Japanese proverbs

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A Japanese proverb (, ことわざ, kotowaza) may take the form of:

  • a short saying (言い習わし, iinarawashi),
  • an idiomatic phrase (慣用句, kan'yōku), or
  • a four-character idiom (四字熟語, yojijukugo).

Although "proverb" and "saying" are practically synonymous, the same cannot be said about "idiomatic phrase" and "four-character idiom". Not all kan'yōku and yojijukugo are proverbial. For instance, the kan'yōku kitsune no yomeiri (狐の嫁入り, literally 'a fox's wedding', meaning "a sunshower") and the yojijukugo koharubiyori (小春日和, literally 'small spring weather', meaning "Indian summer" – warm spring-like weather in early winter) are not proverbs. To be considered a proverb, a word or phrase must express a common truth or wisdom; it cannot be a mere noun.

Origin[edit]

Numerous Asian proverbs, including Japanese, appear to be derived from older Chinese proverbs, although in often is impossible to be completely sure about the direction of cultural influences (and hence, the origins of a particular proverb or idiomatic phrase).[1]

Because traditional Japanese culture was tied to agriculture, many Japanese proverbs are derived from agricultural customs and practices. Some are from the Go game (e.g., fuseki o utsu (布石を打つ)), the tea ceremony (e.g., ichi go ichi e (一期一会)), and Buddhism. Many four-character idioms are from Chinese philosophy written in Classical Chinese, in particular "The Analects" by Confucius. (I no naka no kawazu (井の中の蛙, 'a frog in a well') is Classical Chinese, from the Zhuangzi.)

Usage[edit]

Japanese commonly use proverbs, often citing just the first part of common phrases for brevity. For example, one might say i no naka no kawazu (井の中の蛙, 'a frog in a well') to refer to the proverb i no naka no kawazu, taikai o shirazu (井の中の蛙、大海を知らず, 'a frog in a well cannot conceive of the ocean'). Whereas proverbs in English are typically multi-worded phrases (e.g. "kill two birds with one stone"), Japanese yojijukugo borrow from Chinese and compactly convey the concept in one compound word (e.g., isseki nichō (一石二鳥, 'one stone two birds')).

Examples[edit]

Sayings[edit]

  • 案ずるより産むが易しい。
    • Anzuru yori umu ga yasashii.
    • Literally: Giving birth to a baby is easier than worrying about it.
    • Meaning: Fear is greater than the danger. / An attempt is sometimes easier than expected.
  • 出る杭は打たれる。
    • Deru kugi wa utareru.
    • Literally: The stake that sticks up gets hammered down.
    • Meaning: If you stand out, you will be subject to criticism.
  • 知らぬが仏。
    • Shiranu ga hotoke.
    • Literally: Not knowing is Buddha.
    • Meaning: Ignorance is bliss. / What you don't know can't hurt you.
  • 見ぬが花。
    • Minu ga hana.
    • Literally: Not seeing is a flower.
    • Meaning: Reality can't compete with imagination.
  • 花は桜木人は武士

Idiomatic phrases[edit]

  • 猫に小判
    • Neko ni koban
    • Literally: Gold coins to a cat.
    • Meaning: Casting pearls before swine / Giving something of value to a recipient that does not value it.
  • 七転び八起き
    • Nanakorobi yaoki
    • Literally: Fall seven times and stand up eight
    • Meaning: When life knocks you down, stand back up; What matters is not the bad that happened, but what one does after.
  • 猿も木から落ちる
    • Saru mo ki kara ochiru
    • Literally: Even monkeys fall from trees
    • Meaning: Anyone can make a mistake.
  • 花より団子
    • Hana yori dango
    • Literally: Dumplings rather than flowers
    • Meaning: To prefer substance over form, as in to prefer to be given functional, useful items (such as dumplings) instead of merely decorative items (such as flowers).

Four-character idioms[edit]

  • 十人十色
    • jūnin toiro
    • Literally: ten persons, ten colors
    • Meaning: To each his own. / Different strokes for different folks.
  • 因果応報
    • inga ōhō
    • Literally: Cause bring result / bad causes bring bad results
    • Meaning: what goes around comes around
    • Note: this is a Buddhist sentiment that emphasizes the idea of karmic retribution.
  • 弱肉強食

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • De Lange, William. (2013). A Dictionary of Japanese Proverbs. TOYO Press. ISBN 978-1-891640-51-3

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stone, Jon R. (2006-09-27). The Routledge Book of World Proverbs (PDF). Routledge. pp. xiv. ISBN 978-1-135-87054-6.

External links[edit]