Japanese people in China

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Japanese people in China
Total population
127,282[1]
Regions with significant populations
Beijing · Shanghai · Harbin
Languages
Japanese · Mandarin · Cantonese
Religion
Buddhism · Shintoism
Related ethnic groups
Japanese people in Hong Kong

Japanese people in China are Japanese people or Japanese emigrants and their descendants residing in China. There are 127,282 Japanese nationals living in China. 105,764 Japanese nationals reside in Mainland China, and 21,518 live in Hong Kong and Macau.

History[edit]

Tang dynasty China received 11 Japanese girl dancers as tribute from Balhae in 777.[2]

Karayuki-san (唐行きさん?, literally "Ms. Gone-to-China" but actually meaning Ms. Gone Abroad") were Japanese girls and women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries who were trafficked from poverty stricken agricultural prefectures in Japan to destinations in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia (Russian Far East), Manchuria, and British India to serve as prostitutes and sexually serviced men from a variety of races, including Chinese, Europeans, native Southeast Asians, and others. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a network of Japanese prostitutes being trafficked across Asia, in countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and British India, in what was then known as the ’Yellow Slave Traffic’.[3] The main destinations of karayuki-san included China (particularly Shanghai), Hong Kong, the Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra,[4] Thailand, Indonesia, and the western USA (in particular San Francisco). They were often sent to Western colonies in Asia where there was a strong demand from Western military personnel and Chinese men.[5] The experience of Japanese prostitutes in China was written about in a book by a Japanese woman, Tomoko Yamazaki.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Japanese girls were easily trafficked abroad since Korean and Chinese ports did not require Japanese citizens to use passports and the Japanese government realized that money earned by the karayuki-san helped the Japanese economy since it was being remmitted,[17][18] and the Chinese boycott of Japanese products in 1919 led to reliance on revenue from the karayuki-san.[19] Since the Japanese viewed non-westerners as inferior, the karayuki-san Japanese women felt humiliated since they mainly sexually served Chinese men or native Southeast Asians.[20][21]

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese government introduced a plan to settle 5 million Japanese in Manchukuo. Following the end of the war, approximately 2,800 Japanese orphans in China were left behind by families repatriating back to Japan.[22] The majority of Japanese left behind in China were women, and these Japanese women mostly married Chinese men and became known as "stranded war wives" (残留婦人 zanryū fujin?).[23] Because they had children fathered by Chinese men, the Japanese women were not allowed to bring their Chinese families back with them to Japan so most of them stayed. Japanese law only allowed children fathered by Japanese fathers to become Japanese citizens.

As of October 2009, the number of Japanese nationals living in China is 127,282 (including 21,518 in Hong Kong and Macau) according to a report by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the second largest group of Japanese citizens outside of Japan after the United States.[24] However, the 2010 Census of the People's Republic of China recorded 66,159 foreign nationals from Japan residing in Mainland China (figure excluding Hong Kong and Macau),[25] representing nearly half of the Japanese Foreign Affairs Ministry figure. The number of Japanese emigrants to China and their descendants are unknown.[1][26]

In these ten years, Japanese nationals living in China increased roughly three times from 46,000 to 127,000 in proportion to the growth in trade volume between the two countries.[26][27] Gubei, Shanghai has the largest concentration of Japanese nationals in Mainland China.[28]

Education[edit]

Mainland China has several Japanese international schools:

Supplementary Japanese language education programs for Japanese children in Mainland China include those in those in Nanjing, Ningbo, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Wuxi, and Zhuhai.[31]

Notable people[edit]

Chinese people of Japanese descent
Japanese expatriates in China

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 1 October 2009 (Heisei 21), Annual Report of Statistics on Japanese Nationals Overseas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan)
  2. ^ Schafer 1963, p. 66.
  3. ^ Fischer-Tiné, Harald (2003). "'White women degrading themselves to the lowest depths': European networks of prostitution and colonial anxieties in British India and Ceylon ca. 1880–1914". Indian Economic Social History Review 40 (2): 163–90 [175–81]. doi:10.1177/001946460304000202. 
  4. ^ James Francis Warren (2003). Ah Ku and Karayuki-san: Prostitution in Singapore, 1870-1940. Singapore Series, Singapore: studies in society & history (illustrated ed.). NUS Press. p. 86. ISBN 9971692678. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  5. ^ Books, UK: Google, August 2003, ISBN 978-9971-69-267-4 
  6. ^ Journal of studies of Japanese aggression against China, Issues 5-8. 日本侵華研究學會. 1991. p. 64. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  7. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki; Karen F. Colligan-Taylor (2015). Sandakan Brothel No.8: Journey into the History of Lower-class Japanese Women: Journey into the History of Lower-class Japanese Women. Routledge. ISBN 1317460243. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  8. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki (1985). The story of Yamada Waka: from prostitute to feminist pioneer (illustrated ed.). Kodansha International. ISBN 0870117335. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  9. ^ Giving a Voice to the Voiceless: The Significance of Yamazaki Tomoko's Use of Oral History in "Sandakan Hachiban Shōkan". University of Sheffield, School of East Asian Studies. 1995. ISBN 0870117335. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  10. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki (2005). Yukiko Sumoto-Schwan; Friedrich B. Schwan, eds. Sandakan Bordell Nr. 8: Ein verdrängtes Kapitel japanischer Frauengeschichte. Translated by Yukiko Sumoto-Schwan, Friedrich B. Schwan. Iudicium Verlag. ISBN 3891294069. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  11. ^ Shōichirō Kami; Tomoko Yamazaki, eds. (1965). Nihon no yōchien: yōji kyōiku no rekishi. Rironsha. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  12. ^ James Francis Warren (2003). Ah Ku and Karayuki-san: Prostitution in Singapore, 1870-1940. Singapore Series, Singapore: studies in society & history (illustrated ed.). NUS Press. p. 223. ISBN 9971692678. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  13. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki (1974). サンダカンの墓 (illustrated ed.). 文芸春秋. p. 223. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  14. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki (1975). サンダカン八番娼館 (illustrated ed.). 文藝春秋. p. 223. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  15. ^ Gwyn Campbell; Elizabeth Elbourne, eds. (2014). Sex, Power, and Slavery (illustrated ed.). Ohio University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0821444905. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  16. ^ Ameyuki San no uta. Bungei Shunjû. 1978. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  17. ^ James Francis Warren (2003). Ah Ku and Karayuki-san: Prostitution in Singapore, 1870-1940. Singapore Series, Singapore: studies in society & history (illustrated ed.). NUS Press. p. 83. ISBN 9971692678. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  18. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 62, Issue 2. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Malaysian Branch (illustrated ed.). The Branch. 1989. p. 57. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  19. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki; Karen F. Colligan-Taylor (2015). Sandakan Brothel No.8: Journey Into the History of Lower-class Japanese Women. Translated by Karen F. Colligan-Taylor. Routledge. p. xxiv. ISBN 1317460251. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  20. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki; Karen F. Colligan-Taylor (2015). Sandakan Brothel No.8: Journey Into the History of Lower-class Japanese Women. Translated by Karen F. Colligan-Taylor. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 1317460251. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  21. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki; Karen F. Colligan-Taylor (2015). Sandakan Brothel No.8: Journey into the History of Lower-class Japanese Women: Journey into the History of Lower-class Japanese Women. Routledge. ISBN 1317460243. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Forgotten plight of foster parents". Xinhua News. 2005-04-22. Retrieved 2007-11-30. 
  23. ^ Left Behind: Japan's Wartime Defeat and the Stranded Women of Manchukuo
  24. ^ "Japanese making Shanghai their home". CNN. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
  25. ^ "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Kyung Lah, 12 November 2010, Twin Tale: Rising China, Japan's setting sun, CNN
  27. ^ "——" [The volume of Import and Export to China]. Trade Statistics of Japan. 
  28. ^ "Japanese making Shanghai their home". CNN. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
  29. ^ Home page. Hangzhou Japanese School. Retrieved on January 15, 2015. "郵便番号 310018 杭州経済技術開発区徳勝東路395号"
  30. ^ Home page. Japanese School of Qingdao. Retrieved on January 15, 2015. "山東省青島市市北区同安路56号"
  31. ^ "アジアの補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)" (Archive). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved on February 13, 2015.