Japan Karate Association
|Motto||Keepers of Karate's Highest Tradition|
|Formation||May 27, 1949|
|Headquarters||2-23-15 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo JAPAN 112-0004|
|Japan Karate Federation, World Karate Federation|
|Masaaki Ueki, 9th Dan <JKA website,2011>|
Japan Karate Association (日本 空手 協会; Nihon Karate Kyokai; JKA; sometimes referred to simply as Kyokai 協会 in Japan) is one of the most influential Shotokan karate organizations in the world. It is also one of the oldest karate organizations continuously in operation until the present.
Gichin Funakoshi played a major role in introducing karate from Okinawa to Japan, adjusted to reduce injury and merged with approaches for athletic training. On May 27, 1949, some of his senior students, such as Isao Obata, Masatoshi Nakayama, and Hidetaka Nishiyama, formed a karate organization dedicated to research, promotion, events management, and education: the Japan Karate Association. Funakoshi, then around 80 years old, held a position equivalent to emeritus chief instructor. Nakayama designated as the chief instructor.
The JKA emerged from karate clubs at Japanese universities located in the Tokyo region. Most of these universities, however, distanced themselves from the JKA during the 1950s. Takushoku University always kept strong ties with the JKA, being the alma mater of many of the senior JKA instructors, such as Nakayama, Nishiyama, Okazaki, Asai, Kanazawa, and Enoeda, who were responsible for the JKA's consolidation during the 1960s and 1970s.
General uneasiness on how karate was taught by the JKA instructors and disagreements on Funakoshi's funeral arrangements in 1957 motivated some of the senior karateka connected with Funakoshi, but not associated with the JKA, such as Shigeru Egami, Genshin Hironishi, and Tsutomu Ohshima, to form their own organizations, such as Shotokai and Shotokan Karate of America). They claimed to practice Shotokan karate closer to what Funakoshi taught, as compared to the JKA style. The JKA Shotokan approach is also based on Funakoshi's karate, but with significant adaptations introduced mostly by Nakayama, who was JKA chief instructor until his death in 1987. Under Nakayama's leadership, a generation of respected instructors spread karate worldwide, guided from the JKA's headquarters in Tokyo.
Nakayama's books, which include Dynamic Karate and the Best Karate series, are fundamental references on Shotokan karate as practiced under the JKA. Clive Nicol, in his classic book Moving Zen, describes the karate practice at the JKA's honbu dojo (headquarters training hall) in Tokyo during the early 1960s, from his unique perspective as a western karate student going from white to black belt in a few years.
The JKA experienced several divisions from the 1970s onwards. Notable splinter groups formed as follows:
- In 1977, JKA instructor Shiro Asano formed his own organization, and invited Hirokazu Kanazawa to be chief instructor. The group is now known as Shotokan Karate-Do International Federation (SKIF).
- Following Nakayama's death in 1987, the JKA experienced a turbulent period, both at the Tokyo headquarters and worldwide. Taiji Kase and Hiroshi Shirai, senior JKA instructors in Europe quit to form the World Karate-Do Shotokan Academy. Taketo Okuda, JKA chief instructor in Brazil, quit to focus on his own organization, Butoku-kan.
- In 1990, a legal dispute started between two groups about the control of JKA. One group was led by Tetsuhiko Asai, the other by Nobuyuki Nakahara. After several court rulings, the issue was ultimately settled by the Japanese Supreme Court on June 10, 1999, in favor of Nakahara's group, which included Masaaki Ueki and Masahiko Tanaka. The other group, led by Tetsuhiko Asai, JKA chief instructor after Nakayama, and including Keigo Abe and Mikio Yahara, left JKA to form other organizations: Japan Karate Shotorenmei, Japan Shotokan Karate Association, and Karatenomichi World Federation, respectively.
- In 2007, the International Shotokan Karate Federation (ISKF), with headquarters in the US, led by Teruyuki Okazaki, 10th dan and one of the most senior JKA instructors, became independent. However, by 2010 at least two senior Instructors returned to JKA.
- In 2009, Takahashi Shunsuke broke away from JKA Australia to form the TSKF Australia (Traditional Shotokan Karate-Do Federation).
- By 2011, it was acknowledged that Masao Kawasoe, 8th Dan, had returned to the JKA, but continues as ITKF Chief Instructor < (JKA Scotland Course, 2011) >
Due to these divisions, there is today the notion of a JKA karate style—that is, karate that follows the JKA tradition to a large extent, but is taught by instructors who are not officially affiliated with JKA (though some of them are former JKA instructors).
Kenshusei (instructor intern) training program
In 1956, the JKA started its kenshusei instructor intern training program at the JKA honbu dojo, in Yotsuya, Tokyo, which had been built in 1955. This program was instituted by Masatoshi Nakayama. The training program has promoted the consistency and quality control of JKA training practices over the years, graduating some of the world's most well known karateka (practitioners of karate), as listed below.
The following table lists JKA kenshusei training program graduates in order of year of graduation. The reported rank of graduates no longer with the JKA is that from their current organization. Such rank is not necessarily recognized by the JKA.
|Name||Year of Graduation||Rank||Position|
|Mikami Takayuki||1957||9th dan||USA JKA/AF Southern|
|Kanazawa Hirokazu||1957||10th dan||Founder SKIF|
|Yaguchi Yutaka||1958||9th dan||USA ISKF Mountain States|
|Ueki Masaaki||1961||9th dan(2011)||HQ Shihan Chief Instructor Worldwide|
|Keinosuke Enoeda||1961||9th dan||Deceased 29 March 2003|
|*Miyazaki Satoshi||1961||8th dan||Deceased 31 May 1993|
|Sakai Ryusuke||1962||8th dan|
|Ochi Hideo||1963||8th dan||DJKB ("JKA Germany")|
|Itaya Michihisa||1963||6th dan||South America JKA - "Deceased 1972"|
|Abe Keigo||1965||9th dan||Japan JSKA|
|Takashina Shigeru||1966||8th dan||USA JKA/WFA Deceased September 3, 2013|
|Kawazoe Masao||1967||8th Dan (Also Chief Instructor ITKF)|
|Okamoto Hideki||1967||8th dan||Egypt - "Deceased 2009".|
|Takahashi Shunsuke||1967||8th dan||Chief Instructor TSKF Australia|
|Okuda Taketo||1967||8th dan||Butoku-kan (Brazil)|
|Osaka Yoshiharu||1972||8th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Imura Takenori||1977||7th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Kurasako Kenro||1977||7th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Kawawada Minoru||1978||7th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Omura Fujikiyo||1978||7th dan||JKA Thailand|
|Ohta Yoshinobu||Attendee||7th Dan||Head JKA England|
|Ogura Yasunori||1982||7th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Imamura Tomio||1983||7th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Izumiya Seizo||1986||6th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Shiina Katsutoshi||1986||6th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Hanzaki Yasuo||1987||6th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Naka Tatsuya||1989||7th dan (2012)||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Taniyama Takuya||1990||6th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Takahashi Satoshi||1992||5th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Kobayashi Kunio||1993||5th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Ogata Koji||1994||5th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Walter Crockford||1996||5th dan||JKA Canada|
|Hirayama Yuko||1998||6th dan (as of 2012)||HQ Secretariat|
|Okuma Koichiro||1998||6th dan||HQ Full-Time Instructor|
|Iwasawa Mayumi||1998||3rd dan||HQ Secretariat|
|Aragaki Misako||2003||3rd dan||HQ Secretariat|
This list is incomplete. For instance, it does not include some members who were expelled or resigned from the JKA see below:
- Abe Keigo, 9th dan (former JKA HQ instructor) JSKA Chief Instructor
- Aramoto Nobuyuki, 8th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Asai Tetsuhiko, 10th dan (former HQ JKA instructor) JKS/IJKA Chief instructor (passed)
- Bambouyani Mahmoud, 8th dan (former JKA instructor) ITKA Chief instructor
- Inaba Tsuneyuki, 7th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Isaka Akito, 7th dan (former JKA instructor) KWF
- Ishimine Minoru, 7th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Kagawa Masao, 8th dan (former JKA instructor) JKS Chief Instructor
- Kagawa Masayoshi, 7th dan (former JKA member, not JKA instructor graduate)
- Kanayama Kyosho, 7th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Mizuno Yoshihisa, 8th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Yokota Kousaku, 8th dan (former JKA member, not JKA instructor graduate) ASAI Chief Instructor
- Naito Takashi, 7th dan (Has left E.T.K.F & returned to JKA)
- Shin Naomitsu, 7th dan (former JKA member, not JKA instructor graduate)
- Sumi Yoshikazu, 8th dan (former JKA member, not JKA instructor graduate) ISKDA Chief Instructor
- Tamang Pemba, 8th dan (former JKA HQ instructor) NSKF Chief Instructor
- Tanaka Chougo, 7th dan (former JKA member, not JKA instructor graduate)
- Yahara Mikio, 8th dan (former JKA HQ instructor) KWF Chief Instructor
- Yamaguchi Takashi, 8th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Kanazawa Hirokazu, 10th dan (former JKA HQ instructor) Chief instructor SKIF
- Kase Yasuharu, 10th dan (former JKA HQ instructor) Chief Instructor SRKH (passed)
- Kasuya Hitoshi, 8th dan (former JKA instructor) Chief Instructor WSKF
- Katsumata (Suzuki) Yutaka, 7th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Shirai Hiroshi, 10th dan (former JKA instructor) WSKA
- Tatetsu Meicho, 7th dan (former JKA instructor)
- Asano Shiro, 9th dan (former JKA member, not JKA instructor graduate) SKIF
The list at the JKA's website, which includes most members who left or were expelled, may also be incomplete. The JKA has not included some former members who have completed the course and are not currently affiliated with JKA. In addition, during the troubled period between 1990 and 1999 each JKA faction held its own instructors' course. Currently, the JKA does not recognize graduates from the instructors' courses led by the JKS (Japan Karate Shoto Renmei, which also held the name JKA between 1990 and 1999).
Karateka such as Ennio Vezzuli (Brazil), Nigel Jackson (South Africa), Peté Pacheco (Portugal), Malcolm Fisher (Canada), Leon Montoya (Colombia), Richard Amos (UK, US), Pascal Lesage (France) and others, are mentioned in karate forums as having completed the JKA instructors' course (or having had substantial participation in it) but do not appear on the list of graduates as published in 2008 on the JKA's website.
In addition, the list does not include graduate instructors from the instructor programmes of splinter groups such as JKS and KWF, examples being Norio Kawasaki (KWF - Japan) Masamichi Otsuka (KWF - Japan) Yutaka Koike (JKS - Japan) Yasuhisa Inada (JKS - Japan) Scott Langley (JKS - Ireland) Kyle Kamal Helou (JKS - Lebanon) Takeo Matsui (JKS- Japan) Takuya Makita (JKS - Japan)
Although Gichin Funakoshi wrote that there are no contests in Karate, Nakayama Masatoshi teachings led to more scientific and competitive approach to the training and in 1957 the first All Japan Karate Championship was held, and has been held annually since.
In addition, the JKA has organised a number of international tournaments amongst which the following have been considered to be the JKA's World Championships:
|1975||1st IAKF World Championships||Los Angeles, USA|
|1977||2nd IAKF World Championships||Tokyo, Japan|
|1980||3rd IAKF World Championships||Bremen, West Germany|
|1983||4th IAKF World Championships||Cairo, Egypt|
|1985||1st ShotoCup||Tokyo, Japan|
|1987||2nd ShotoCup||Brisbane, Australia|
|1990||3rd ShotoCup||Sunderland, England|
|1992||4th ShotoCup||Tokyo, Japan|
|1994||5th ShotoCup||Philadelphia, USA|
|1996||6th ShotoCup||Ohsaka, Japan|
|1998||7th ShotoCup||Paris, France|
|2000||8th ShotoCup||Tokyo, Japan|
|2004||9th ShotoCup||Tokyo, Japan|
|2006||10th Funakoshi Gichin Cup World Karate-do Championship||Sydney Olympic Park Sports Centre, Sydney, Australia|
|2009||11th Funakoshi Gichin Cup World Karate-do Championship CANCELLED||Nihon Budo-kan, Tokyo, Japan|
|2011||12th Funakoshi Gichin Cup World Karate-do Championship||Pattaya, Thailand|
|2014||13th Funakoshi Gichin Cup World Karate-do Championship||Nihon Budo-kan, Tokyo, Japan|
|1975||Masahiko Tanaka||Takashi Oishi||Billy Higgins|
|1977||Masahiko Tanaka||De Michelis||Willrodt|
|1980||Toshihiro Mori||Dusan Dacic||Hoffman|
|1985||Minoru Kawawada||Masaaki Yokomichi||Takayuki Tsuchii/Masao Kagawa|
|1987||Tomio Imamura||Frank Brennan||George Best/Marco Barone|
|1990||Masao Kagawa||Ronnie Christopher||Fillipo Allata / Jensen|
|1992||Tomio Imamura||Frank Brennan||Kunio Kobayashi / Tatsuya Naka|
|1994||Pavlo Protopapa||Jeannot Mulolo||Colin Smith / Katsutoshi Shiina|
|1996||Don Sharp||Toshihito Kokubun||Kunio Kobayashi / Takuya Taniyama|
|1998||Toshihito Kokubun||Koji Ogata||Pierre Toudjip / Jeannot Mulolo|
|2000||Toshihito Kokubun||Johan LaGrange||Takuya Taniyama / Koji Ogata|
|2004||Koji Ogata||Miroslav Femic||Ohkuma Kouichiro / Johan LaGrange|
|2006||Koji Ogata||Machida Shinzo||Nemoto Keisuke / Ohkuma Kouichiro|
|2011||Rikiya Iimura||Koji Chubachi||Nemoto Keisuke / Andrey Mazurov|
|2014||Koji Chubachi||Rikiya Iimura||Nemoto Keisuke / Supa Ngamphuengphit|
|1977||Yoshiharu Osaka||Mikio Yahara||Fugazza|
|1980||Yoshiharu Osaka||Mikio Yahara||Karamitsos|
|1983||Yoshiharu Osaka||Mikio Yahara||Saedd El Herem|
|1985||Minoru Kawawada||Masao Kagawa||Akira Fukami|
|1987||Takenori Imura||Masao Kagawa||Okazaki Hiroyoshi|
|1990||Tomoyuki Aihara||Masao Kagawa||Frank Brennan|
|1992||Tomoyuki Aihara||Imura Takenori||Yuji Hashiguchi|
|1994||Imura Takenori||Okazaki Hiroyoshi||Tomoyuki Aihara|
|1996||Imura Takenori||Yuji Hashiguchi||Tomoyuki Aihara|
|1998||Yuji Hashiguchi||Seizo Izumiya||Takuya Taniyama|
|2000||Takuya Taniyama||Seizo Izumiya||Katsutoshi Shiina|
|2004||Katsutoshi Shiina||Takuya Taniyama||Kobayashi Kunio|
|2006||Kurihara Kazuaki||Kobayashi Kunio||Saitoh Yuki|
|2011||Kurihara Kazuaki||Naoto Maruoka||Hideki Hukuhara|
|2014||Kurihara Hidemoto||Daisuke Ueda||Kurihara Kazuaki|
|1992||Yukiko Yoneda||Yoshimi Naoko||Sakurako Sasaki / Keiko Kono|
|1994||Hiromi Hasama||Mayumi Baba||Kimiyo Nakamura / Daud Nilawati|
|1996||Hiromi Hasama||Mayumi Baba||Shoko Sakuragi / Yuko Okuda|
|1998||Mayumi Baba||Caroline Quansum||Colette Glynn / Hiromi Hasama|
|2000||Hiromi Hasama||Yuko Okuda||Christy Cauvin / Mayumi Baba|
|2004||Okuie Satomi||Takahashi Yuko||Tatjana Nikolic / Krisztina Zsigmond|
|2006||Yuko Takahashi||Okuda Yuko||Tracy Pearce / Storm Wheatley|
|2011||Asumi Isiduka||Glusa Akdag||Sergeeva Alla / Josmaira Quiroz|
|2014||Taguchi Satoshitama||Mai Shiina||Yuki Ito / Cifkova Petra|
|1977||Hiromi Kawashima||Keiki Hayakawa||R Senior|
|1980||Hiromi Kawashima||Hiroko Moriya||Schweiber|
|1983||Hiroko Moriya||Yuko Sakada||Yoko Nakamura|
|1985||Yoko Nakamura||Kikue Yamamoto||Yurika Yoshida|
|1987||Yuki Mimura||Yoko Nakamura||Hiroe Sekimori|
|1990||Yuki Mimura||Yoko Nakamura||Maiko Asano|
|1992||Yoko Nakamura||Miyo Gunji||Miwa Akiyama|
|1994||Yoko Nakamura||Ompi Omita||Haruna Ikutake|
|1996||Yoko Nakamura||Miyo Gunji||Nakata Terumi|
|1998||Miyoko Fujiwara||Miyo Gunji||Karin Prinsloo|
|2000||Nakata Terumi||Miyo Gunji||Chiharu Azuma|
|2004||Nakata Terumi||Misako Aragaki||Oshima Nozomi|
|2006||Misako Aragaki||Nozomi Oshima||Shirota Takaki|
|2011||Nozomi Oshima||Miki Nakamachi||Serino Fukasaku|
|2014||Miki Nakamachi||Takagi Ayano||Hikawa Nao|
- "World Karate Federation" (JPG). Franceshowakan.com. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "Black Belt December 1986". Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Cook, Harry (2001). Shotokan Karate: A Precise History. England: Cook.
- Evans, Jon. The Battle for Olympic Karate Recognition Black Belt, Feb 1988 (retrieved January 10, 2008)
- Evans, J. K. (1988): "The battle for Olympic Karate recognition: WUKO vs. IAKF." Black Belt, 26(2):54–58.
- Noble, Graham. Master Funakoshi's Karate Dragon Times (retrieved on January 8th, 2008).
- Hironishi, Genshin. The Darkest Moments of Karate-do Karate-do Shotokai Encyclopedia (retrieved January 10, 2008)
- Nakayama, Masatoshi (1997). Dynamic Karate. Japan: Kodansha International.
- Nakayama, Masatoshi (1997). Best Karate Vol 1 to Vol 11. Japan: Kodansha International.
- Nicol, Clive; Kanazawa, Hirokazu (2001). Moving Zen: One Man's Journey to the Heart of Karate (Bushido - The Way of the Warrior). Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4-7700-2755-9.
-  Archived December 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "菼AiJKSj". Jks.jp. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "JSKA - Japan Shotokan Karate Association". Jskjp.org. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "- KWF - Karatenomichi World Federation". Kwf.jp. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "CURSO DE INSTRUTORES DA JKA". Karateca.net. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
-  Archived December 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "JKA official website - Past International Tournaments" (PDF). Jka.or.jp. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
-  Archived March 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
-  Archived September 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
-  Archived January 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "船越義珍杯 第13回 世界空手道選手権大会 結果". JKA 公益社団法人日本空手協会. Retrieved 21 December 2014.