Japan Tobacco

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Japan Tobacco Inc.
日本たばこ産業株式会社
Public (K.K)
Traded asTYO: 2914
TOPIX Core 30 Component
IndustryTobacco
Founded1 June 1949 (as Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation)
1 April 1985 (Private Company)
Minato, Tokyo, Japan
Headquarters
Key people
Mitsuomi Koizumi
(President and CEO)
Hiroshi Kimura
(Chairman)
ProductsSee below
RevenueIncrease ¥2.033 trillion (2012)
Increase ¥459.18 billion (2012)
Increase ¥328.55 billion (2012)
Total assetsDecrease ¥3.667 trillion (2012)
Total equityDecrease ¥1.714 trillion (2012)
Number of employees
48,529 (2011)
ParentGovernment of Japan (33.35%)
SubsidiariesMighty Corporation
Websitewww.JT.com

Japan Tobacco Inc. (日本たばこ産業株式会社, Nihon Tabako Sangyō Kabushiki-gaisha), abbreviated JT, is a cigarette manufacturing company. It is part of the Nikkei 225 index. In 2009 the company was listed at number 312 on the Fortune 500 list. The company is headquartered in Toranomon, Minato, Tokyo[1] and Japan Tobacco International's headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.[2] As of 2012 the chairman is Hiroshi Kimura and the CEO is Mitsuomi Koizumi.[3] It was founded as a public company on 1 April 1985.

History[edit]

Japan Tobacco is the successor entity to a nationalized tobacco monopoly first established by the Government of Japan in 1898 to secure tax revenue collections from tobacco leaf sales. In 1904, the government's leaf monopoly was extended to a complete takeover of all tobacco business operations in the nation, including all manufactured tobacco products such as cigarettes. The ostensible reason for the expansion of control was to help fund the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War, but because all foreign tobacco interests in Japan at the time were forcibly evicted under the monopolization scheme, this also protected the domestic tobacco business for over eighty years.[4]

The business operated within the Japanese government as an arm of the nation's Japanese Ministry of Finance until 1949 when the Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation (日本専売公社, Nippon Senbai Kōsha) was established to enforce restrictive labor relations policies under the U.S. and allied forces' Occupation of Japan.[5] The Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation remained a complete state monopoly under direct Japanese Ministry of Finance authority until 1985, when Japan Tobacco, Inc. was formed as a publicly traded stock company. With periodic incremental sales of the public's ownership beginning in October 1994, Japan Tobacco became two-thirds owned by the Japanese Ministry of Finance in June 2003,[6] and the ministry continued to own 50% until March 2013. It was announced in May 2012 that the government would sell one-sixth of the company's outstanding shares to raise ¥500 billion to finance reconstruction from the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.[7] In 2013 the Japanese government disclosed the details of its plans to reduce its equity interest in Japan Tobacco by $10 billion, devoting the proceeds to reconstruction in northeastern Japan.[8] The ministry of finance sold the stock in March 2013,[9] selling about 333 million of the 1 billion shares it owned at that time. The government remains required by law to own at least one-third of JT's stock.[10]

JT International (JTI), acquired in 1999 from R.J. Reynolds, is an operating division of Japan Tobacco Inc., handling the international production, marketing and sales of the group's cigarette brands. It sells Camel, Salem, and Winston brands outside the USA.

Japan Tobacco also operates in foods, pharmaceuticals, agribusiness, engineering, and real estate. It left the beverage industry in September 2015.[11][12] As part of the company's pharma activities, it divested a compound collection of potassium channel inhibitors to Metrion Biosciences in 2018.[13]

Japan Tobacco completed the largest ever foreign takeover in Japanese history through acquisition of Gallaher Group plc in April 2007.[14] Japan Tobacco runs the Tobacco and Salt Museum in Shibuya, Tokyo.[15]

Japan Tobacco controls 66.4% of the cigarette market in Japan and will seek more takeovers from 2009 on to build on the 1.4 trillion JPY (USD 15 billion) purchase of Gallaher Group, with then-President Hiroshi Kimura commenting that further acquisitions would be appropriate after the full integration of Gallaher by 2009.[16][17] In 2006/2007 Japan Tobacco planned to start Serbia production, and also planned to invest another $100 million. JT paid "$35 million euros" [sic] for 98.5 percent of Senta Tobacco Industry in May 2006, with a further $10 million invested since then. The plant has a production capacity of some five billion cigarettes a year.[18]

In April 2012 it was announced that Mitsuomi Koizumi would become president, and president Hiroshi Kimura would become chairman of JT. and Chairman Yoji Wakui would retire. Wakui had previously been a bureaucrat at the ministry of finance. Koizumi assuming the presidency meant that for the first time since the 1985 privatization neither president nor chairman was from the ministry of finance.[19] Koizumi, who had been Executive Deputy President, became president in June 2012.[20]

As of 2013, although tobacco consumption was declining, the Japanese remained heavy smokers, consuming an average of 1,800 cigarettes a year, compared to about 1,000 per capita in the United States.[8]

On 30 October 2013 JT announced that it would close four Japanese factories and cut 1,600 jobs in Japan through voluntary retirements. This was planned to be completed by March 2016. JT also planned to consolidate 25 branch offices into 15 regional headquarters, and close leaf-processing and vending machine operations.[21]

On 12 June 2014 JT concluded an agreement to acquire all outstanding shares of British e-cigarettes producer Zandera Ltd, best known for its E-Lites brand.[22] On 30 April 2015 JT announced it had agreed to buy Florida-based e-cigarette maker Logic Technology Development LLC.[23]

In September 2015 it was announced that JT would buy the rights for Natural American Spirit outside the US for $5 billion.[24][25][26]

In August 2017, the company announced it would acquire the Indonesian Kretek producers Karyadibya Mahardhika and Surya Mustika Nusantara for $677 million[27] and the Philippine's Mighty Corporation for $936 million.[28][29]

Lawsuits[edit]

There have been a number of Japanese cases related to smoking, either directly or indirectly related to JT.

1980–1987 JNR Shinkansen lawsuit[edit]

A group of nonsmokers sued at the Tokyo District Court demanding that Japanese National Railways shinkansen (bullet trains) provide more non-smoking cars. The case was filed in 1980 and while the court recognized tobacco's health risks[30] the 27 March 1987 ruling rejected the lawsuit on the basis that the plaintiffs had failed to prove their harm to be "beyond the limits of toleration".[31]

1998–2005 Tokyo lawsuit[edit]

In 1998 seven plaintiffs represented by lawyer Yoshio Isayama sued JT at the Tokyo District Court for ¥70 million compensation (¥10 million per plaintiff) for health damage caused by smoking JT cigarettes. While similar cases had been filed in Nagoya, this was the first such case in Tokyo. In addition to financial compensation, the plaintiffs also demanded:

  • That tobacco sales through vending machines be banned;
  • That advertising on television and radio be stopped;
  • That promotions at public and sports events be halted;
  • That a more stringent warning label be printed on cigarette boxes.[32]

The plaintiffs' case was dismissed by the district court on 21 October 2003. The court agreed with the 1980s ruling that tobacco had health risks, but said that there was no causal link between the smoking habits and the specific diseases of plaintiffs. In addition, Judge Kikuo Asaka denied that nicotine was highly addictive. Isayama said that the group would appeal the decision to the Tokyo High Court.[33]

On 22 June 2005 the Tokyo High Court dismissed the case; by that time brought by only six plaintiffs. Three of the plaintiffs had died during the course of the case. Judge Toshinobu Akiyama said he agreed with the District Court decision. Jun Araki, the son of one of the deceased plaintiffs, said: "This ruling placed priority on the annual 2.3 trillion yen in [tobacco] tax revenue over the precious lives and health of the Japanese people". He also said the plaintiffs would appeal to the Supreme Court.[34]

2005–2010 Yokohama lawsuit[edit]

In January 2005 plaintiffs Kenichi Morishita, Koreyoshi Takahashi, and Masanobu Mizuno filed a case in the Yokohama District Court against JT seeking ¥30 million in damages for smoking related illness. Morishita died of pneumonia while the case was being fought, and JT used the same argument as in the 1998–2005 Tokyo case, that smokers were free to quit any time and that cancer and other illnesses had multiple causes.[35]

On 20 January 2010 the court clearly ruled that there was a link between smoking and lung cancer and respiratory illnesses, and said that smoking may be addictive. However, the court rejected the demand for damages, and said that the plaintiffs had smoked of their own free will and that there was no proof that smoking had directly caused their sicknesses.[36]

Brands[edit]

JT flagship brands[edit]

  • Cabin (link to Japanese Wikipedia)
  • Camel (outside the USA)
  • Caster
  • Hope
  • Mevius
  • Natural American Spirit (outside the USA) [37]
  • Peace
  • Pianissimo Peche
  • Sakura
  • Salem (outside the USA)
  • Seven Stars
  • Winston (outside the USA)
  • PT.Gudang Garam.Tbk
    • Gudang Garam Merah
    • Gudang Garam International
    • Gudang Garam Gold
    • Gudang Garam Signature
    • Gudang Garam Signature Ruby
    • Gudang Garam Signature Mild
    • Gudang Garam Signature Menthol Mild
    • Surya 12 Filter
    • Surya 16 Filter
    • Surya Premium
    • Surya Exclusive
    • Surya Professional Filter
    • Surya Professional Menthol
    • Surya PROfessional Mild
    • Surya PROfessional Mild Menthol
    • GG Mild
    • GG Mild Shiver
    • Apache Kretek
    • Apache Filter
    • Apache Exclusive
    • Apache Blackgold
    • Apache Exotic
    • Apache Exotic Menthol
    • Extreme Mild
    • Extreme Mild Menthol
    • Gudang Garam Djaja
    • Gudang Garam Special Deluxe
    • Gudang Garam Klobot Manis
    • Gudang Garam Klobot Tawar
    • Taman Sriwedari Biru
    • Taman Sriwedari Lurik
    • Halim Red
    • Halim Brown
  • Bentoel Group
    • Bentoel Biru
    • Bentoel Biru Slim
    • Bentoel Mild (defunct)
    • Bentoel Merah (defunct)
    • Bentoel Royal Filter
    • Bentoel Manis
    • Bentoel Enak
    • Bentoel Manalagi
    • Bentoel Filter
    • Bentoel Executive
    • Bentoel International
    • Inter Biru (defunct)
    • Star Mild
    • Star Mild Cool Menthol
    • Star Mild Tritek
    • Star Mild Mintek
    • X Mild
    • Sejati
    • Sejati Gold
    • Joged
    • Rawit
    • Club Mild
    • One Mild
    • Neo Mild
    • Uno Mild
    • Bintang Buana
    • Bintang Buana Filter
    • Bintang Buana Raya
    • Tali Jagat
    • Tali Jagat Filter
    • Tali Jagat Raya
  • Camel Mild(Kretek)
  • Camel Purple
  • Hamlet
  • Benson & Hedges (with Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, and Gallaher Group)

Other brands[edit]

Smoking etiquette posters[edit]

JTI runs a series of posters designed to educate smokers about smoking etiquette. They can be seen widely around Japan, especially located near train stations. Poster gallery

Environmental record[edit]

In 2008, Japan Tobacco had health issues involving their company: Contaminated gyoza dumplings made by a Chinese company's factory in China, which sold its products to JT, poisoned ten people, including a five-year-old girl.[38] Thousands of other Japanese people were going to the hospital because of stomach issues as well. A number of dumplings were found containing dichlorvos and methamidophos from pesticide.[39] The health minister of Japan said the contamination at the Chinese factory was possibly intentional, and the police are investigating for an attempted homicide.[39] The dumplings were from China, but Japan Tobacco has said it does not plan to cease its manufacturing in China. Frozen food sales went down by 60% for the business since this health scare.[40] Japan Tobacco's stock price fell 7.1% after they were forced to recall their products, and the company also lost a $500 million merger deal with Nissin Foods because of this incident.[41]

Anti-Illicit Trade Compliance[edit]

Japan Tobacco Inc, through its international operating divisions JT International S.A. and JT International Holding BV, signed a Cooperation Agreement with the European Commission in 2007 to combat the illicit trade in cigarettes under Article 9 of which the company agreed to "pro-actively disclose" to the European Commission’s Anti-Fraud Office (Office Europeen de Lutte Antifraude – OLAF) "…all material information coming into (its) possession after the Execution Date relating to potentially Illegal Product."[42] The Agreement defines "Illegal Product" as Contraband or Counterfeit Cigarettes. Both Japan Tobacco Inc and JT International S.A. claim to adhere to a "zero-tolerance approach" to illicit trade.[43][44]

JT International S.A. and several of its distributors, including Megapolis in Russia and IBCS Trading in Cyprus, however, have been implicated as recently as 2011 in widespread smuggling to include selling cigarettes to a buyer in Syria subject to EU, Swiss, and US Sanctions and diverting cigarettes from Russia into the European Union and smuggling Winston and other popular cigarette brands into Iran.[45][46][47][48][49] A JT International S.A. executive told the Wall Street Journal in August 2012 that the firm had continued to ship cigarettes to Syria until as recently as February 2012, almost a full year after the imposition of EU and US sanctions. The Journal cited Syrian dissident sources who claimed that the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad uses cigarettes as payment for the irregular military forces and militias, known as the shabeeha, who have had a central role in its violent crackdown.[50]

Company documents show that in 2010 the head of the JT International SA security office – who performed a similar function at the former Gallaher Group PLC – sought to destroy evidence linking up to 13 company officers to smugglers in the Balkans region; a parallel effort was then being run by company management to hack into the emails of company anti-smuggling investigators, competitors, and law enforcement.[51][52]

The firm also announced in 2011 that it had purchased the largest cigarette producer in Sudan and South Sudan as part of an effort to expand sales in the war-torn region, which has emerged as an entrepot for cigarette smuggling.[53][54]

Sponsorships[edit]

  • Galan Slim Loud & Vote Back To 80's
  • Galan Slim Rock Your City
  • Golf Nippon Series JT Cup (1998 – present)
  • Mild Seven Tennis WTA Championships
  • Mild Seven Outdoor Quest
  • Mild Seven Millennium Countdown (31 December 1999 – 1 January 2000)
  • Mild Seven(2012-2013 March) Benson & Hedges (2013 – present) a Pobol y Cwm Welsh Language Drama
  • Wismilak Diplomat Success Challenge IDR 500.000.000 (2010, 2011, and 2012-2017 not together again Wismilak in Japan Tobacco since 2011-2016).
  • Wismilak International Tennis WTA Championships
  • Wismilak Slim Bolaria
  • Gudang Garam Intersport Worldstage (2015-present)
  • Suryanation Motorland (2015-present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Corporate Data (as of June 22 2012)." Japan Tobacco. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  2. ^ Japan Tobacco International JTI Information for Journalists Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  3. ^ Japan Tobacco Members of the Board, Auditors, and Executive Officers 22 June 2012 Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  4. ^ Levin, Mark, Smoke Around the Rising Sun: An American Look at Tobacco Regulation in Japan. Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol. 8, p. 99, 1997. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1691348
  5. ^ Id.
  6. ^ Levin, Mark, Tobacco Industrial Policy and Tobacco Control Policy in Japan (日本におけるたばこ産業政策とたばこ規制政策). Tobacco Free Japan: Recommendations for Tobacco Control Policy, pp. 298-313, November 2004; Asian-Pacific Law & Policy, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2005. Page 301, Table A.1: Privatization of Japan's Tobacco Monopoly, 1985 to present. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1691804
  7. ^ The Japan Times Ministry to sell chunk of JT shares 20 May 2012 Retrieved on 22 August 2012
  8. ^ a b Hiroko Tabuchi (25 February 2013). "Japan Plans to Sell $10 Billion Stake in Cigarette Firm" (Dealbook blog). The New York Times. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  9. ^ JT website Notice concerning decision on offer price 11 March 2013
  10. ^ Financial Times Japan to raise up to $10bn from tobacco share sale 25 February 2013
  11. ^ Wall Street Journal website 4 February 2015 Last Call for Drinks at Japan Tobacco Retrieved 12 February 2015
  12. ^ Reuters website 4 February 2015 UPDATE 1-Japan Tobacco says to end beverage business due to lack of scale Retrieved 12 February 2015
  13. ^ "Deals this week: Onconova Therapeutics, Humorigin Biotechnology, Zosano Pharma". Drug Development Technology. Kable. 2 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  14. ^ "Gallaher agrees £7.5bn Japan Tobacco takeover – Scotsman.com News". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 15 December 2006.
  15. ^ Tobacco & Salt Museum Home Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  16. ^ "JT holds approximately two-thirds of the domestic cigarette market share, which is built on its best-selling brands: Mild Seven, Cabin, Caster, Seven Stars, Peace, Camel, and Salem." Japan Tobacco website, 2006
  17. ^ Hoover's business report, 2006, on Japan Tobacco Inc. "Japan Tobacco has plenty to puff about. The company controls more than 70% of the cigarette market in a country where about half of the male population smokes."
  18. ^ "Japan Tobacco starts Serbia production, eyes more". Reuters. 24 April 2007.
  19. ^ The Japan Times Japan Tobacco names Koizumi as next president 24 April 2012 Retrieved on 22 August 2012
  20. ^ Reuters Koizumi, Mitsuomi BRIEF BIOGRAPHY Retrieved on 22 August 2012
  21. ^ Reuters Japan Tobacco to shut plants, cut jobs as domestic demand falls 30 October 2013
  22. ^ Ng, Melody (2014-06-12). "Japan Tobacco acquires leading e-cigarette brand E-Lites". The Moodie Davitt Report. Retrieved 2018-01-09.
  23. ^ "Japan Tobacco to buy U.S. e-cigarette maker Logic Technology". Reuters. 2015-04-30. Retrieved 2018-01-09.
  24. ^ Bray, Chad Japan Tobacco Buys International Rights to Natural American Spirit 29 September 2015 NY Times Retrieved 1 October 2015
  25. ^ Japan Tobacco to acquire foreign sales rights to Natural American Spirit cigarettes 30 September 2015 Asahi Shimbun Retrieved 1 October 2015
  26. ^ Monami, Yui Japan Tobacco Lost $9 Billion After Betting on American Spirit 30 September 2015 Bloomberg Businessweek Retrieved 1 October 2015
  27. ^ "Japan Tobacco to Buy Indonesian 'Kretek' Cigarette Firms for $677m". Jakarta Globe. 2017-08-04. Retrieved 2018-01-09.
  28. ^ http://www.jti.com/media/news-releases/jt-signs-agreement-acquire-assets-tobacco-company-in-philippines/
  29. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Japan Tobacco to buy Philippine cigarette maker Mighty for $936..." Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  30. ^ Matsubara, Hiroshi Former smokers denied in health compensation claim 22 October 2003 Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  31. ^ Levin, Mark A [papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1691348 "Smoke Around the Rising Sun: An American Look at Tobacco Regulation in Japan" Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol. 8, p. 99, 1997] Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  32. ^ The Japan Times Japan Tobacco is taken to court 15 May 1998 Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  33. ^ Matsubara, Hiroshi Former smokers denied in health compensation claim "The Japan Times" 22 October 2003 Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  34. ^ Ito, Masami Death, disease not linked to smoking: high court 23 June 2005 The Japan Times Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  35. ^ Kageyama, Yuri Japan's smoking habit runs into court challenge The Japan Times 7 August 2009 Retrieved on 27 September 2012
  36. ^ The Japan Times Suit fails but tobacco risks noted 27 January 2010 Retrieved 27 September 2012
  37. ^ http://www.jt.com/media/press_releases/2015/pdf/20150929_E01.pdf
  38. ^ McCurry, Justin (2008-01-31). "Chinese dumplings poison dozens in Japan". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-09.
  39. ^ a b "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  40. ^ "Japan Tobacco to Stay in China Despite Dumpling Scare – Food Industry News". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  41. ^ "After Bad Dumplings, Nissin Loses Appetite For Japan Tobacco Deal". Archived from the original on 30 April 2008.
  42. ^ "EC-JTI Cooperation Agreement 2007" (PDF).
  43. ^ "JTI Zero Tolerance Policy".
  44. ^ "JT Anti-Contraband Policy".
  45. ^ Doward, Jamie; Fulford, Lucy (29 January 2012). "Tobacco giant JTI quizzed over shipment to Syrian tycoon 'bankrolling Assad's terror'". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  46. ^ "OCCRP Report on JTI Smuggling".
  47. ^ "Reuters Article on JTI Smuggling". 4 November 2011.
  48. ^ "IBCS Trading Bill of Lading Shipment to Syria" (PDF).
  49. ^ "JTI Internal BI Investigation Report on Smuggling" (PDF).
  50. ^ "WSJ Article EU Probes Cigarette Deal That May Have Aided Syria, 21 August 2012".
  51. ^ "JTI Documents on Destroying of Evidence of Smuggling" (PDF).
  52. ^ "JTI Email Alleging Hacking of Emails" (PDF).
  53. ^ "JTI Announces Purchase of Sudan's Hagger Cigarette".
  54. ^ "Research Report on Trade in East Africa "Blood" Cigarettes".

External links[edit]