Japanese Red Army

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Japanese Red Army
日本赤軍
Leader
Dates of operation1971–2001
MotivesProletarian revolution in Japan, World revolution
Active regionsJapan, Middle East, Europe, South Asia, Southeast Asia
Ideology
Political positionFar-left
Notable attacksLod Airport massacre
Japan Airlines Flight 404
Japan Airlines Flight 472
Malaysian Airline System Flight 653 (suspected)
StatusDefunct; succeeded by the Rentai movement
Preceded by
Sekigunha

The Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍, Nihon Sekigun, abbr. JRA) was a militant communist organization active from 1971 to 2001. It was designated a terrorist organization by Japan and the United States. The JRA was founded by Fusako Shigenobu and Tsuyoshi Okudaira in February 1971, and was most active in the 1970s and 1980s, operating mostly out of Lebanon with PFLP collaboration and funding from Muammar Gaddafi's Libya, as well as Syria and North Korea.[1][2]

After the Lod Airport massacre, it sometimes called itself the Arab-JRA.[3] The group was also variously known as the Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB), the Holy War Brigade, and the Anti-War Democratic Front.[4] The JRA's stated goals were to overthrow the Japanese government and the monarchy, as well as to start a world revolution.[5]

History[edit]

Fusako Shigenobu had been a leading member in the Red Army Faction (赤軍派, Sekigun-ha) in Japan, whose roots lay in the Communist League, part of the militant New Left in Japan. Advocating revolution through terrorism,[6] they set up their own group, declaring war on the state in September 1969. The police quickly arrested many of them, including founder and intellectual leader Takaya Shiomi, who was in jail by 1970. The Red Army Faction lost about 200 members, and the remnants merged with the Maoist group Revolutionary Left Faction (Kakumei sa-ha) to form the United Red Army (連合赤軍, Rengō Sekigun) in July 1971. The United Red Army became notable during the Asama-Sanso incident, when it murdered fourteen of its members on Mount Haruna, before a week-long siege involving hundreds of police leaving a bystander and a police officer dead.[7]

Fusako Shigenobu had left Japan with only a handful of dedicated people, but her group is said to have had about 40 members at its height and was, after the Lod Airport massacre, one of the best-known armed leftist groups in the world.[8]

The JRA had close ties with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and Wadie Haddad.[9] It was dependent on the PFLP for financing, training, and weaponry.[citation needed]

In April 2001, Shigenobu issued a statement from detention declaring the JRA had disbanded, and that their battles should henceforth be done by legal means.[10]

The National Police Agency publicly stated that a successor group was founded in 2001, called Rentai Movement (ムーブメント連帯, Mūbumento Rentai).[11]

On February 15, 2022, the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department renewed calls for arresting other ex-JRA terrorists who have not been arrested, including Kunio Bando and Kozo Okamoto.[12]

Activities[edit]

During the 1970s and 1980s, JRA carried out a series of attacks in Japan and around the world, including:

Known members[edit]

  • Fusako Shigenobu, co-founder and leader, arrested in Osaka, Japan, November 2000 and stood accused of orchestrating attacks, kidnappings and hijackings. A court in Tokyo sentenced her in February 2006 to serve 20 years in prison for attempted murder, kidnapping and confinement for her part in helping to plan the 1974 French Embassy attack in The Hague.[25] Shigenobu was released on May 28, 2022.
  • Tsuyoshi Okudaira, co-founder and leader, killed while carrying out the Lod Airport massacre.
  • Osamu Maruoka, former leader and hijacker of two aircraft, was arrested in November 1987 in Tokyo after entering Japan on a forged passport. Given a life sentence, he died in prison on May 29, 2011.[26]
  • Haruo Wakō, former leader, arrested in Lebanon in February 1997 before being deported to Japan to be sentenced further.[27]
  • Masao Adachi, Kazuo Tohira, and Mariko Yamamoto were also imprisoned in Lebanon on charges of forgery yet were subsequently sent to Jordan before being handed over to Japan.[28]
  • Kuniya Akagi, a collaborator of the JRA, was arrested after returning to Osaka from Pyongyang via Beijing in order to be questioned over the kidnapping of three Japanese nationals in Europe by North Korean spies in the 1980s. He is linked to Shirō Akagi, who took part in the Yodo-go hijacking (See also: Japan Airlines Flight 351).[29]
  • Kunio Bando, one of the hijackers of Japan Airlines Flight 472, is still on Interpol's wanted list. He may have taken refuge in the Philippines in 2000.[30]
  • Ayako Daidōji, a former member of East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front who joined the JRA in 1979, is on the wanted list and still at large.
  • Yukiko Ekida, a former member of East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front who joined the JRA in 1979, was arrested in March 1995 in Romania and subsequently deported to Japan. She received a sentence of 20 years for attempted murder and violating the explosives law in a series of bombings targeting large companies in 1974 and 1975. The trial of Ekida was originally started in 1975 but was suspended when she was released from prison in 1977. Her release was part of a deal with the Japanese Red Army during the hijacking of a Japanese airliner to Bangladesh.[31]
  • Yatsuka Furuya (birth name: Yoshiaki Yamada) joined the JRA in 1973 and took part in the Laju ferry hijacking in Singapore in 1974. His arrest in Paris later that year precipitated the French Embassy attack to free Furuya, as the JRA was concerned he might reveal their organizational structure and plans to French police. Arrested again in 1986, he was imprisoned for a year, but was released after his sentence expired and is now free, albeit under constant police surveillance.
  • Yū Kikumura was arrested with explosives on the New Jersey Turnpike in 1988 and served over 18 years of a 30‑year prison sentence in the United States.[32] In April 2007, Kikumura was released from US incarceration and immediately arrested upon his return to Japan. He was released in October 2007.[33]
  • Hisashi Matsuda, one of the hostage takers at the AIA building siege in Kuala Lumpur, is on the wanted list and still at large.
  • Akira Nihei, one of the hijackers of Japan Airlines Flight 472, is wanted and still at large.
  • Jun Nishikawa - One of the attackers of the French Embassy at The Hague in 1974, was arrested in Stockholm before being released later that year as part of a deal with the Japanese government to free the hostages that JRA had taken in the AIA building siege in Kuala Lumpur. After 20 years in hiding, he was arrested in Bolivia and deported to Japan, where he was tried and sentenced to life in prison.
  • Kōzō Okamoto is the only survivor of the group of three JRA terrorists (alongside Tsuyoshi Okudaira and Yasuyuki Yasuda) attacking Lod airport in 1972, now called Ben Gurion International Airport.[9][34] He was jailed in Israel, but in May 1985, Okamoto was set free in an exchange of prisoners between Israeli and Palestinian forces.[9] Subsequently, he was imprisoned in Lebanon for three years for forging visas and passports. The Lebanese authorities granted Okamoto political asylum in 1999 for having participated in attacks against Israel and being allegedly tortured while serving his prison sentence in Israel.[21]
  • Junzō Okudaira was one of the three Japanese Red Army (JRA) members who attacked the French embassy in The Hague in 1974 and was the person who detonated a car bomb in front of a USO club in Naples in 1988. As of 2022, he remains at large.
  • Norio Sasaki, one of the hijackers of Japan Airlines Flight 472, is wanted and still at large.
  • Hiroshi Sensui, a JRA militant living in the Philippines, was arrested by the Integrated National Police as part of anti-terrorist measures to prevent terrorist incidents from taking place in the Seoul Olympic games after being tipped off by the Japanese National Police Agency.[35][36]
  • Tsutomu Shirosaki, an alleged conspirator who fired two mortar shells towards the Embassy of Japan, United States and Canada from a room in President Hotel (now Pullman Hotel) in the Jakarta, Indonesia on May 14, 1986. Nobody was injured in the incident as the bombs did not explode.[37][38] United States court sentenced Shirosaki to 30 years in prison in 1998 for attempted murder and other crimes in connection with the mortar attack. His prison sentence was shortened for good behaviour and he was released in January 2015. When Shirosaki returned to Japan the following month, Tokyo police arrested him for alleged arson and attempted murder in connection with the 1986 mortar attack. In November 2016, he was sentenced to 12 years in prison.[39]
  • Yoshimi Tanaka was arrested in Cambodia in 1996 and extradited to Japan. A Tokyo court sentenced him to 12 years in prison in 2002 for his involvement in the Yodo-go hijacking, in which a Japan Airlines plane was hijacked to North Korea.[40] He died in 2007.[41]
  • Kazue Yoshimura, reported to have taken part in the hostage crisis in The Hague, was arrested by Peruvian DIRCOTE agents in Lima on May 25, 1996, after alleged contacts with members of the Maoist Shining Path (SP) insurgency (even possibly with then-head of the organization Comrade Feliciano).[42] The trace to her arrest was established after the 1995 Bucharest capture of Yukiko Ekita with a false Peruvian passport. Yoshimura had first entered Peru in February 1993 with a Philippine passport and later returned with the name of Yoko Okuyama, supposedly intended on travelling to the coca-growing Huallaga Valley, the last stronghold of the diminished Peruvian Maoist insurgency as well as a drug-trafficking haven.[43] According to Peruvian Caretas magazine, she was intending on helping establish a JRA presence in South America and may have even established contacts with Jun Nishikawa, another JRA operative later captured in Bolivia. Yoshimura was later deported to Japan by the government of Alberto Fujimori (a Japanese Peruvian), who stated that there was no proof against her despite the overwhelming intelligence data. The move was allegedly the result of pressure from the Japanese authorities. In December 1997, Yoshimura was sentenced to two and half years imprisonment for passport forgery.[44]

Films[edit]

  • Sekigun – PFLP. Sekai Sensō Sengen, Red Army – PFLP: Declaration of World War, 1971, shot on location in Lebanon, produced by Kōji Wakamatsu. Patricia Steinhoff translates its title Manifesto for World Revolution which makes perhaps more sense. A propaganda film for the Red Army sympathisers in Japan.
One of the people showing the film around Japan with the producer was Mieko Toyama, a close friend of Fusako Shigenobu. She was murdered in the winter training camp massacre.
  • Jitsuroku Rengō Sekigun, Asama sansō e no michi, United Red Army (The Way to Asama Mountain Lodge), 2007, shows the horrors of the United Red Army winter camp, but also the history of the militant Japanese student movement. See also United Red Army (film)
  • Suatu Ketika... Soldadu Merah (Once Upon A Time... Red Soldier), an 8 episode Malaysian TV drama series based on the Japanese Red Army attack in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1975. Produced by NSK Productions (Malaysia), the series was shot in 2009 and currently airs on Malaysia's local cable channel, ASTRO Citra 131. Read Hostage Drama article by TheStar newspapers.
  • In 2010, Fusako Shigenobu and Masao Adachi were featured in the documentary Children of the Revolution, which tells the story of Shigenobu and the Japanese Red Army through the eyes of Mei Shigenobu.
  • In the 2010 French-German TV Film Carlos, members of the Japanese Red Army feature when they stormed the French Embassy in The Hague and associating with the PFLP and the German Revolutionary Cells.
  • The 2011 Bangladeshi film The Young Man Was, Part 1: United Red Army by visual artist Naeem Mohaiemen is about the 1977 hijacking of JAL 472 and the subsequent consequences inside Bangladesh.
  • Rabih El-Amine's documentary Ahmad the Japanese, Lod-Roumié-Tokyo made in 1999 tells Okamoto's story from the perspective of five major personalities that knew him in Beirut.
  • Philippe Grandrieux and Nicole Brenez's documentary Masao Adachi. Portrait – First episode of the collection The Beauty May Have Strengthened Our Resoluteness, 2012, shot on location in Tokyo, which tells the daily life of Adachi and his reminiscences.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wright-Neville 2010, p. 119.
  2. ^ Kapur 2018, p. 152.
  3. ^ "Japanese Red Army (JRA) | Terrorist Groups | TRAC".
  4. ^ Wright-Neville 2010, p. 119-120.
  5. ^ "Japanese Red Army (JRA) Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB)". Intelligence Resource Program. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  6. ^ Terrorist profile group – the Japanese red army "The Japanese red army attempts to support through terrorism a worldwide Marxist Leninist revolution
  7. ^ Carpentras, Fabien. "IAFOR Journal of Media, Communication & Film – Memory Politics and Popular Culture – The Example of the United Red Army in the Manga Red (2006–2018)". IAFOR Journal of Media, Communication & Film. The International Academic Forum (IAFOR): 86. doi:10.22492/ijmcf. ISSN 2187-0667.
  8. ^ Japanese Red Army (JRA) Profile The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism Terrorism Knowledge Base (online)
  9. ^ a b c Smith 1994, p. 144.
  10. ^ "Shigenobu declares end of Japanese Red Army". The Japan Times Online. April 16, 2001.
  11. ^ "Movements of the Japanese Red Army and the "Yodo-go" Group". Japanese National Police Agency. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
  12. ^ "Japan's police renew hunt for Red Army militants wanted since 1970s". Mainichi Daily News. February 15, 2022.
  13. ^ "In what became known as the Lod Airport Massacre three members of the terrorist group, Japanese Red Army, arrived at the airport aboard Air France Flight 132 from Rome. Once inside the airport they grabbed automatic firearms from their carry-on cases and fired at airport staff and visitors. In the end, 26 people died and 80 people were injured." CBC News, The Fifth Estate, "Fasten Your Seatbelts: Ben Gurion Airport in Israel", 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  14. ^ Axell, Albert (2002). Japan's Suicide Gods. London: Pearson Education. p. x. ISBN 9780582772328.
  15. ^ Blood and Rage, The Story of the Japanese Red Army.[page needed]
  16. ^ "1967–1993: Major Terror Attacks". GxMSDev. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  17. ^ "CNN – Ethiopia mourns crash victims – Nov. 25, 1996". CNN. Archived from the original on December 23, 2004. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "$10 million paid to free Mitsui exec: Communists". January 28, 2003. Archived from the original on December 3, 2021.
  19. ^ "A Japanese executive kidnapped more than four months ago... - UPI Archives".
  20. ^ "Red Army's reign of terror". November 8, 2000. Retrieved October 26, 2017 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  21. ^ a b c "Red Army's reign of terror". BBC News. November 8, 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  22. ^ Suro, Roberto; Times, Special To the New York (April 15, 1988). "5 Die in Blast Outside U.S.O. in Naples". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 30, 2021.
  23. ^ "Japanese Red Army (JRA) Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB)".
  24. ^ "Refworld | Country Reports on Terrorism 2007 – Japan".
  25. ^ "Japanese Red Army Founder Gets 20 Years". Associated Press.
  26. ^ Kyodo News, "Ex-Red Army member Maruoka dies", Japan Times, May 30, 2011, p. 2.
  27. ^ agencies, Guardian staff and (March 18, 2000). "Red Army members expelled by Lebanon". the Guardian. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  28. ^ "Red Army members expelled by Lebanon". TheGuardian.com. March 18, 2000.
  29. ^ Man linked to Red Army Faction arrested upon return from Pyongyang. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.
  30. ^ "Wanted radical Kunio Bando was in Philippines in 2000: sources". Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  31. ^ "Death row inmate apologizes to victims of 1974 bombing". Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  32. ^ "Yu Kikumura Archived June 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on January 6, 2010.
  33. ^ "Naharnet — Lebanon's leading news destination". Naharnet. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  34. ^ Pedahzur 2009, p. 38.
  35. ^ "Alleged terrorist deported, tied to Olympic plot". Retrieved February 19, 2012.
  36. ^ Terrorism and guerrilla warfare: forecasts and remedies, page 171.
  37. ^ "Japanese Red Army member pleads not guilty over 1986 embassy attack in Jakarta". www.scmp.com. September 21, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  38. ^ "Serangkaian Teror Bom Dulu dan Sekarang di Tanah Air". theglobal-review.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  39. ^ "Japanese Red Army member gets 12-year sentence over '86 Jakarta attack". japantimes.co.jp. November 24, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  40. ^ Reports, From Times Wire (February 14, 2002). "Ex-Red Army Member Sentenced for Hijacking". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  41. ^ "Obituary: Yoshimi Tanaka". The Japan Times Online. Japan Times. January 3, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  42. ^ "PERU: SUSPECTED JAPANESE RED ARMY TERRORIST TO BE DEPORTED – AP Archive". www.aparchive.com. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  43. ^ "Peru to Send Red Army Guerrilla Suspect to Japan". The New York Times. June 6, 1996. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  44. ^ "CARETAS HOME PAGE". www2.caretas.pe. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]