Japanese House of Councillors election, 2016

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Japanese House of Councillors election, 2016

← 2013 10 July 2016 2019 →

121 (of the 242) seats in the House of Councillors
122 seats needed for a majority

  First party Second party Third party
  Shinzō Abe.jpg Katsuya Okada (2010).jpg Natsuo Yamaguchi.jpg
Leader Shinzō Abe Katsuya Okada Natsuo Yamaguchi
Party Liberal Democratic Democratic Komeito
Leader since 26 September 2012 14 December 2014 8 September 2009
Last election 115 seats, 34.7% New party 20 seats, 14.2%
Seats after 121 49 25
Seat change Increase6 Decrease11 Increase5
Popular vote 20,114,833 11,751,009 7,572,973
Percentage 35.9% 21.0% 13.5%
Swing Increase1.2% N/A Decrease0.7%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Kazuo Shii cropped.jpg Ichiro Matsui Ishin IMG 5775 20130713 cropped.jpg Nakayama K.jpg
Leader Kazuo Shii Ichirō Matsui Kyoko Nakayama
Party Communist Nippon Ishin no Kai Japanese Kokoro
Leader since 24 November 2000 2 November 2015 21 December 2015
Last election 11 seats, 9.7% New party New party
Seats after 14 12 3
Seat change Increase3 Increase5 Steady0
Popular vote 6,016,245 5,153,684 734,024
Percentage 10.7% 9.2% 1.3%
Swing Increase1.0% N/A N/A

  Seventh party Eighth party
  Tadatomo Yoshida cropped 2 Masaharu Nakagawa Mizuho Fukushima and Tadatomo Yoshida 201204.jpg Ichiro Ozawa cropped 3 Yoshitaka Kimoto and Ichiro Ozawa 20010718.jpg
Leader Tadatomo Yoshida Ichirō Ozawa
Party Social Democratic People's Life
Leader since 14 October 2013 25 January 2013
Last election 3 seats, 2.4% 2 seats, 1.8%
Seats after 2 2
Seat change Decrease1 Decrease1
Popular vote 1,536,238 1,067,300
Percentage 2.7% 1.9%
Swing Increase0.3% Increase0.1%

Japan 2016 HofR.png

President of the House of Councillors before election

Masaaki Yamazaki
Liberal Democratic

Elected President of the House of Councillors

Masaaki Yamazaki
Liberal Democratic

The 24th regular election of members of the House of Councillors (dai-nijūyon-kai Sangiin giin tsūjō senkyo, 第24回参議院議員通常選挙) was held on Sunday 10 July 2016 to elect 121 of the 242 members of the House of Councillors, the upper house of the 717-member bicameral National Diet of Japan, for a term of six years. As a result of the election, the LDP/Komeito coalition gained ten seats for a total of 146 (60.3% of all seats in the house), the largest coalition achieved since the size of the house was set at 242 seats.[1]

76 members were elected by single non-transferable vote (SNTV)/First-past-the-post (FPTP) voting in 45 multi- and single-member prefectural electoral districts; for the first time, there were two combined (gōku) single-member districts consisting of two prefectures each, Tottori-Shimane and Tokushima-Kōchi. This change and several other reapportionments were part of an electoral reform law passed by the Diet in July 2015 designed to reduce the maximum ratio of malapportionment in the House of Councillors below 3.[2][3] The nationwide district which elects 48 members by D'Hondt proportional representation with most open lists remained unchanged.

This election was the first national election since the 2015 change to the Public Offices Election Act allowed minors from 18 years of age to vote in national, prefectural and municipal elections and in referendums.[4]

Background[edit]

The term of members elected in the 2010 regular election (including those elected in subsequent by-elections or as runners-up) ends on July 25, 2016. Under the "Public Offices Election Act" (kōshoku-senkyo-hō), the regular election must be held within 30 days before that date, or under certain conditions if the Diet is in session or scheduled to open at that time, between 24 and 30 days after the closure of the session and thus potentially somewhat after the actual end of term.[5] The election date was July 10 with the deadline for nominations and the start of legal campaigning 18 days before the election (i.e. June 22).[6]

Prior to the election, the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner Komeito controlled a two-thirds super-majority of seats in the House of Representatives but did not control a similar super-majority of seats in the House of Councillors, necessary to initiate amendments of the Constitution of Japan.[7] In order to deny a super-majority to the LDP and other pro-amendment parties, the parties opposed to amending the constitution (Democratic Party, Japanese Communist Party, Social Democratic Party and People's Life Party) agreed to field a single candidate in each single-seat district, leading to a number of one-on-one races between the LDP and an opposition candidate (most of which the LDP ultimately won).[8] Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, historically a vocal proponent of constitutional revision, generally avoided discussing the constitution during the campaign, instead focusing on his "Abenomics" economic policies.[9]

On the eve of the election, Gerald Curtis described the race as "one of the dullest in recent memory," pointing out that "never in Japan's postwar history has the political opposition been as enfeebled as it is now... That's why widespread public disappointment with the government's economic policies hasn't hurt Mr. Abe politically. The prevailing sentiment is that he has done better than his predecessors, and replacing him with another LDP leader, let alone an opposition coalition government, would only make matters worse—especially now that the global economy is in turmoil."[10]

Pre-election composition[edit]

As of the official announcement (kōji, the candidate registration deadline and when the campaign starts) on 22 June (count by Yomiuri Shimbun):[11]

37 59 8 2 1 9 50 11 65
O not up Main opposition seats up RO RO up V K up LDP seats up K LDP seats not up

In the class of members facing re-election, the ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and Kōmeitō had a combined 60 of 121 seats, slightly short of a majority (as of June 2016).[12] The main opposition Democratic Party held 47 seats.[12] As the coalition held 77 seats not being contested at this election, they only needed to retain 44 seats in the election to maintain their majority in the House. The LDP, which held 117 seats alone, had to gain five seats to reach a majority of its own and make the coalition with Kōmeitō unnecessary. In the other direction, the governing coalition would have to lose 16 seats or more to forfeit its overall majority in the House of Councillors and face a technically divided Diet. However, as independents and minor opposition groups might be willing to support the government on a regular basis without inclusion in the cabinet, the losses required to face an actual divided Diet may have been much higher. If the Diet were divided after the election, the coalition's two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives could still override the House of Councillors and pass legislation, but certain Diet decisions, notably the approval of certain nominations by the cabinet such as public safety commission members or Bank of Japan governor, would require the cooperation of at least part of the opposition or an expansion of the ruling coalition.

Among the members facing re-election were House of Councillors President Masaaki Yamazaki (LDP, Fukui), Vice President Azuma Koshiishi (DPJ, Yamanashi), Justice Minister Mitsuhide Iwaki (LDP, Fukushima) and Okinawa and Science Minister Aiko Shimajiri (LDP, Okinawa).

Policy effects[edit]

The election gave a two-thirds super-majority in the upper house to the four parties in favor of constitutional revision. After the election, Abe publicly acknowledged that constitutional revision would be "not so easy" and said "I expect the discussion will be deepened." The Chinese government voiced concern about the result, while South Korean newspaper Munhwa Ilbo opined that the election results "opened the door for a Japan that can go to war."[9]

Abe announced a major economic stimulus package following the election, leading to a spike in the Japanese stock markets.[13]

District reapportionment[edit]

The following districts saw a change in their representation within the House at this election. One set of reforms were introduced in 2012 and first took effect at the 2013 election; the districts affected by the 2015 reforms are shaded.

District Magnitude Notes
Hokkaidō 3 Increased from 2
Miyagi 1 Decreased from 2
Fukushima 1 2 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Tokyo 6 Increased from 5
Kanagawa 4 3 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Niigata 1 Decreased from 2
Nagano 1 Decreased from 2
Gifu 1 2 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Aichi 4 Increased from 3
Osaka 4 3 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Hyogo 3 Increased from 2
Tottori-Shimane 1 Created from the merger of the single-member Tottori and Shimane districts
Tokushima-Kōchi 1 Created from the merger of the single-member Tokushima and Kochi districts
Fukuoka 3 Increased from 2

Opinion Polls[edit]

Date by Ruling
Coalition
Ruling
Coal.
total
Opposition Source
LDP KM DP JCP IFO SDP PLP PJK NRP Oth. Ind.
July 5–6 Asahi 56 14 70 30 7 8 1 0 0 0 0 5 [14]
July 3–5 Kyodo & Tokyo 58 14 72 27 10 6 1 0 0 0 0 5 [15]
July 3–5 Kyodo 60 14 74 27 9 6 1 0 0 0 0 4 [16]
[17]
July 3–5 Nikkei 49–65 10–15 59–80 19–38 7–15 4–8 0–1 0–1 0 0 2–7 [18]
July 3–5 Yomiuri - - - - - - - - - - - - [19]
July 1–3 Sankei & FNN 59 12 71 28 10 7 1 0 0 0 0 4 [20]
July 1–3 Dwango & Line 55 14 69 27 10 8 1 1 0 0 0 5 [21]
July 1–3 Jiji - - - - - - - - - - - - [22]
June 22 – July 3 Yahoo! 61 10 71 26 11 8 5 [23]
June 22–23 Asahi 57 14 71 30 8 7 1 0 0 0 0 4 [24][25]
June 22–23 Mainichi 58–65 12–14 70–79 22–31 7–12 5–8 0–1 0 0 0 0 2–3 [26][27]
June 22–23 Kyodo - - - - - - - - - - - - [28][29]
June 22–23 Nikkei - - - - - - - - - - - - [30]
June 22–23 Yomiuri - - - - - - - - - - - - [31]
June 4–21 Yahoo! 57 11 68 24 16 10 3 [23]
June 17–19 Dwango & Line 57 14 71 25 10 8 1 1 0 0 0 5 [21]
Approval (blue) and Disapproval (red) Ratings for Second and Third Abe Cabinet

Notable results[edit]

Results[edit]

37 44 8 7 14 56 11 65
O not up O won RO RO won K won LDP seats won[nb 1] K LDP seats not up[nb 2]

Important thresholds:

  • Majority (ensures certain passage of legislation, approval of nominations) at 122 seats – LDP at 121 in the election result (at 122 several days later)
  • Two-thirds supermajority (can initiate a referendum on changes to the constitution) at 162 – Election result: Ruling parties at 146, government+revisionist opposition parties at 161, government+government-aligned independents [count by Asahi][39]+revisionist opposition at 164
  • One third (can block changes to the constitution) at 81 – Core anti-revisionist opposition (DP, JCP, SDP, PLP, OSMP, opposition-aligned [count by Asahi][39] independents) at 73
  • Initiating budget-related Private member's bills (i.e. bills not sponsored by the cabinet): 20 seats – met in the opposition only by DP (also the only opposition party that meets the 50-seat threshold in the House of Representatives)
  • Initiating other PMBs, excluding budget-related measures: 10 seats, met in the opposition by DP, JCP and Ōsaka Ishin (DP and JCP also meet the 20-seat threshold in the House of Representatives)


e • d Summary of the 10 July 2016 Japanese House of Councillors election results[40][41][42]
Party Pre-election SNTV/FPTP majoritarian D'Hondt proportional Seats won New total Change from
Total Not up Up Votes[43] % Seats Votes[43] % Seats Before 2013 2010
Ruling parties 135 76 59 69 145 +10 +10 +42
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 115 65 50 22,590,793 39.94 % 36 20,114,788 35.91 % 19 55 120 +5 +5 +36
Komeito K 20 11 9 4,263,422 7.54 % 7 7,572,960 13.52 % 7 14 25 +5 +5 +6
Revisionist opposition parties 10 8 2 7 15 +5 (new +15)
+6 from JRP
(new +15)
Initiatives from Osaka 7 5 2 3,303,419 5.84 % 3 5,153,584 9.20 % 4 7 12 +5 (new +12) (new +12)
Party for Japanese Kokoro 3 3 0 535,517 0.95 % 0 734,024 1.31 % 0 0 3 0 (new +3) (new +3)
0 from SPJ
Anti-revisionist opposition parties
(joint nominations in single-member districts)
79 27 52 40 67 -12 n/a n/a
Democratic Party DP 62 17 45 14,215,956 25.14 % 21 11,751,015 20.98 % 11 32 49 -13 (new +49)
-10 from DPJ
(new +49)
-57 from DPJ
Japanese Communist Party JCP 11 8 3 4,103,514 7.26 % 1 6,016,195 10.74 % 5 6 14 +3 +3 +8
People's Life Party PLP 3 1 2 not contested independently 1,067,301 1.91 % 1 1 2 -1 -1 (new +2)
Social Democratic Party SDP 3 1 2 289,899 0.51 % 0 1,536,239 2.74 % 1 1 2 -1 -1 -2
New Renaissance Party NRP 2 0 2 60,431 0.11 % 0 580,653 1.04 % 0 0 0 -2 -1 -1
Happiness Realization Party HRP 0 0 0 963,585 1.70 % 0 366,815 0.65 % 0 0 0 0 0 -1
Seitō shiji nashi ("no party supported") 0 0 0 127,367 0.23 % 0 647,071 1.16 % 0 0 0 0 (new 0) (new 0)
Angry voice of the people 0 0 0 82,357 0.15 % 0 466,706 0.83 % 0 0 0 0 (new 0) (new 0)
Others 0 0 0 279,681 0.49 % 0 not contested 0 0 n/a n/a n/a
Assembly to Energize Japan AEJ 3 2 1 not contested 0 2 -1 (new +2)
-16 from YP
(new +2)
-9 from YP
Okinawa Socialist Mass Party OSMP 1 1 0 not contested 0 1 0 0 0
Independents
(incl. some joint opposition-endorsed "independents"
& 1 successful LDP-endorsed "independent")
11 7 4 5,739,452 10.15 % 5 n/a 5 12 +1 +9 +10
Total (valid votes) 241 121 120 56,555,393 100.00 % 73 56,007,353 100.00 % 48 121 242 +1 (vacant) 0 0
Turnout out of 106,202,873 eligible voters 58,094,005 54.70 % 58,085,678 54.69 %

Results by electoral district[edit]

Abbreviations and translations used in this table for (nominating – endorsing) parties:

District Magnitude Incumbents Winners & runner-up [+incumbents if lower] with vote share (/votes for PR members) Gains & losses by party
Hokkaidō[46] 3 (+1) Gaku Hasegawa (L)
Eri Tokunaga (D)
Gaku Hasegawa (L – K) 25.5%
Eri Tokunaga (D) 22.0%
Yoshio Hachiro (D) 19.3%
Katsuhiro Kakiki (L – K, NPD) 19.0%
D +1
Aomori[47] 1 Tsutomu Yamazaki (L) Masayo Tanabu (D – S) 49.2%
Tsutomu Yamazaki (L – K) 47.9%
L -1
D +1
Iwate[48] 1 Ryō Shuhama (D) Eiji Kidoguchi (I – D, C, S, PLP) 53.3%
Shin'ichi Tanaka (L – K) 41.0%
D -1
I (opposition) +1
Miyagi[49] 1 (-1) Yutaka Kumagai (L)
Mitsuru Sakurai (D)
Mitsuru Sakurai (D – C, S, PLP) 51.1%
Yutaka Kumagai (L – K) 47.0%
L -1
Akita[50] 1 Hiroo Ishii (L) Hiroo Ishii (L – K) 53.9%
Daigo Matsuura (D – C, S) 44.0%
Yamagata[51] 1 Kōichi Kishi (L) Yasue Funayama (I – D, S) 59.0%
Kaoru Tsukino (L – K) 38.3%
L -1
I (opposition) +1
Fukushima[52] 1 (-1) Teruhiko Mashiko (D)
Mitsuhide Iwaki (L)
Teruhiko Mashiko (D – S) 50.5%
Mitsuhide Iwaki (L – K) 47.2%
L -1
Ibaraki[53] 2 Hiroshi Okada (L)
Akira Gunji (D)
Hiroshi Okada (L – K) 50.3%
Akira Gunji (D) 25.3%
Kyōko Kobayashi (C) 9.4%
Tochigi[54] 1 Michiko Ueno (L) Michiko Ueno (L – K) 58.9%
Takao Tanobe (I – D, C, S, PLP) 38.3%
Gunma[55] 1 Hirofumi Nakasone (L) Hirofumi Nakasone (L – K) 66.0%
Keinin Horikoshi (D – C, S) 31.1%
Saitama[56] 3 Masakazu Sekiguchi (L)
Makoto Nishida (K)
Motohiro Ōno (D)
Masakazu Sekiguchi (L) 29.2%
Motohiro Ōno (D – PLP) 22.0%
Makoto Nishida (K – L) 20.9%
Gaku Itō (C – PLP) 15.8%
Chiba[57] 3 Hiroyuki Konishi (D)
Kuniko Inoguchi (L)
Ken'ichi Mizuno (D)
Kuniko Inoguchi (L – K) 29.2%
Taiichirō Motoe (L – K) 22.1%
Hiroyuki Konishi (D) 18.1%
Fumiko Asano (C) 13.5%
Ken'ichi Mizuno (D) 12.1%
D -1
L +1
Tokyo[58] 6 (+1) Renhō (D)
Toshiko Takeya (K)
Masaharu Nakagawa (L)
Toshio Ogawa (D)
Kōta Matsuda (AEJ)
Renhō (D) 18.0%
Masaharu Nakagawa (L) 14.2%
Toshiko Takeya (K) 12.4%
Taku Yamazoe (C) 10.7%
Kentarō Asahi (L) 10.4%
Toshio Ogawa (D) 8.2%
Yasuo Tanaka (Osaka Ishin) 7.5%
...
Kazuyuki Hamada[nb 3] (I) 0.5%
AEJ -1
L +1
C +1
Kanagawa[59] 4 (+1) Akio Koizumi (L)
Kenji Nakanishi (I)
Yōichi Kaneko (D)
Junko Mihara (L) 24.5%
Nobuhiro Miura (K – L) 15.3%
Yūichi Mayama (D – PLP) 14.2%
Kenji Nakanishi (I – L)[nb 4] 12.8%
Yuka Asaka (C – PLP) 11.9%
Yōichi Kaneko (D – PLP) 10.9%
K +1
I (government) joins L
Niigata[60] 1 (-1) Naoki Tanaka (D)
Yaichi Nakahara (L)
Yūko Mori (I – D, C, S, PLP) 49.0%
Yaichi Nakahara (L – K) 48.8%
L -1
D -1
I (opposition) +1
Toyama[61] 1 Kōtarō Nogami (L) Kōtarō Nogami (L – K) 69.2%
Etsuko Dōyō (I – D, C, S, PLP) 27.4%
Ishikawa[62] 1 Naoki Okada (L) Naoki Okada (L – K) 61.7%
Miki Shibata (I – D, C, S, PLP) 36.0%
Fukui[63] 1 Masaaki Yamazaki (L) Masaaki Yamazaki (L – K) 60.1%
Tatsuhiro Yokoyama (I – D, S) 36.3%
Yamanashi[64] 1 Azuma Koshiishi (D) Yuka Miyazawa (D – C, S) 43.0%
Tsuyoshi Takano (L – K) 37.8%
Nagano[65] 1 (-1) Kenta Wakabayashi (L)
Toshimi Kitazawa (D)
Hideya Sugio (D – C, S) 52.5%
Kenta Wakabayashi (L – K) 45.7%
L -1
Gifu[66] 1 (-1) Takeyuki Watanabe (L)
Yoshiharu Komiyama (D)
Takeyuki Watanabe (L – K) 55.8%
Yoshiharu Komiyama (D – C, S, PLP) 40.9%
D -1
Shizuoka[67] 2 Shigeki Iwai (L)
Yūji Fujimoto (D)
Shigeki Iwai (L – K) 44.3%
Sachiko Hirayama (D – S) 41.0%
Chika Suzuki (C) 10.2%
Aichi[68] 4 (+1) Mashito Fujikawa (L)
Yoshitaka Saitō (D)
Misako Yasui (D)
Masahito Fujikawa (L) 29.3%
Yoshitaka Saitō (D) 17.5%
Ryūji Satomi (K – L) 16.2%
Takae Itō (D) 15.8%
Hatsumi Suyama (C) 9.2%
K +1
Mie[69] 1 Hirokazu Shiba (D) Hirokazu Shiba (D) 49.7%
Sachiko Yamamoto (L – K) 47.5%
Shiga[70] 1 Kumiko Hayashi (D) Takashi Koyari (L – K) 52.2%
Kumiko Hayashi (D – C, S) 45.8%
D -1
L +1
Kyoto[71] 2 Tetsurō Fukuyama (D)
Satoshi Ninoyu (L)
Satoshi Ninoyu (L – K) 40.0%
Tetsurō Fukuyama (D – S) 36.9%
Toshitaka Ōkawara (C) 20.0%
Osaka[72] 4 (+1) Issei Kitagawa (L)
Tomoyuki Odachi (D)
Hirotaka Ishikawa (K)
Rui Matsukawa (L) 20.4%
Hitoshi Asada (Osaka Ishin) 19.5%
Hirotaka Ishikawa (K) 18.2%
Kaori Takagi (Osaka Ishin) 17.9%
Yui Watanabe (C – PLP) 12.2%
Tomoyuki Odachi (D – PLP) 9.3%
D -1
Osaka Ishin +2
Hyōgo[73] 3 (+1) Shinsuke Suematsu (L)
Shun'ichi Mizuoka (D)
Shinsuke Suematsu (L) 26.3%
Takae Itō (L – K) 22.2%
Daisuke Katayama (Osaka Ishin) 21.8%
Shun'ichi Mizuoka (D) 17.2%
D -1
L +1
Osaka Ishin +1
Nara[74] 1 Kiyoshige Maekawa (D) Kei Satō (L – K) 45.5%
Kiyoshige Makawa (D – C, S, PLP) 33.7%
D -1
L +1
Wakayama[75] 1 Yōsuke Tsuruho (L) Yōsuke Tsuruho (L – K) 69.2%
Takanobu Yura (I – C, S, PLP) 26.1%
Tottori-Shimane[76] 1 (-1 combined) From Tottori: Kazuyuki Hamada (I)
From Shimane: Kazuhiko Aoki (L)
Kazuhiko Aoki (L – K) 62.7%
Hirohiko Fukushima (I – D, C, S, PLP) 34.7%
I -1
Okayama[77] 1 Satsuki Eda (D) Kimi Onoda (L – K) 55.6%
Kentarō Kuroishi (D - C, S) 41.9%
D -1
L +1
Hiroshima[78] 2 Yōichi Miyazawa (L)
Minoru Yanagida (D)
Yōichi Miyazawa (L – K) 49.8%
Minoru Yanagida (D – S) 23.1%
Kana Haioka (Osaka Ishin) 13.8%
Yamaguchi[79] 1 Kiyoshi Ejima (L) Kiyoshi Ejima (L – K) 64.0%
Atsushi Kōketsu (I – D, C, S) 29.8%
Tokushima-Kōchi[80] 1 (-1 combined) From Tokushima: Yūsuke Nakanishi (L)
From Kōchi: Hajime Hirota (D)
Yūsuke Nakanishi (L) 54.1%
Sō Ōnishi (I – D, C, S) 42.9%
D -1
Kagawa[81] 1 Yoshihiko Isozaki (L) Yoshihiko Isozaki (L – K) 65.1%
Ken'ichi Tanabe (C – S, PLP) 26.1%
Ehime[82] 1 Junzō Yamamoto (L) Junzō Yamamoto (L – K) 49.6%
Takako Nagae (I – D, S) 48.3%
Fukuoka[83] 3 (+1) Satoshi Ōie (L)
Tsutomu Ōkubo (D)
Yukihito Koga (D) 30.7%
Satoshi Ōie (L) 29.3%
Hiromi Takase (K – L) 21.4%
Masako Shibata (C) 9.0%
K +1
Saga[84] 1 Takamaro Fukuoka (L) Takamaro Fukuoka (L – K) 65.6%
Tetsuji Nakamura (D – S) 31.3%
Nagasaki[85] 1 Genjirō Kaneko (L) Genjirō Kaneko (L – K) 52.9%
Hideko Nishioka (D – S, PLP) 44.9%
Kumamoto[86] 1 Yoshifumi Matsumura (L) Yoshifumi Matsumura (L – K) 59.1%
Hiromi Abe (I – D, C, S) 36.1%
Ōita[87] 1 Shin'ya Adachi (D) Shin'ya Adachi (D) 48.1
Harutomo Koshō (L – K) 47.9%
Miyazaki[88] 1 Shinpei Matsushita (L) Shinpei Matsushita (L – K) 62.0%
Yōji Yomiyama (I – D, S) 33.5%
Kagoshima[89] 1 Tetsurō Nomura (L) Tetsurō Nomura (L – K) 59.0%
Kazumi Shimomachi (I – D, C, S) 29.2%
Okinawa[90] 1 Aiko Shimajiri (L) Yōichi Iha (I) 57.8%
Aiko Shimajiri (L - K) 40.6%
L -1
I (opposition) +1
National 48 (pre-election by parliamentary group, not by party)[nb 5]
D 18
L 12
K 6
C 3
Osaka Ishin 2
S 2
AEJ 1
PLP 1
NRP 1
I 2)
L 35.9% of proportional votes→19 seats:[91]
Masayuki Tokushige 521,060
Shigeharu Aoyama 481,890
Satsuki Katayama 393,382
Satoshi Nakanishi 392,433
Eriko Imai 319,359
Toshiyuki Adachi 293,735
Eriko Yamatani 249,844
Shin'ya Fujiki 236,119
Hanako Jimi 210,562
Kanehiko Shindō 182,467
Emiko Takagai 177,810
Hiroshi Yamada 149,833
Toshiyuki Fujii 142,132
Masashi Adachi 139,110
Takashi Uto 137,993
Katsumi Ogawa 130,101
Yoshifumi Miyajima 122,833
Toshiei Mizuochi 114,485
Shūkō Sonoda 101,154
Isao Takeuchi 87,578
...
Tsuneo Horiuchi 84,597
(change from last election 2010)
L +7
D (from DPJ) -5
K +1
C +2
Osaka Ishin (new +4)
S -1
PLP (new +1)
NRP -1
Kokoro (from Sunrise) -1
YP (defunct, now D/OIshin/Kokoro/L/I) -7
D 21.0% of proportional votes→11 seats:[92]
Masao Kobayashi 270,285
Makoto Hamaguchi 266,623
Wakako Yata 215,823
Yoshifu Arita 205,884
Nakanori Kawai 196,023
Shōji Nanba 191,823
Takashi Esaki 184,187
Masayoshi Nataniya 176,683
Michihiro Ishibashi 171,486
Kenzō Fujisue 143,188
Shinkun Haku 138,813
Kaoru Tashiro 113,571
...
Naoki Tanaka 86,596
Takumi Shibata 73,166
...
Takeshi Maeda 59,853
Jirō Ono 46,213
Masami Nishimura 38,899
K 13.5% of proportional votes→7 seats:[93]
Hiroaki Nagasawa 942,266
Kōzō Akino 612,068
Shin'ichi Yokoyama 606,889
Seishi Kumano 605,223
Masaaki Taniai 478,174
Masayoshi Hamada 388,477
Masaru Miyazaki 18,571
Shinji Takeuchi 7,489
C 10.7% of proportional votes→5 seats:[94]
Tadayoshi Ichida 77,348
Tomoko Tamura 49,113
Mikishi Daimon 33,078
Tomo Iwabuchi 31,099
Ryōsuke Takeda 23,938
Tomoko Okuda 23,680
Osaka Ishin 9.2% of proportional votes→4 seats:[95]
Toranosuke Katayama 194,902
Yoshimi Watanabe 143,343
Mitsuko Ishii 68,147
Akira Ishii 50,073
Tsuyoshi Gibu 43,679
S 2.7% of proportional votes→1 seat:[96]
Mizuho Fukushima 254,956
Tadatomo Yoshida 153,197
PLP 1.9% of proportional votes→1 seat:[97]
Ai Aoki 109,050
Yumiko Himei 16,116
Incumbents on other party lists without seat:
Kokoro (1,3%): none[98]
Support no party (1.2%): none[99]
NRP (1.0%): Tarō Yamada, Hiroyuki Arai[100]
Angry voice of the people (0.8%): none[101]
HRP (0.7%): none[102]
  1. ^ Incl. Kenji Nakanishi (I – Kanagawa) who was retroactively nominated on election night
  2. ^ Excluding Tatsuo Hirano (I – Iwate) who joined the LDP a few days after the election bringing the LDP to 122 [and thus the first numerical Senate majority since 1989]
  3. ^ incumbent from Tottori
  4. ^ retroactively nominated by the LDP on election night
  5. ^ seats up 2016 from House of Councillors website as of June 2016

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ruling camp holds over 60% of seats". The Japan News. Yomiuri Shimbun. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  2. ^ The Japan Times, July 28, 2015: Upper House districts set for shake-up after electoral reform laws pass Diet
  3. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, August 5, 2015: Changes to House of Councillors electoral districts, Summary (Japanese)
  4. ^ Asahi Shimbun, June 17, 2015: http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASH6J41T7H6JUTFK001.html 18歳選挙権、成立 来夏の参院選から適用へ
  5. ^ e-gov legal database: 公職選挙法, chapter 5 (election dates), article 32 (regular elections)
  6. ^ Jiji Press, May 1, 2016: 参院選7月10日投開票=同日選は見送り-首相方針[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Will Japanese Change Their Constitution?, CFR.org, July 7, 2016.
  8. ^ "Abe camp gains supermajority needed to alter constitution". Nikkei Asian Review. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Rich, Motoko (11 July 2016). "Japan Election, a Landslide for Abe, Could Allow a Bolder Military". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  10. ^ Curtis, Gerald (26 June 2016). "Japan's Election Offers Little Choice". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  11. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun: [www.yomiuri.co.jp/election/sangiin/2016/ 2016 election results]
  12. ^ a b House of Councillors: Members by caucus, class, parallel election segment and gender (Japanese) The governing coalition's number included President of the House Masaaki Yamazaki, who sat as an independent. The Democratic Party's number included Vice President Azuma Koshiishi and "Shin-Ryokufukai" members.
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  16. ^ "改憲勢力2/3の勢い 野党共闘伸びず". Mainichi Shimbun. 2016-07-06. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  17. ^ "改憲4党、3分の2強まる 参院選終盤情勢". Chunichi Shimbun. 2016-07-06. Archived from the original on 2016-07-06. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  18. ^ "参院選、改憲勢力3分の2迫る 自民単独過半数も視野 終盤情勢". The Nikkei. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  19. ^ "与党、改選過半数へ堅調…民進は苦戦続く". Yomiuri Shimbun. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  20. ^ "改憲勢力が「3分の2」確保の勢い 自民党は参院過半数を制する見通し". Sankei Shimbun. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  21. ^ a b "参院選獲得議席予測:自民党単独過半数・改憲勢力3分の2うかがう。ニコニコ独自分析". livedoor news. 2016-07-07. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  22. ^ "自民、単独過半数うかがう=改憲勢力3分の2微妙-参院選終盤情勢【16参院選】". Jiji Press. 2016-07-03. Archived from the original on 2016-07-04. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  23. ^ a b "ビッグデータが導き出した第24回参議院選挙の議席数予測". ヤフー株式会社. 2016-07-18. Retrieved 2016-07-08. 
  24. ^ "改憲4党、3分の2うかがう 朝日新聞・参院選情勢調査". Asahi Shimbun. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  25. ^ "4 parties backing constitutional revision nearing needed majority". Asahi Shimbun. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-07-17. 
  26. ^ "序盤情勢・毎日新聞総合調査 改憲勢力、2/3うかがう 自民、単独過半数の勢い 態度未定4割". Mainichi Shimbun. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  27. ^ "Pro-constitutional revision parties close to securing 2/3 upper house majority: poll". Mainichi Shimbun. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-07-17. 
  28. ^ "参院選序盤情勢 改憲勢力2/3うかがう 半数超が投票先未定". Tokyo Shimbun. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  29. ^ "Upper house race may put Constitution reform in reach: Kyodo poll". Kyodo. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-07-17. 
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  31. ^ "与党、改選過半数の勢い…民進は伸び悩み". Yomiuri Shimbun. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  32. ^ "Female candidates break Upper House election record with 28 seats". The Japan Times. Kyodo. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  33. ^ "Actress Mihara wins seat for LDP in Kanagawa Prefecture". The Japan Times. Kyodo. 10 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  34. ^ "Once ousted from Diet, Watanabe makes comeback with Upper House win". The Japan Times. Kyodo. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  35. ^ a b "Cabinet duo loses; LDP out of Okinawa". The Japan News. Yomiuri Shimbun. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  36. ^ Johnston, Eric (10 July 2016). "Okinawan minister Shimajiri ousted from Upper House by former Ginowan mayor". The Japan Times. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  37. ^ "朝日健太郎氏、当選 自民・東京 元ビーチバレー代表". Asahi Shimbun. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
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  39. ^ a b Asahi Shimbun Digital: 2016 election result
  40. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications: Results of the 24th regular election of members of the House of Councillors (in Japanese)
  41. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun: 2016 election results
  42. ^ Asahi Shimbun: 2016 election results
  43. ^ a b Decimals from proportionate fractional votes (按分票 anbunhyō) rounded to full numbers
  44. ^ The party website apparently has no pages for foreigners
  45. ^ as per English page on the party website
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  49. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Miyagi
  50. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Akita
  51. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Yamagata
  52. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Fukushima
  53. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Ibaraki
  54. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Tochigi
  55. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Gunma
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  57. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Chiba
  58. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Tokyo
  59. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Kanagawa
  60. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Niigata
  61. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Toyama
  62. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Ishikawa
  63. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Fukui
  64. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Yamanashi
  65. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Nagano
  66. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Gifu
  67. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Shizuoka
  68. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Aichi
  69. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Mie
  70. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Shiga
  71. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Kyōto
  72. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Ōsaka
  73. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Hyōgo
  74. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Nara
  75. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Wakayama
  76. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Tottori-Shimane
  77. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Okayama
  78. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Hiroshima
  79. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Yamaguchi
  80. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Tokushima-Kōchi
  81. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Kagawa
  82. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Ehime
  83. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Fukuoka
  84. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Saga
  85. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Nagasaki
  86. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Kumamoto
  87. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Ōita
  88. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Miyazaki
  89. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Kagoshima
  90. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: Okinawa
  91. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, LDP
  92. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, DP
  93. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Kōmeitō
  94. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, JCP
  95. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Ōsaka ishin no kai
  96. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, SDP
  97. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Seikatsu no tō
  98. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Nippon no kokoro o taisetsu ni suru tō
  99. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Shiji seitō nashi
  100. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Shintō kaikaku
  101. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Kokumin ikari no koe
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External links[edit]