Japanese dissidence during the Shōwa period

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Japanese dissidence during the Shōwa period was dissidence by Japanese citizens of the Empire of Japan (1868–1947) during the Shōwa period, the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito (1926–1989). The Shōwa period witnessed the rise of Japanese militarism, and the Empire of Japan's full-scale invasion of China in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), which escalated into a full-scale invasion of the Asia-Pacific during the Pacific theatre of World War II (1941–1945). Throughout the period, there was political repression in Imperial Japan.

History[edit]

The Japanese Communist Party (JCP) was suppressed by the Imperial Japanese government. Mass round ups took place on March 15, 1928, and were followed by mass round ups on April 16, 1929.[1] In February 1930, the central committee of the Japanese Communist Party approved the formation of "red self-defense bodies".[2]

The JCP protested against the Manchurian Incident.[3] Following the Manchurian Incident, the JCP continued anti-war activities.[4]

The Party was finished by 1935.[5] A communist party rebuilding committee was established, and was active until May 1941.[6]

Several anarchist groups operated in Japan. The Black Youth League, or Kokuren, Farming Villages Youth Association, or Noseisha, and the Zenkoku Jiren. The Koto branch of the Tokyo general workers Union and the Tokyo Food Workers Union merged into the anarchist syndicalist union federation Libertarian Federal Council of Labour Unions of Japan, or Jikyo.[7]

The Zenkoku jiren protested against the Manchurian Incident.[8]

The split in Zenkoku Jiren led to a split of pure anarchists and anarchist syndicalists.[9] Zenkoku Jiren came to an end following the mass arrests of anarchists in 1935-1936.[10] Anarchism was active in Japan until 1935.[11]

In 1933, the government suppressed a faculty and student protest in Kyoto Imperial University. The protest was in reaction to the government's suspension of Professor Yukitoki Takigawa from the university. This incident became known as the Takigawa incident.[12]

In 1940, labor unions in Japan were dissolved, and replaced by the ultranationalistic Industrial Association for Serving the Nation (Sangyō Hōkokukai, or Sampō).[13]

Japanese who went abroad went to countries such as the USSR[14] China,[15] the United States, Mexico and France.[16]

In wartime Japan, only passive resistance, and insignificant protests occurred.[17] In 1943, the Sōka Gakkai were imprisoned for advising their followers not to buy amulets from the Grand Shrine of Ise.[18]

Political prisoners in Imperial Japan were not released until the end of WWII.[19]

Organizations[edit]

Movements[edit]

Media[edit]

Japanese dissidence in popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert A. Scalapino (1967). The Japanese Communist movement, 1920-1966. University of California Press. 
  2. ^ George M. Beckmann, Genji Okubo (1969). The Japanese Communist Party 1922-1945. Stanford University Press. pp. 192–195. 
  3. ^ George M. Beckmann, Genji Okubo (1969). The Japanese Communist Party 1922-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 220. 
  4. ^ Louise Young (1999). Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. University of California Press. pp. 165–167. 
  5. ^ Robert A. Scalapino (1967). The Japanese Communist movement, 1920-1966. University of California Press. 
  6. ^ George M. Beckmann, Genji Okubo (1969). The Japanese Communist Party 1922-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 261. 
  7. ^ John Crump (John Crump). Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan. Macmillan. p. 87.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ John Crump (John Crump). Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan. Macmillan. p. 69–172.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ John Crump (John Crump). Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan. Macmillan. pp. 87–95.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ John Crump (John Crump). Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan. Macmillan. p. 172.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. ^ George M. Beckmann, and Genji Okubo (1969). The Japanese Communist Party 1922-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 71. 
  12. ^ Itoh, Mayumi (2003). The Hatoyama Dynasty: Japanese Political Leadership Through the Generations. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 62. ISBN 9781403981523. 
  13. ^ "Political Protest in Interwar Japan Part I 戦間期日本の政治的抗議活動 「上」 :: JapanFocus". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  14. ^ Kato, Tetsuro (July 2000). The Japanese Victims of Stalinist Terror in the USSR (PDF). Hitotsubashi Journal of Social Studies. 32. 
  15. ^ Roth, Andrew (1945). Dilemma in Japan. Little, Brown. pp. 162–192. 
  16. ^ Greg Robinson (Feb 9, 2012). Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era. University of Illinois Press. pp. 94–97. 
  17. ^ Ienaga ,Saburo (2010). Pacific War, 1931-1945. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 203–228. 
  18. ^ Peter B Clarke (Dec 16, 2013). Bibliography of Japanese New Religious Movements. Routledge. p. 235. 
  19. ^ Takemae, Eiji (2003). Allied Occupation of Japan. A&C Black. pp. 235–240. 

Further reading[edit]

  • John Crump (Jan 1, 1993). Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan. Macmillan. 
  • John Crump (1992). Anarchist opposition to Japanese militarism, 1926–1937. 
  • Saburo Ienaga (2010). Pacific War, 1931-1945. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. 
  • Roth, Andrew (1945). Dilemma in Japan. Little, Brown. 
  • 岩佐 寿一 (1985). あめとかぜと―広島県戦前左翼運動の手記. あめとかぜと出版委員会. 
  • 山岸一章 (1981). 聳ゆるマスト―日本海軍の反戦兵士. 新日本出版社.
  • 小栗 勉 (2010). 聳ゆるマスト―史伝小説. かもがわ出版. 
  • 早乙女 勝元 (1991). 延安からの手紙―日本軍の反戦兵士たち. 草の根出版会. 
  • Mark Gayn (Dec 15, 1989). Japan Diary. Tuttle Publishing. p. 16. 
  • United States. Department Of Defense (1969). Magic Background Of Pearl Harbor Volume IV Appendix. United States. Department Of Defense. 
  • Louise Young (1999). Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. University of California Press.
  • Katherine Marshall (2013). Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern Shakers. Routledge.

External links[edit]