moon". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Video: A Meteorite Hit the Moon During the Recent Eclipse!". Jason Kottke. 23 January 2019.
- Clarke, Kevin. "On the nature of eclipses". Inconstant Moon. Cyclopedia Selenica. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- Espenak, Fred. "Lunar Eclipses for Beginners". MrEclipse. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "A meteor hit the moon during the lunar eclipse. Here's what we know". 22 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Location, orbit and energy of a meteoroid impacting the moon during the Lunar Eclipse of January 21, 2019
- Mathematical Astronomy Morsels, Jean Meeus, p.110, Chapter 18, The half-saros