Japanese encephalitis vaccine
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Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1950s. One of them was an inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine (the Nakayama and/or Beijing-1 strain), made by BIKEN and marketed by Sanofi Pasteur as JE-VAX, until production ceased in 2005. The other was an inactivated vaccine cultivated on primary hamster kidney cells (the Beijing-3 strain). The Beijing-3 strain was the main variant of the vaccine used in the People's Republic of China from 1968 until 2005.
Three second-generation vaccines have entered markets since then: SA14-14-2, IC51 and ChimeriVax-JE. The live-attenuated SA14-14-2 strain was introduced in China in 1988. It is much cheaper than alternative vaccines, and is administered to 20 million Chinese children each year.
A purified, formalin-inactivated, wholevirus vaccine known as IC51 (marketed in Australia and New Zealand as JESPECT and elsewhere as IXIARO) was licensed for use in the United States, Australia, and Europe during the spring of 2009. It is based on a SA14-14-2 strain and cultivated in Vero cells. Another vaccine, a live-attenuated yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis chimeric vaccine known as ChimeriVax-JE (marketed as IMOJEV) was licensed for use in Australia in August 2010 and in Thailand in December 2012.
In 2013, an Indian firm, Bharat Biotech International, developed a vaccine by using the Indian strain of the virus collected from the Kolar district in Karnataka by the National Institute of Virology (NIV). Phase III results of human trials were submitted to the Drug authorities of the Government of India and obtained marketing authorization. It is stated by the representatives of the NIV that the success rate of the vaccine is more than 90% and it can be given to children aged between 1–50 years.  It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Halstead SB, Thomas SJ (April 2010). "Japanese encephalitis: new options for active immunization". Clin Infect Dis 50 (8): 1155–64. doi:10.1086/651271. PMID 20218889.
- Schiøler KL, Samuel M, Wai KL (2007). "Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD004263. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004263.pub2. PMID 17636750.
- Halstead SB, Thomas SJ (March 2011). "New Japanese encephalitis vaccines: alternatives to production in mouse brain". Expert Rev Vaccines 10 (3): 355–64. doi:10.1586/erv.11.7. PMID 21434803.
- "Drug joint venture plans new vaccine". Bangkok Post. 2 November 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- JE, Vaccine for (17 December 2012). "India develops indigenous Japanese Encephalitis vaccine". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Japanese Encephalitis, Vaccine (13 September 2012). "India's first Japanese encephalitis vaccine launched". HIndustan Times. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
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